Governor (Nova Roma)

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Provincial Councils

Governors of provinces are specially appointed generals, commanders-in-chief in charge of the ceremonial (reenactment) legions and the civilian administration in a territorial subdivision of Nova Roma. Governors are special commissioners of the senate, and their area of responsibility is called a provincia. Both the geographic area of responsibility and the operational area of a command over legions were called "provincia" in Roman legal terminology. Accordingly, there is no separation of civilian administration and military command in Nova Roma, either, regarding provincial management. This means that governors are always (reenactment) generals, provincial commanders-in-chief of the Nova Roman reenactment units within their province. However, not all chief commanders are governors. Special generals commanding certain troops can be appointed even outside the provincial structure, but these generals have the same constitutional position as governors.

Both governors and generals are either magistrates entrusted with the specific area of responsibility or command ("povincia"), or promagistrates, prorogued or appointed specifically for that task. Just like in ancient Rome, it is possible to appoint special commanders-in-chief for complex Roman military reenactment related or other crucial organizational missions in Nova Roma who may or may not be governors within their territorial scope of command at the same time, as well.


As commanders-in-chief of reenactment armies

Roman generals can be legally classified as governors of an army, the army being their "provincia". A Nova Roman reenactment army general is the chief commander of certain reenactment units appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of those units. All such army generals are subordinate to the senate and to the consuls and praetors. The current special commanders-in-chief of certain assigned reenactment armies of Nova Roma are listed here:

As governors of provinces

A Nova Roman governor is a special type of commander-in-chief, reenactment army general, appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of a province and its reenactment units. All provincial governors are subordinate to the senate and to the central Nova Roma magistrates.


Ancient Romans didn't normally use the term "governor" to refer to the appointed leaders of provinces the way it is done in the modern context. The non-specific term for governor was rector or praeses, but it was very rarely used. Instead the specific title was used that mirrored the career history and complicated legal status of the individual governor. The following terminology applies both to officers governing territories and to generals commanding military reenactment units:

In Nova Roma, similarly to ancient Rome, the title of a governor can be consul, proconsul, praetor, propraetor, or legatus pro praetore. The title depends on the office or previous office held by the governor.

  • Currently-serving consules governing provinces are be titled consul. Former consules who are continuing to govern a province after their term as consul ends are titled proconsul.
  • Currently-serving praetores governing a province are titled praetor. Praetores who continue to govern a province after their first term of office ends are titled propraetor.
  • A "governor" of Provincia Italia (Italy) is called praefectus Italiae. If a sitting consul or praetor resides in Italy and they serve as "governor" on behalf of the senate of Nova Roma, they are called consul or praetor.
  • Currently serving quaestores may be granted a temporary governorship by the will of the senate until a permanent successor is found. They will have the title of quaestor pro praetore, or if they continue to serve after their term as quaestor expited, proquaestor pro praetore.
  • Special instances of a citizen acting as a chief-governor of a dioecesis (a cluster of provinces temporarily combined together for reorganization) is called a dux.
  • All other citizens appointed by the senate to govern a province of Nova Roma are called legatus pro praetore.


Provinces are normally first given to sitting consuls and praetors, who may continue their governorship by prorogation of imperium from the senate or the comitia. When that is impossible or impractical, provinces are assigned to former consuls and praetors, whose imperium is renewed by the senate or the comitia. When no current or former consul or praetor can be found as the most suitable candidate for the governorship, the senate or the comitia can grant imperium and assign the province to another individual. No governor shall assume imperium and auspicia without a taking of office ceremony of the Religio Romana before, including an inauguration and taking the vows of imperium, the oaths and auspices for the term of office with a favorable result; a governor without these procedural steps may not legally exercise any powers of his office.

Oath of office and vow for the imperium

When entering office, and before conducting or exercising any powers within the province, a governor must take an oath of office and a vow for the imperium. The oath is conducted in accordance with the lex Iunia de iure iurando and edictum praetorium Barosi de iure iurando Latino.

Powers and responsibilities

Articles V.C 1-5 of the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda outline the powers and duties of the provincial governors. These powers, as one would expect, are limited to the boundaries of the province. As in antiquity, a Nova Roman governor also has the honor of being preceded by a number of lictores depending on their rank of office: twelve for proconsuls with consular imperium, six for propraetors with praetorian imperium, and five for legates with praetorian imperium. Under the lex Arria de censu civium aestimando, governors are awarded 50 Census Points (CP) under article III.A.7.d.i when appointed.

In order to effectively administer their province, governors may be provided citizen data by the Censorial Office. The lex Galeria de privatis rebus mandates the handling requirements of that data to aid in maintaining citizen data privacy. Within the province, only governors and directly appointed assistants (such as lieutenant governors or provincial quaestors; normally first-rank officials) can have access to such data. Governors may also be given duties with the powers of the censors to carry out specific data tasks under the lex Arminia de levandis censorum oneribus.

Managing the province and creating its regulations and law

Governors are empowered to issue edicta on matters solely related to the day to day management of the province. Governors are bound by the lex Arria de edictis that stipulates that when first appointed, they must first promulgate an edictum that confirms or revokes any edicta of their predecessors (when applicable). In accordance with the lex Vedia de ratione edictorum, all provincial edicts must be posted to the main Nova Roma forum the Forum Romanum to be considered valid. Edictum consulare de regulis edictorum gerendorum in foro praecipuo requires specific formatting when posting an edict to the forum.

Establishing the provincial government offices

Governors are entitled to appoint provincial officials via an edictum, but they must follow the guidelines set out by the senate and the applicable Nova Roman legislation. Not all provincial positions are apparitores, but for those that are, the lex Vedia apparitoria (Nova Roma) governs the types available and the duties they perform. Governors should make sure they stipulate the necessary requirements documented in the lex in those edicta that appoint provincial officials and staff.

Administering justice

The conflict resolution system of Nova Roma is the responsibility of the governors within the province. The lex Equitia de iurisdictione allows the governor to manage and grant trials in any matter between citizens who live in that provincia (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus who both live in that provincia or between peregrini who both live in that provincia. Governors are bound by the process and law defined in the lex Salvia iudiciaria and the lex Salvia poenalis.

Recruiting and ceremonially commanding the reenactment legions of the province

As part of the objectives and mission of Nova Roma, governors should seek to partner with or establish local reenactment and living-history groups. The legislation that governs the formal relationships Nova Roma can form with entities like Roman reenactment legions is documented in the lex Aurelia de legionibus. Governors are obliged to recruit or establish at least one reenactment legion for Nova Roma within each province, and when established, it is the duty of the governor to keep contact with the legion and to ensure that they are efficiently sponsored and integrated in Nova Roma. It is the job of the governor to keep happy the legions within his province, and to make use of the legion in the educational mission of Nova Roma.

Forming local groups

One of the most important duties of a governor is to encourage, facilitate and oversee the founding of Nova Roman municipalities, local communities within the province. Such local groups are the soul of Nova Roma and are vital for fulfilling the mission of our organization. The framework for these local communities is articulated in the lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis.

Publishing the provincial website pages

Governors have access to a set of pages on the Nova Roma official website that they can manage or direct the content thereof. These pages can list information about their provincial praetorium, the cohors praetoria, local events, history, citizenry and links to any external website of forum that represents the province or governor.

Boosting activity

Governors responsible to create an active and engaging civic community within their province. To that end, governors are given leverage to create activities, positions and awards that offer Census Points (CP). Governors can hold provincial festivals, ludi, local competitions that award CP under article III.D.2 of the lex Arria. Article III.F. defines the various tiers of award that governors can associate to some public reward for service or recognition internally. Note that all awards issued by a governor are subject to review and oversight of the censors and panel of quaestors as per article II.

Reporting to the senate

Governors are required to submit a formal report on the status of their province each year by the Kal. Feb. in accordance with the senatus consultum de relationibus praesidum provinciarum. The report must provide a detailed evaluation of activities and citizenhsip against key performance indicators as required by the senatus consultum de provinciis ordinandis.

Legal precedence

Governors may be replaced at any time and specially every year when the senate examines their annual activity. A governor thus cannot challenge the authority of the senate. While appointed, governors are entrusted to preside over their province based on their discretion and judgement. They have full power to command and make laws within the province, so long as they are bound by the existing Nova Roma legislation.

Although they depend directly on the senate, governors are submitted to the higher imperium of the central magistrates, too: their local imperium applies as long as it does not enter in conflict with the higher imperium of the praetores or consules of Nova Roma. All governors obey any consular official request or a praetorian request, when the praetor acts in the place of the consules or in the frame of their own special administrative or judicial competencies whose execution is necessary in the concerned province. Similarly, the governor must apply every measure issued by any central magistrate, even if this magistrate has no imperium, but works in a field which results of the application of Nova Roman law.

Current governors of all Nova Roman provinces

1 Italia Italy, Vatican, San Marino, and Malta UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Praefectus Italiae
2 America Cismississippiana USA - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, and the overseas territories of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands UNSATISFACTORY P. Aurelius Barbatus
3 America Hispanica USA - Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico ABANDONED D. Aurelius Ingeniarius
4 America Noveboracensis et Mediatlantica USA - Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia UNSATISFACTORY T. Domitius Draco
5 America Transmississippiana USA - Alaska, Arkansas, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North and South Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Proquaestor pro praetore
6 Australia Australia and New Zealand UNSATISFACTORY D. Aurelius Ingeniarius
7 Brasilia Brazil UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Proquaestor pro praetore
8 California USA - California, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Hawaii UNSATISFACTORY Q. Fabius Maximus
9 Canada Canada ABANDONED P. Iunius Brutus
Legatus pro praetore
10 Dacia Romania and Moldavia UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Legatus pro praetore
11 Europa Celtica et Germanica Established as a superprovince, a dioecesis, comprising those European provinces which are in need of reorganization and reactivation: It includes the following four subprovinces: ACTIVE Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux dioecesis
(I) Britannia Province I of the dioecesis: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland (see above) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux et legatus pro praetore
(II) Gallia Province II of the dioecesis: France and French overseas territories, Belgium, Luxembourg, Monaco (see above) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux et legatus pro praetore
(III) Germania Province III of the dioecesis: Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Netherlands (see above) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux et legatus pro praetore
(IV) Hispania Province IV of the dioecesis: Portugal and Spain (see above) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux et legatus pro praetore
(V) Thule Province V of the dioecesis: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland (see above) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Dux et legatus pro praetore
12 Lacus Magni USA - Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Legatus pro praetore
13 Marcomannia Czechia and Slovakia UNSATISFACTORY Ti. Iulius Nerva
Legatus pro praetore
14 Nova Britannia USA - Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island ACTIVE M. Cassius Iulianus
15 Nova Hispania Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama UNSATISFACTORY Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Proquaestor pro praetore
16 Pannonia Slovenia and Hungary EXCELLENT Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
Legatus pro praetore
17 Sarmatia Ukraine UNSATISFACTORY M. Hortensia Maior Fabiana Faustina
18 Scythia et Russia Russia and Belarus UNSATISFACTORY M. Hortensia Maior Fabiana Faustina
19 Thracia Bulgaria ACTIVE A. Vitellius Celsus
Legatus pro praetore
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