Magistracy overview

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Overview of Consules
The consules were the highest civil and military magistrates, being both heads of state and heads of government. Learn more...
Consules in Roma Antiqua

After the expulsion of the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BC, two consules were elected annually by the comitia centuriata who inherited the full power of the kings, except the right to create laws without the vote of the people. With equal power they shared the full civil authority in Rome and the chief military command in the field and their names were used to date the year. They were in charge of the judiciary system and of the religious duties of the state, but they gradually had to share they involvement in these with the praetors and the aediles. The consuls were "curule magistrates" and had imperium and were accompanied by twelve lictors. The consuls convened and presided over the senate and they saw to the execution of its decrees. They also convened and presided over the comitia centuriata and comitia populi tributa, conducting elections and putting legislative measures to the vote.

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Consules in Nova Roma

The consulship is the highest executive magistracy of Nova Roma. The two consules are co-presidents of the republic, and it means that they are the co-presidents of the corporation of Nova Roma, Inc.. The consuls of Nova Roma have the same duties as the consuls of ancient Rome, but adapted to our modern circumstances and the conditions of our existence as an international cultural organization. While the consuls of ancient Rome were the commanders-in-chief of real armies, our consuls are the ceremonial commanders-in-chief of our legionary reenactment groups. Our Nova Roman consuls are still in charge of the entire government, but they naturally don't have any tools of enforcing their orders physically. The consuls of Nova Roma have corporate administrative tools to maintain disciple and to ensure that our organization continues to work towards its goals.

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Overview of "Praetores"
The praetores are the second highest magistracies of the Roman Republic and are considered as lower colleagues of the consules. Learn more...
Praetores in Roma Antiqua

Praetors were "curule magistrates" and had imperium, and consequently were one of the magistratus maiores: but they owed respect and obedience to the consuls. They were accompanied by six lictors and performed mainly judicial functions. The praetor could command the armies of the state; and while the consuls were absent with the armies, he exercised their functions within the city. They had in theory the same responsibilities as the consuls, but over time some of the duties of the consuls were devolved to the praetors, and from that time on, the praetors administered the courts and some of the ludi. Originally there was one praetor elected as minor colleague to the consules, but they number kept expanding over the centuries in order that Rome could send governors to the provinces. The Latin word "praetor" means literally "who goes before", "who precedes" and we can translate it as "president", "leader" and "commander".

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Praetores in Nova Roma

The praetorship is the second highest executive magistracy of Nova Roma. The two praetores are the vice-presidents of the republic, and it means that they are the vice-presidents of the corporation of Nova Roma, Inc.. The praetors of Nova Roma have the same duties as the praetors of ancient Rome, but adapted to our modern circumstances and the conditions of our existence as an international cultural organization. Our praetors are the deputy commanders-in-chief of our legionary reenactment groups, and they are in charge of the internal conflict management system of Nova Roma, that is, our "judicial system". The praetors are responsible to maintain our legal documents, internal rules and regulations, ensure they are up to date and well-interpreted. Besides they can receive various top priority adhoc projects and missions from the senate. The praetors are in charge of the Ludi Apollinares, too.

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Overview of "Censores"
Censores are very respected magistrates with the highest auctoritas but third in rank after the consules and praetores. Learn more...
Censores in Roma Antiqua

The censores were two in number, elected from men of consular dignity, at a interval of five years (lustrum) but holding office only for eighteen months, however, by tradition, they are expected to step down as soon as they have completed the census, or if their colleague resigned or died. They ranked as magistratus maiores, but did not possess the imperium, and had no power to convene either the senate or an assembly of the people. The censors were considered the most sacred magistrates, and they were authorized to judge the moral behavior and virtue of the citizens, and to award or reprimand them according to the standards of the mos maiorum. The censors appointed the senators, approved members of the equestrian order, classified citizens into the five classes of the Servian class system of Rome. They signed long term state contracts and reviewed the status of public finances while in office. They had to conduct the census every fifth year, which was a property registration, and on it depended the position of a citizen in the classes and voting centuries.

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Censores in Nova Roma

The censorship is the most respected magistracy of Nova Roma. In corporate terminology, the censors are the secretaries of the corporation. Contrarily, to ancient Rome, our censors are elected once in every two-and-a-half years period but they have a 18 months term of office, just like the ancient Roman censors. The censors of Nova Roma have to safeguard the public morality and honor within Nova Roma, and their principal duty is to conduct the census of Nova Roma twice in every five year period, which means that the censuses of Nova Roma happen twice more frequently than in ancient Rome. Our censors appoint the senators, classify all citizens according to their merit into classes, centuries and tribes, distribute awards and reprimands, to elevate or remove members of the equestrian order. It is also the censors' job to set the general direction of public works and finances between two censuses, in cooperation with the aediles.

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Overview of "Aediles"
Aediles are public magistrates charged with maintaining public services such as roads, water supply, public buildings. They also protect the public safety and oversee marketplaces. The most visible function, however, is in the staging of public games (ludi). Learn more...
Aediles in Roma Antiqua

The name "aedile" is said to come from their having the care of the temple (aedes) of Ceres. There were originally two, called aediles plebeii. They were the assistants of the tribunes in such matters as the tribunes entrusted to them, including the hearing of causes of smaller importance.

The aedileship was created at the same time as that of the tribuni plebis, B.C. 494 BCE. Shortly thereafter (446 BCE), they were appointed the keepers of the senatus consulta. (Liv. iii.55) They were also the keepers of the plebiscita. Other functions were gradually entrusted to them, and it is not always easy to distinguish their duties from some of those which belong to the censors; nor to distinguish all the duties of the plebeian and curule aediles, after the establishment of the curule aedileship.

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Aediles in Nova Roma

There are in total four aediles, two "curule aediles" and two "plebeian aediles" in Nova Roma, just like in ancient Rome. Only plebeians may run for the office of plebeian aedile. Their corporate position is deputy secretaries of Nova Roma, Inc., and culture and community directors of the corporation. The domain of authority of all aediles includes the management of the assets of Nova Roma, the website(s) and forum(s), and the entire infrastructure of the corporation. The aediles are in charge of all cultural aspects of the organization, including the Roman festivals, public events, programs and projects of Nova Roma, and the solemn Ludi (festival games).

When there are no censors in office, the aediles are the co-secretaries of the corporation.

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Overview of "Quaestores"
Quaestores are lower magistrates with financial and other administrative tasks assigned to higher magistrates. Learn more...
Quaestores in Roma Antiqua

Quaestores were public officials in ancient Rome responsible for finance and administration in various areas of government and the military. Quaestura was first mentioned in the Laws of the Twelve Tables.

They were divided in two distinct classes of Roman officers. Acording to Varro "the one class therefore had to do with the collecting and keeping of the public revenues, and the others were a kind of public accusers. The former bore the name of quaestores classici, the latter of quaestores parricidii".

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Quaestores in Nova Roma

The 'quaestura is one of the lower magistracies of Nova Roma. Eight quaestores are elected annually by the comitia populi tributa to serve as treasures of the corporation of Nova Roma, Inc., and to assist and deputize the consuls and praetors. The four aediles and the governors are also authorized to assign quaestors to themselves as chief assistants from among the pool of quaestors.

Two quaestors are assigned to the Treasury of Nova Roma to be its guardians and custodians, but no funds may be spent without the prior approval of the Senate.

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Overview of "Vigintisexviri"
The vigintisexviratus is a college of the lowest elected magistrates and the name of their office literally means "Twenty-Six Men". There are various magistrates collectively called viginisexviri. Learn more...
Vigintisexviri in Roma Antiqua

The vigintisexviri was a college of minor magistrates in the Roman Republic and the name literally means "Twenty-Six Men". The college consisted of:

  • Decemviri stlitibus iudicandis - 10 magistrates who judged lawsuits, including those dealing with whether a man was free or a slave.
  • Tresviri capitales, also known as nocturni - three magistrates who had a police function in Rome, in charge of prisons and the execution of criminals.
  • Tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, also known as tresviri monetales - three magistrates who were in charge of striking and casting bronze, silver and copper (minting coins).
  • Quattuorviri viis in urbe purgandis, also known as quattorviri viarum curandarum - four magistrates overseeing road maintenance within the city of Rome.
  • Duoviri viis extra urbem purgandis, also known as duoviri curatores viarum - two magistrates overseeing road maintenance near Rome.
  • Praefecti Capuam Cumas - four praefecti sent to Capua and Cumae in Campania to administer justice there.
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Vigintisexviri in Nova Roma

One of the lowest elected offices of Nova Roma. They are:

  • Magister Aranearius - The Magister Aranearius is the official webmaster of Nova Roma. He is responsible for the design, the database, the server and maintenance, and any alteration of the website and of all official web sites sponsored by the Nova Roma, except for the parts under the control of other magistrates.
  • Editor Commentariorum - The Editor Commentariorum (editor of written news) is responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State.
  • Rogatores - The Rogatores may carry out the routine maintenance of the Album Civium and the Album Gentium in concert with the magister aranearius.
  • Diribitores - Four Diribitores are responsible for the counting of votes.
  • Custodes - Two Custodes are responsible for certifying the tally of votes in elections as reported to them by the diribitores, breaking any ties among the centuries and tribes, and providing the results of elections to the magistrates presiding over the elections.
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