Leges Novae Romanae

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This is a consolidated page of all leges, both past and present, for Nova Roma. The pages is a useful means to search efficiently through all the leges for a particular element or subject of interest.

I: Lex Vedia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

This lex is no longer valid : it was superseded by Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum, MMDCCLIV. </div>

In accordance with paragraph III.D. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum is hereby enacted to set forth the rules and procedures for debate and the taking of votes within the comitia populi tributa.

I. A consul or praetor may call the comitia populi tributa to vote on a law, hear a legal case, or elect magistrates as described in paragraph III.D. of the Constitution of Nova Roma. The following procedure shall be used:
A.The presiding magistrate (defined as the highest-ranked magistrate present who holds imperium shall, in a public forum (such as the official email list, the official web site, or other venues which shall be provided for the purpose) convene the comitia and publish one or more of the following, along with the deadline by which voting must be completed:
  • 1.In the case of a law, the content of the rogationes (proposals to be voted upon). While each proposal must deal with only a single topic, multiple proposals may be considered and voted on by the comitia at the same time.
  • 2.In the case of a magisterial election, the names of the candidates and the offices for which they stand.
  • 3.In the case of a legal case, the charges, names of the litigants, and consequences facing the defendant.
B.The people shall thenceforth engage in contio (discussion) of the various proposals, candidates, or merits of the case. This contio (period of discussion) shall last at least long enough for two nundinia (market days) to have passed during the interval. Within the first twenty-four hours after the convening of the comitia, the right of intercessio or nuntiatio may be exercised by those Constitutionally empowered to do so.
C.Voting on the proposal shall begin the day following the publication of the proposal. The diribitores and custodes (election officials) shall tally the vote and present the result to the presiding magistrate. Voting shall be done by tribes; a plurality of the members of each tribe shall determine the vote of the tribe as a whole. A plurality of the tribes shall then decide the issue. The presiding magistrate shall then publish the result of the vote in at least the same forum as the original vote was called.
II.Leges saturae, which are laws which deal with more than one topic, may not be enacted by the comitia populi tributa. Laws dealing with different aspects of the same topic shall not fall into this category.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the title "rogatores" here and elsewhere has been changed to those of "diribitores and custodes", who are now the election officials; the rogatores now assist the censores in registering new citizens. Since the censores do not deal with tallying votes or certifying elections {the duties of the diribitores and custodes respectively}, the phrase "with the assistance of the censors" has been removed].

The term 'trinundium,' which is a nonexistent word, has been replaced with 'contio,' which bears the intended meaning. It is unlikely that "trium nundinum," a genitive plural denoting a 24-day span, was intended. A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei.

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II: Lex Vedia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

In accordance with paragraph III.C. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum is hereby enacted to set forth the rules and procedures for debate and the taking of votes within the comitia plebis tributa.

V. A tribune of the plebs may call the comitia plebis tributa to vote on a law, hear a legal case, or elect magistrates as described in paragraph III.C. of the Constitution of Nova Roma. The following procedure shall be used:
A. The presiding magistrate (defined as the tribune of the plebs who called the comitia plebis tributa to a vote) shall, in a public forum (such as the official email list, the official web site, or other venues which shall be provided for the purpose) convene the comitia and publish one or more of the following, along with the deadline by which voting must be completed:
  • 1. In the case of a law, the content of the rogationes (proposals to be voted upon). While each proposal must deal with only a single topic, multiple proposals may be considered and voted on by the comitia at the same time.
  • 2. In the case of a magisterial election, the names of the candidates and the offices for which they stand.
  • 3. In the case of a legal case, the charges, names of the litigants, and consequences facing the defendant.
B. The people shall thenceforth engage in contio (discussion) of the various proposals, candidates, or merits of the case. This trinundium (period of discussion) shall last at least long enough for two nundinae (market days) to have passed during the interval. Within the first twenty-four hours after the convening of the comitia, the right of intercessio or nuntiatio may be exercised by those Constitutionally empowered to do so.
C. Voting on the proposal shall begin the day following the publication of the proposal. The rogatores (election officials) shall, with the assistance of the censors, tally the vote and present the result to the presiding magistrate. Voting shall be done by tribes; a plurality of the members of each tribe shall determine the vote of the tribe as a whole. A plurality of the tribes shall then decide the issue. The presiding magistrate shall then publish the result of the vote in at least the same forum as the original vote was called.
VI. Leges satura, which are laws which deal with more than one topic, may not be enacted by the comitia plebis tributa. Laws dealing with different aspects of the same topic shall not fall into this category.

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III: Lex Vedia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

In accordance with paragraph III.B. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Centuriatorum is hereby enacted to set forth the rules and procedures for debate and the taking of votes within the comitia centuriata.

I. A consul or urban praetor may call the comitia centuriata to vote on a law, hear a legal case, or elect magistrates as described in paragraph III.B. of the Constitution of Nova Roma. The following procedure shall be used:
A.The presiding magistrate (defined as the highest-ranked magistrate present who holds imperium shall, in a public forum (such as the official email list, the official web site, or other venues which shall be provided for the purpose) convene the comitia and publish one or more of the following, along with the deadline by which voting must be completed:
  • 1.In the case of a law, the content of the rogationes (proposals to be voted upon). While each proposal must deal with only a single topic, multiple proposals may be considered and voted on by the comitia at the same time.
  • 2.In the case of a magisterial election, the names of the candidates and the offices for which they stand.
  • 3.In the case of a legal case, the charges, names of the litigants, and consequences facing the defendant.
B.The people shall thenceforth engage in contio (discussion) of the various proposals, candidates, or merits of the case. This contio (period of discussion) shall last at least long

enough for three nundinia (market days) to have passed during the interval. Within the first twenty-four hours after the convening of the comitia, the right of intercessio or nuntiatio may be exercised by those Constitutionally empowered to do so.

C.Voting on the proposal shall begin following the first market day following the publication of the proposal. The diribitores and custodes (election officials) shall tally the vote and present the result to the presiding magistrate. Voting shall be done by centuries; a plurality of the members of each century shall determine the vote of the century as a whole. A plurality of the centuries shall then decide the issue. The presiding magistrate shall then publish the result of the vote in at least the same forum as the original vote was called.
II. Leges saturae, which are laws which deal with more than one topic, may not be enacted by the comitia centuriata. Laws dealing with different aspects of the same topic shall not fall into this category.


Notes

As is the case with the two preceding laws, and others to follow, the term "rogator" has been replaced with those of "diribitores" and "custodes" in accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum. The rogatores now assist the censores in registering new citizens; the diribitores and custodes perform the duties of tallying votes and certifying elections formerly assigned to the rogatores. The censores do not participate in these functions, so the phrase "with the assistance of the censors" has also been removed.

The word "trinundium," which does not exist, has been replaced with the term "contio," for that is the intent as demonstrated by the comment in parentheses. It is unlikely that "trium nundinum," a genitive plural signifying a twenty-four day period, is meant by this.

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IV: Lex Vedia de ratione eligium

The Lex Vedia de ratione eligium [see note infra] is hereby enacted in order to provide guidance to the rogatores, censors, curator araneum, and presiding magistrates in the conduct of the voting process used by the comitia centuriata, comitia populi tributa, and comitia plebis tributa.

I. The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the a vote, the censors shall make available to the rogatores a list of valid voter identification codes and the centuries and/or tribes with which they are associated. The rogatores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
II. In consultation with the rogatores, the curator araneum shall make available a cista; a secure web-based form to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual, and no other information. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the rogatores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. This shall constitute the primary means by which citizens will vote, although alternative methods may be enacted by other legislation as required.
III. The voting procedure shall be as follows.
A. When a vote on a particular subject (whether a new law, election, or legal case) is either desired or required, the appropriate magistrate (as outlined in the constitution) shall call the comitia to order by issuing an edictum for the purpose. This edictum shall be posted as soon as possible in those public fora officially designated for the purpose, including, but not limited to, the aerarium Saturnii and the official email list. This edictum shall present the matter to be voted upon, the date upon which voting may commence, and the date that voting shall end and the result be announced.
  • 1. At least three days must pass between the time the edictum is published and the commencement of voting. During this time, those legally empowered to do so may employ their rights of intercessio or nuntiatio.
  • 2. At least two market days must pass between the time the voting commences and the date it ends. The magistrate who called the comitia to a vote may specify the exact length of the voting.
B. Once cast, a vote may not be altered, even with the correct voter identification code.
C. Within 24 hours of the deadline for voting, the rogatores shall tally the votes and shall deliver the results to the magistrate who called the comitia to order and his collegial magistrate. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes and/or centuries (as appropriate) shall be delivered; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret. The magistrates shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receipt, in at least the same fora as the initial announcement was made.

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V: Lex Vedia apparitoria

Lex Vedia apparitoria has put the bases of two categories of apparitors: the lictors, who are ceremonial ones, and the other ones whose missions are administrative ones. This last category contains the scribes and the consular assistants (accensi). Lex Arminia de ministris tribunorum has completed this building by the introduction of a special sub-class of scribes, the viatores, who are assigned to the only tribunes of the plebs.


In accordance with paragraph IV.A.8. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Apparitoria is hereby enacted to create the following decuriae of apparitores and delineate their functions.

I. Decuria Lictoria

The decuria lictoria shall consist of lictores (lictors), who shall undertake those ceremonial functions as shall be assigned to them by the Senate, including, but not limited to, preceding those magistrates with Imperium at public functions and accompanying traveling Senators. Members of the decuria lictoria shall be appointed by magistrates holding Imperium.

II. Decuria Lictoria Curiata

The decuria lictoria curiata shall consist of the thirty lictores curiati (lictors of the comitia curiata) who shall make up the comitia curiata, and who shall undertake those ceremonial functions as shall be assigned to them by the collegium pontificum. Members of the decuria lictoria curiata shall be appointed by the collegium pontificum.

III. Decuria Scribarum

The decuria scribarum shall consist of scribae (clerks), who shall undertake those administrative and other functions as shall be assigned to them by the magistrate or provincial governor they are assisting. Members of the decuria scribarum shall be appointed by those magistrates with the Constitutional authority to appoint scribae.

IV. Decuria Accensorum

The decuria accensorum shall consist of accensi (personal assistants), who shall undertake those administrative and other functions as shall be assigned to them by the consul whom they assist. Members of the decuria accensorum shall be appointed by the consuls.

V. Viatores tribunorum

(introduced by lex Arminia de ministris tribunorum [1])

V.1. All apparitores nominated by a tribunus plebis for his assistance shall therefore be called "viatores."
V.2. A viator shall be nominated by an edictum, and must be a plebeian citizen.
V.3. The viator is only an apparitor [assistant], and does not share any of the special powers of a tribune, as specified in other legislation, nor may the tribune delegate these powers to these assistants. However, the viator may be delegated to execute the orders of a tribune within his tribunicia potestas.

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VI: Lex Vedia de vigintisexviris

In accordance with paragraph IV.A.8. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Vigintisexviris is hereby enacted to create the following positions within the Vigintisexviri and delineate their functions.

I. Magister Aranearius

The magister aranearius (overseer of the web) shall be responsible for the design, expansion, and maintenance of the official web site(s) sponsored by the State. The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates regarding content for the web site related to their offices, if any, and shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary. Should the position be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates available, an election shall be held within thirty days in the comitia populi tributa; otherwise the Senate shall have the authority to appoint a magister aranearius pro tempore until such an election can be held.

II. Curator Sermonis

[rescinded 5 June 2755] The curator sermonis (overseer of the conversation) shall be responsible for the maintenance and moderation of the official email discussion list(s) sponsored by the State. The curator sermonis shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary. Should the position be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates available, an election shall be held within thirty days in the comitia populi tributa; otherwise the Senate shall have the authority to appoint a curator sermonis pro tempore until such an election can be held.

III. Editor Commentariorum

The editor commentariorum (overseer of the news) shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary. Should the position be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates available, an election shall be held within thirty days in the comitia populi tributa; otherwise the Senate shall have the authority to appoint a curator sermonis pro tempore until such an election can be held.

IV. Diribitores

Two diribitores (voting officials) shall be responsible for the administration of elections and the recording of votes among the curia. The diribitores shall have the authority to appoint their own scribae, should they deem it necessary. Should one or both positions be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates available, an election shall be held within thirty days in the comitia populi tributa; otherwise, the Senate shall have the authority to appoint diribitores pro tempore until such an election can be held. Inasmuch as they, by definition, are privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any office while they serve in office (including running for diribitor again).


At the direction of Praetor M. Iulius Perusianus, the former titles of 'Curator araneum' in section I, 'Curator differum' in section III, and 'rogator(es)' in section IV have been changed to reflect the new titles and duties of these positions defined by the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris.

The added position of 'custos' may also fall under the prohibition in section IV as they are also election officials performing part of the duties formerly assigned to the rogatores. The position of 'Curator sermonis' was abolished by previous legislation.

A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei

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VII: Lex Vedia senatoria

In accordance with paragraph IV.A.2.c. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Senatoria is hereby enacted to establish the guidelines by which the censors may add names to the list of Senators which they maintain.

  1. Any individual elected to the office of consul, censor, or praetor shall automatically be included in the album Senatorum (assuming that the individual was not already a member of the Senate).
  2. Any individual elected to the office of curule aedile or appointed to the office of provincial governor may, at the discretion of the censors, be included in the album Senatorum six months after assuming office (assuming that the individual was not already a member of the Senate).
  3. Upon issuance of a Senatus consultum nominating an individual to membership in the Senate, the censors may, at their discretion, include that individual in the album Senatorum.

Enacted by Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus's edictum, a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII (30 July 1999), and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7x1 (12 Aug. 1999).

This Lex was repealed by lex Popillia senatoria, Kal. Ian. MMDCCLIX (01 Jan. 2006)

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VIII: Lex Vedia tributaria

Enacted by Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus's edictum, a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII (30 July 1999),
and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7x1 (12 Aug. 1999)
.

In accordance with paragraph II.E.1. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Tributaria is hereby enacted to instruct the censors in the matter of the division of the voting citizenry of Nova Roma into their respective tribes.

I. The censors shall apportion individuals among the rural tribes as evenly as possible by the assigning of newly enrolled citizens into those tribes that are numerically deficient.

II. The censors may, if possible, assign members to tribes based on geography, but such considerations shall be secondary to the goal of maintaining equal membership in the tribes.

III. No citizen shall be removed from one tribe to be included in another, save those who are transferred to the urban tribes by their failure to vote in the annual magisterial elections.

IV. Members of the urban tribes who subsequently vote in the annual magisterial elections and therefore have the right to be returned to one of the rural tribes, shall be assigned to such a tribe based on section I of this law, and will not necessarily be returned to their original tribe.

V. Membership in the tribes shall be a matter of public record, and shall be published by the censors annually no later than the last day of November.


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IX: Lex Vedia centuriata

Lex Vedia centuriata was enacted by an edict of Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus, taken a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII (30 July 1999), and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7 votes against 1 (12 Aug. 1999). Its paragraph II.B. was replaced by lex Fabia centuriata, approved on 2 Dec. 2756 by the senate.


In accordance with paragraph II.E.2. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Centuriata is hereby enacted to instruct the censors in the matter of the division of the voting citizenry of Nova Roma into their respective centuries.

I. The voting citizenry of Nova Roma shall be divided by the censors into 193 centuries. These centuries shall be further divided into five classes, as follows:

  • Class I shall have 55 centuries;
  • Class II shall have 47 centuries;
  • Class III shall have 39 centuries;
  • Class IV shall have 30 centuries;
  • Class V shall have 22 centuries.


II. The class to which a citizen belongs shall depend on his or her participation in the public affairs of the State. Citizens who have shown a greater commitment to public service shall be rewarded by placement in a higher-ranked class.

A. The censors shall re-calculate the placement of citizens into their respective centuries no later than the last day of November each year, and new citizens shall be entered into their respective centuries as they join.

B. The record of public service of each citizen shall be quantified according to the following rules. (Except for points awarded for term of citizenship, points shall be awarded cumulatively, but shall not carry over from year to year).

Century points will be recalculated for all citizens. Points will be awarded for all relevant events in each citizen's records based upon the values established in this lex.

B.1. MAGISTRATVS ORDINARII If a magistrate only serves part of his term as a suffectus or resigns his/her office while in office, Past Service points will be awarded partially. This will be based on two-month increments rounding down. Current Service points will be awarded for the period remaining, also based on two-month increments rounding down.

Censor: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Consul: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Praetor and Tribunus Plebis: 20 CP 10 CP (past service)

Aedilis Curulis 14 CP 7 CP (past service)

Aedilis Plebis: 12 CP 6 CP (past service)

Quaestor and Vigintisexvir: 10 CP 5 CP (past service)


B.2. MAGISTRATVS EXTRAORDINARII

Dictator: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Interrex: 6 CP 3 CP (past service)


B.3. APPARITORES Citizens may hold more than one position in a magistrate's staff, but get points for the highest one only.

Accensus: 5 CP 2 CP (past service)

Scriba: 5 CP 2 CP (past service)


B.4. PROVINCIAL POSITIONS Citizens may hold more than one provincial position, but get points for the highest one only. The ranks and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each governor. The LEX VEDIA PROVINCIALIS (now a part of the Constitution) was "enacted to enable governors and the Senate more flexibility in establishing and maintaining the administrative institutions and mechanisms of provinciae." The main idea of this part of this law is also founded on flexibility. No limit is set for each rank of officials, except for the first rank officials.

Governor: 20 CP 10 CP (past service)

1st rank Official (one per provincia): 8 CP 4 CP (past service)

2nd rank Official: 6 CP 3 CP (past service)

3rd rank Official: 4 CP 2 CP (past service)

4th rank Official: 2 CP 1 CP (past service)

Provincial Sacerdos: 14 CP


B.5. SACERDOTES

Pontifex Maximus, Rex/Regina Sacrorum, Flamen Maior, Vestal Maxima: 30 CP

Pontifex, Flamen Minor, Augur, Vestal: 20 CP

Other Sacerdotes: 20 CP


B.6. OTHER POSITIONS

Senator: 20 CP

Pater Patriae: 10 CP

The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.


B.7. SODALITATES POSITIONS (officially sanctioned sodalitates only) Citizens may hold more than one sodalitas position, but get points for the highest one only. The positions and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each Head.

Head of a Sodalitas 10 CP

Person of High Authority: 6 CP

Person of Minor Authority: 3 CP


B.8. ORDINES AND CANDIDATURES

Ordines: Ordo Patricius - 10 CP Ordo Plebeius - 5 CP Ordo Equester - 7 CP, which is in addition to those already awarded for membership in the Patrician or Plebeian orders.

Length of citizenship: Less than 6 months - 2 CP More than 6 months - 5 CP More than 12 months - 10 CP Each year after 1 year - + 10 CP (up to 50)

Unsuccesssfully run for office: 2 CP

It is not possible to accumulate century points by unsuccessfully running for more than one office per year.


C. The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.


D. The entire list of citizens shall be divided as evenly as possible into five classes, based on their accumulated points from the above schedule, with those with higher point totals being enrolled in Class I and those with the lowest point totally being enrolled in Class V.


E. Citizens within each class shall be divided as evenly as possible among the centuries in that class.


III. Membership in the centuries shall be a matter of public record, and shall be published annually by the censors no later than the last day of November.


Notes


(1). Lex Fabia specified, before its modification of the II.B. provisions:
"In accordance with paragraph II. E. 2. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Fabia Centuriata is hereby enacted to instruct the Censors in the matter of the division of the voting citizenry of Nova Roma into their respective centuries. This Lex Fabia replaces the item II. B of the Lex Vedia Centuriata, enacted in 30 Jul. 2752. The Lex Iunia Centuriata, approved in 22 Dec. 2752, is hereby rescinded. The law will take effect on the 1st of January 2757 auc. Item II. B shall be read as follows:"

(2). The initial version of II.B. was:
"The record of public service of each citizen shall be quantified according to the following schedule (except for points awarded for term of citizenship, points shall be awarded cumulatively, but shall not carry over from year to year):

Points. Awarded for:
  • 10 Member of the patrician order
  • 7 Member of the equestrian order
  • 5 Member of the plebeian order
  • 20 Senate service, current
  • 20 Senior Magistrate (consul, censor, praetor), current
  • 10 Junior Magistrate (aedile, quaestor, tribuni plebis), current
  • 5 Vigintisexviri or apparitores, current
  • 10 Senior Magistrate, past (each)
  • 5 Junior Magistrate, past (each)
  • 3 Ran for office unsuccessfully (each)
  • 12 Provincial governor, current
  • 6 Provincial governor, past (each; does not apply if currently holding same governorship)
  • 2 Citizen less than 6 months
  • 5 Citizen more than 6 months
  • 10 Citizen more than 12 months
  • 20 Citizen more than 24 months
  • 30 Citizen more than 36 months
  • 40 Citizen more than 48 months
  • 50 Citizen more than 60 months
  • 20 Priest, current
  • 10 Special appointed position, current (minimum)
  • 5 Special appointed position, past (minimum)
  • ? Other (special) "


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X: Lex Vedia de ratione edictorum


The Lex Vedia de Ratione Edictorum is hereby enacted to provide guidelines for the issuance of magisterial edicta, as provided for in the Constitution.

I. As described in the Constitution, the activities of magistrates in the furtherance of their official activities shall, in large part, take place through the issuance of edicta (edicts). While edicta may be issued and acted upon under the authority of the issuing magistrate, edicta shall be published in at least one of the following public fora within 72 hours of their issuance: the officially sponsored email list or the officially sponsored Internet message board. Such edicta shall be posted in the aerarium Saturni by the magister aranearius as soon as practical.

II. Edicta are subject to intercessio (veto) by those legally empowered to do so by the constitution. Such intercessio may be issued as soon as the edictum has been issued, but no longer than 72 hours after its publication as described in section I, above.



Enacted by Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus's edictum, a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII
(30 July 1999), and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7x1
(12 Aug. 1999)
.


Notes

In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris, the title 'curator araneum' has been replaced by 'magister aranearius.'

A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei, 2758.

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XI: Lex Iunia spatia consulatuum circumscribenda

This law shall regulate the amount of times a person may hold the office of consul during a specified time period.

I. No person shall hold the office of consul for two years consecutively, or in any five year period, hold the office of consul more than twice.

Approved by the comitia centuriata, a.d. XIV Kal. Oct. MMDCCLII (18 Sept. 1999)
Repealed by Lex Cornelia de definitione intervallorum magistratuum, , a.d. III Kal. Mart. MMDCCLV (27 February 2002)

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XII: Lex Iunia Cornelia de patrumfamiliarum matrumfamiliarumque aetate

This law shall regulate the minimum age at which a citizen may become the paterfamilias or materfamilias of a new Nova Roman gens.

1. Any person 15-17 years of age may not form a new gens and become its paterfamilias or materfamilias. He or she must join an existing gens until the age of 18.

2. If, for whatever reason, an under age citizen is the sole remaining person in his or her gens, then that person will be considered, within Nova Roma, sui iuris (free of the authority of a paterfamilias or materfamilias) and able to assume the position of paterfamilias or materfamilias and the leadership of his or her gens.

3. All citizens aged 15-17 who, at the time of the passage of this law, already hold the position of paterfamilias or materfamilias of a gens shall be exempt from its provisions.

4. Under extraordinary circumstances, an exemption to this law may be granted to an individual by the approval of both censors and a special senatus consultum approved by a two thirds majority vote.

5. The censors shall be charged with the enforcement of this law as part of their duty of reviewing and processing new citizenship applications and requests to form new gentes.

Approved by the comitia centuriata, a.d. XIV Kal. Oct. MMDCCLII (19 October 1999)
Repealed by Lex Equitia familiaris, Non. Oct. MMDCCLVII (07 October 2004)

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XIII: Lex Iunia de iusiurando

<onlyinclude> "I, (enter the legal and Roman names here) do hereby solemnly swear to uphold the honor of Nova Roma, and to act always in the best interests of the people and the Senate of Nova Roma.

As a magistrate of Nova Roma, I, (enter the Roman name here) swear to honor the Gods and Goddesses of Rome in my public dealings, and to pursue the Roman Virtues in my public and private life.

I, (enter legal the Roman name here) swear to uphold and defend the Religio Romana as the State Religion of Nova Roma and swear never to act in a way that would threaten its status as the State Religion.

I, (enter legal the Roman name here) swear to protect and defend the Constitution of Nova Roma.

I, (enter legal the Roman name here) further swear to fulfill the obligations and responsibilities of the office of (enter the title of the office here) to the best of my abilities.

On my honor as a Citizen of Nova Roma, and in the presence of the Gods and Goddesses of the Roman people and by their will and favor, do I accept the position of (enter title of office here) and all the rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities attendant thereto."

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XIV: Lex Iunia centuriata

This "Lex Iunia Centuriata" replaces paragraph I of the "Lex Vedia centuriata". The passage of the former leaves the remainder of the latter valid.

The new paragraph I of Lex Vedia centuriata is thus the following one:

"Whenever a consul or praetor convenes the comitia centuriata, the censores are to issue an edict specifying how many centuries are to be allocated to the classes. By all such edicts, the centuries will be allocated to five classes such that Class I will have the greatest number of centuries, and Class V the least".

Approved by the comitia centuriata, a.d. XIV Kal. Nov. MMDCCLII (19 October 1999) Repealed by Lex Octavia altera de comitiis centuriatis, a.d. III Non. Aug. MMDCCLV (03 August 2002)

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XV: Lex Cornelia de tempore publico constituendo

This law is enacted in order to provide Nova Roma with a standard time that all of its citizens may refer to, regardless of location in the world.

"For all purposes, the time in Rome shall be regarded as the official time of Nova Roma: official purposes that require the use of this standard time include but are not limited to, the time at which voting in one of the comitia begins and ends, the time at which a newly appointed magistrate officially acquires his/her office, and the time at which a magisterial edict takes effect. Magistrates are advised to use official Nova Roman time in all official announcements."

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XVI: Lex Grylla de magistratibus plebis creandis


This law is hereby enacted to organize the plebeian magistracies in case of lack of candidacies for the annual elections :

If no candidates for Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis declare in December, the Senate must provide for those magistrates by either of the following methods:

  • By extending by one year the term of the magistrate serving in that office, with the consent of that magistrate, or
  • By appointing senators to serve the required magistrate positions.

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XVII: Lex Cornelia de privatis rebus

Confidential information will consist of the following:

  • information obtained directly from persons applying for citizenship on the application for citizenship
  • information on the e-mail address list that can be obtained from Onelist
  • subscription lists from the Eagle newsletter

"Directly" in this law means that the citizen or applicant himself voluntarily communicates the information to its recipient; "indirectly" means communication of citizens' confidential information by any other means.

The censores, the magister aranearius, and the Curator Sermonum are to be the only individuals who have access to this information. However, in the event that another magistrate may need some of the information, s/he is either to obtain such information directly from the citizens whose information s/he seeks, or apply to the censores to obtain that information indirectly.

Only magistrates, or their lawfully appointed assistants, of Nova Roma may receive confidential information from the censores, except in the case of a formal request for such information from a law enforcement agent or other non-Nova Roman entity empowered under municipal law. In the event of such an extra-Nova Roma formal request, citizens whose information is sought are to be notified of all circumstances relevant to the request. All other indirect transmission or communication of Nova Roman citizens' confidential information is strictly prohibited.

In the case of a consular application to the censores for confidential information, refusal entitles the applying consul to require full public disclosure from the censores of the reasoning for the refusal, excluding any specific confidential information as defined within this law, of the reasoning for the refusal. Such disclosure is to be posted to the Nova Roma e-mail list and message board within 24 hours of the applying consul's request. In addition to the above, if a magistrate is denied information by the censors, he shall have the recourse of an appeal to the senate, which will have the power to override the censors' denial by a two-thirds majority vote.

This law is hereby enacted to precise the status of confidential private information inside Nova Roma republic

The name of the newsletter, "Eagle," has been changed to "Aquila," and converted into open online form, to 2759 auc. The Onelist mailing list has been replaced by the Yahoo! "main list" group mailing list.

In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris, the title "curator araneum" has been changed to "magister aranearius." The office of "curator sermonum," {more properly, "curator sermonis"} had been abolished previously; this function is now performed by the praetores.

A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei.

The present law has been amended by Lex Vedia de privatis rebus, 24 August 2754 (see the list of Nova Roma laws).

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XVIII: Lex Iunia de magistratuum aetate

This law shall regulate the minimum age a person may hold specific magistracies.

I. No person may assume the office of censor or consul until he or she has reached the age of 27.

II. No person may assume the office of praetor or tribune of the plebs until he or she has reached the age of 25.

III. No person may assume the office of quaestor, aedile, or be appointed to the position of provincial governor, until he or she has reached the age of 21.

IV. No person shall assume any office of the Vigintisexviri until he or she has reached the age of 21.

V. This law shall regulate only those people who assume any of the aforementioned offices after January 2, 2000 C.E. Any person holding one of the aforementioned positions at the time of the passage of this law or currently running for one of the regulated positions shall be exempt from its provisions for the remainder of his or her current term.

VI. An exemption to this law may be granted to a person by the approval of both censors and a senatus consultum approved by a two thirds majority vote.

Chapter VI has been amended by the lex Vedia de magistratuum aetate. A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei.

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XIX: Lex Iunia Cornelia de ratione suffragiorum

This law will modify the section III.C. of the Lex Vedia de Ratione Eligium to read as the following: III.C. Within 48 hours of the deadline for voting, the rogatores shall tally the votes and shall deliver the results to the magistrate who called the comitia to order and his collegial magistrate. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes and/or centuries (as appropriate) shall be delivered; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret. The magistrates shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receipt, in at least the same fora as the initial announcement was made.

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XX: Lex Iunia centuriata secunda

This law shall modify paragraph II.B. of the Lex Vedia Centuriata by eliminating the line:
"5 Vigintisexviri or apparitores, current"
and inserting the following lines:

"10 Vigintisexviri, current
5 Vigintisexviri, past (each)
5 Apparitores"

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XXI: Lex Iunia Cornelia provincialis

This lex changes Article V Section C. of the Constitution to state:

"The Senate may, by senatus consultum, create provinces (lat. provinciae) for administrative purposes and to appoint provincial governors therefore. The Senate may review each governor on a yearly basis and it remains in the discretion of the Senate whether or not to prorogue such governors. These governors may have assistants to handle the disbursements of any funds that might come from the central government, as well as to manage any local funds."
This law has been modified by laws XXIV and XL, and finally repealed by lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda.

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XXII: Lex Fabia de epistulis interretialibus

If a citizen receives messages by e-mail or instant message from fellow citizens that are of a disturbing nature he or she is entitled to ask the sender to stop.

If the sender does not stop immediately when asked to so, he is breaking Roman law and subject to punishment.

"Disturbing nature" in this instance is content that makes the recipient uncomfortable. It may be, but not restricted to, messages that are sexual in nature, derogatory, or hateful.

Harassed Citizen's Response

Under Roman law citizens are given protection by Government. The citizen must summon the Praetors, and inform them of the offense. This can be done by e-mail, or over the telephone.

The Investigative Procedure

Documenting the offense.

Harassed citizens must have documented proof saved for the investigation. This is done though the saving of the complete offending e-mails, or instant messages. When these documents are saved citizens should include both the offensive messages and replies documenting the request to stop the abuse. Also, documents should include the long headers documenting the originating server. This is to help identify citizens who may be impersonating another's e-mail address. These will be turned over to investigating magistrate via e-mail or FAX.

The Investigation.

The investigating magistrate shall be appointed by the Praetor(s). The investigator can be the Praetor, as well. The investigator will conduct interviews with both parties separately, either through electronic communication or over the telephone. If the magistrate's investigation turns up an infraction of the law, the magistrate will report this back to the Praetor. The Praetor may then review the severity of the transgression for punishment.

Penalties

Confirmed first time offenders are given a warning by the Praetor. However the transgression is to be reported by the investigating Praetor to the censores who will be note such in that citizen's record. This information will be made available to any magistrate by the censors for later investigation if warranted.

If a second transgression occurs, the accused faces a trial if the Praetor considers one to be necessary. If found guilty, punishment is mandatory. This will be expulsion from the Nova Roma list for a certain time, or fines. Notification to the authorities of the guilty citizen's country will also be considered. Following the precepts of the Vedian Constitution, habitual offenders will be permanently banished from Nova Roma after a trial by the Comitia Centuriata, following the precepts of the Vedian Constitution.

The Appeal

The accused has the right to appeal the Praetor's decision concerning any expulsion and request a trial before the committee. If found guilty by the committee, the Praetor will then impose the punishment.

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XXIII: Lex Minucia de rogatoribus

Paragraph IV. of the Lex Vedia de Vigintisexviris is hereby amended to read as follows:

Rogatores.

Four rogatores (voting officials) shall be responsible for the administration of elections and the recording of votes among the curia. Each rogator shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary. Should one or more positions be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates are available, an election shall be held within thirty days in the comitia populi tributa; otherwise the Senate shall have the authority to appoint rogatores pro tempore until such an election can be held. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, four rogatores shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election, and the rogatores may divide their duties amongst themselves as they see fit and is practical. Inasmuch as they, by definition, are privy to the details of the election process, the rogatores may not run for any office while they serve in office (including running for rogator again).

[The Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris of 2757 supersedes this. Since it took effect in January 2758, there have been two rogatores, who are responsible for new citizen registration under the direction of the censor(es). The election-related duties formerly assigned to the rogatores are now divided between the diribitores, who count votes, and the custodes, who break ties and certify elections.]

[A. Tullia Scholastica, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

Approved by Comitia Populi Tributa, a.d. III Non. Feb. MMDCCLIV (03 February 2001) Repealed by Lex Equitia de vigintisexviris, Id. Oct. MMDCCLVII (07 October 2004)

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XXIV: Lex Vedia de magistratuum aetate

Paragraph VI. of the lex Iunia de magistratuum aetate is hereby amended to read as follows:

An exemption to this law may be granted to a person by the approval of both censors and a senatus consultum approved by a two-thirds majority vote. Such an exemption must be sought prior to the official start of the election in question, and must be granted in order to participate as a formal candidate in the election process. A failure to act on the question of an exemption shall not constitute a tacit approval of the exemption.


Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: This Lex was implicitly repealed by Lex Cornelia de cursu honorum. Id. Sep. L. Sulla (III) cos. sine collega MMDCCLXVI a.u.c.

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XXV: Lex Vedia de ratione automataria

Paragraph III.C. of the Lex Vedia de Ratione Suffragiorum is hereby amended to read as follows:

Within 48 hours of the deadline for voting, the diribitores shall tally the votes and shall deliver the results to the magistrate who called the comitia to order and his collegial magistrate. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the diribitores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes and/or centuries (as appropriate) shall be delivered; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret. The magistrates shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receipt, in at least the same fora as the initial announcement was made.

The Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris of 2757 transferred the election-related duties formerly assigned to the rogatores and distributed them between the diribitores and the custodes; now the rogatores are registrars of new citizens working in conjunction with the censor(es). In accordance with this law and praetorian edictum, the title rogator originally in this law has been replaced with that of diribitor.

A. Tullia Scholastica, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758.

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XXVI: Lex Vedia de civitatis petitionibus per suffragia

I. No applications for Citizenship are to be processed or approved while one or more of the Comitia is in the process of undertaking a vote and/or election. Such applications may be accepted and held until the end of the election and/or vote in question, whereupon they are to be processed with all due diligence and speed, subject to all other laws which may otherwise apply to the process.

II. During the time when applications for citizenship are not processed as described under this law, the magister aranearius shall post an announcement where individuals completing the application for citizenship may reasonably be expected to see it, explaining the situation and giving a reasonable estimate of when the prospective citizens may expect to have their applications processed.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris of 2757 and praetorian edictum, the title "curator araneum" has been replaced by the more correct "magister aranearius." A. Tullia Scholastica, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes: 31; No: 1; Tied: 1

03 February MMDCCLIV

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XXVII: Lex Vedia altera de ratione edictorum

The last sentence of paragraph I. of the Lex Vedia de Ratione Edictium is hereby amended to read as follows:

Such edicta shall be posted in the Tabularium by the Curator Araneum as soon as practical.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes: 31; No: 1; Abstain: 1

03 February MMDCCLIV

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XXVIII: Lex Vedia de cursu honorum

In accordance with paragraph IV. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, this Lex Vedia de Cursu Honorum is hereby enacted to establish qualifications for holding magistracies. These qualifications are intended to bring Nova Roma closer in line with the ancient Cursus Honorum.

I. No individual may assume the office of Censor, Consul, or Praetor, who has not previously completed at least six months of a term as one of the ordinarii (not including the Apparitores) or as provincial governor. Such individuals may run for office prior to completion of this requirement, but must complete it prior to actually assuming the office itself. Individuals who resign their positions prior to the normal end of their term in office may not use that term to satisfy this requirement, regardless of how much time they spent in office.

II. No individual may assume the office of one of the ordinarii who has not been a registered citizen in good standing for at least six months. Such individuals may run for office prior to completion of this requirement, but must complete it prior to actually assuming the office itself.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-18 tribes; No-9; Tied-5

26 February MMDCCLIV

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XXIX: Lex Vedia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

This lex is no longer valid : it was superseded by Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum, MMDCCLIV.

In accordance with paragraph III.D. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum is hereby enacted to set forth the rules and procedures for debate and the taking of votes within the comitia populi tributa.

I. A consul or praetor may call the comitia populi tributa to vote on a law, hear a legal case, or elect magistrates as described in paragraph III.D. of the Constitution of Nova Roma. The following procedure shall be used:
A.The presiding magistrate (defined as the highest-ranked magistrate present who holds imperium shall, in a public forum (such as the official email list, the official web site, or other venues which shall be provided for the purpose) convene the comitia and publish one or more of the following, along with the deadline by which voting must be completed:
  • 1.In the case of a law, the content of the rogationes (proposals to be voted upon). While each proposal must deal with only a single topic, multiple proposals may be considered and voted on by the comitia at the same time.
  • 2.In the case of a magisterial election, the names of the candidates and the offices for which they stand.
  • 3.In the case of a legal case, the charges, names of the litigants, and consequences facing the defendant.
B.The people shall thenceforth engage in contio (discussion) of the various proposals, candidates, or merits of the case. This contio (period of discussion) shall last at least long enough for two nundinia (market days) to have passed during the interval. Within the first twenty-four hours after the convening of the comitia, the right of intercessio or nuntiatio may be exercised by those Constitutionally empowered to do so.
C.Voting on the proposal shall begin the day following the publication of the proposal. The diribitores and custodes (election officials) shall tally the vote and present the result to the presiding magistrate. Voting shall be done by tribes; a plurality of the members of each tribe shall determine the vote of the tribe as a whole. A plurality of the tribes shall then decide the issue. The presiding magistrate shall then publish the result of the vote in at least the same forum as the original vote was called.
II.Leges saturae, which are laws which deal with more than one topic, may not be enacted by the comitia populi tributa. Laws dealing with different aspects of the same topic shall not fall into this category.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the title "rogatores" here and elsewhere has been changed to those of "diribitores and custodes", who are now the election officials; the rogatores now assist the censores in registering new citizens. Since the censores do not deal with tallying votes or certifying elections {the duties of the diribitores and custodes respectively}, the phrase "with the assistance of the censors" has been removed].

The term 'trinundium,' which is a nonexistent word, has been replaced with 'contio,' which bears the intended meaning. It is unlikely that "trium nundinum," a genitive plural denoting a 24-day span, was intended. A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei.

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XXX: Lex Labiena de iure edicendi vigintisexvirorum

I. Pursuant to section IV.A.8 of the Constitution, which allows the Vigintisexviri to be defined and assigned functions by law, it is recognized that it is constitutional and lawful to assign to these magistrates those powers that are reasonable and necessary to perform those functions.

II. Therefore, the Vigintisexviri are hereby given the power to issue edicta, subject to the following restrictions.

A. Edicta issued by a member of the Vigintisexviri shall reasonably and demonstrably fall under the purview of the specific functions assigned to that member of the Vigintisexviri by law.
B. All edicta issued by a member of the Vigintisexviri shall be subject in all ways to the laws that regulate edicta issued by other magistrates.
C. Members of the Vigintisexviri are advised that not all actions they take must be announced by edicta. It is strongly suggested that the use of edicta be restricted to those actions that require some force of law, such as long-term policies.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-30; No-0; Tied-2; Abstain-1

07 April MMDCCLIV

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XXXI: Lex Labiena de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

I. The Lex Vedia de Ratione Eligium and Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the voting of leges by the Comitia Plebis Tributa. This Lex Labiena de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum is hereby enacted to define the procedures by which the Comitia Plebis Tributa shall conduct the business of electing magistrates and voting on leges.
II. Calling the Comitia to Order.
A Tribunis Plebis may, as described in the Constitution, call the Comitia to order, to hold a vote on a lex or leges, or to hold an election. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.
A. This shall be done by making a public announcement announcing the call in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purpose, in which must be included:
1. The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia is being called for an election),
2. The full text of any plebiscita which are being voted on (when the Comitia is being called to legislate),
3. The dates when the members of the Comitia shall begin and finish voting,
4. Any special instructions that pertain to the mechanics of the vote, if any.
B. The presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that candidates for a vote hold whatever qualifications are required by law. The Censors shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.
III. Timing of the vote.
A. The announcement containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates before the People for vote.
B. During the Contio, those Constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio or nuntiatio.
1. The exercise of intercessio shall cancel the vote or election outright, although another call with the same items may be made at a later date.
2. The exercise of nuntiatio shall extend the Contio, postponing the start and end dates of the voting period by 24 hours, during which time nuntiatio may again be exercised.
3. Should the exercise of nuntatio cause the voting period to move such that it conflicts with calendarical restrictions as defined by the Collegium Pontificum, the presiding magistrate may change or extend the dates of the vote and/or contio at his or her discretion.
C. The period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 192 hours (8 days).
D. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum.
E. The rogatores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within 48 hours of the close of the voting period.
F. The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receiving the results from the rogatores, in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the vote was published.
IV. Voting procedures.
A. The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the censors shall make available to the rogatores a list of valid voter identification codes and the tribes with which they are associated. The rogatores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
B. In consultation with the rogatores, the curator araneum shall make available a cista; a secure web-based form to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the rogatores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Each Citizen shall have the opportunity to vote for a single candidate for each office for which a vacancy exists, regardless of the number of vacancies within a given magistracy. Citizens may cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot, or may waive their right to cast a vote for a given magistracy. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote.
V. Procedures for counting votes.
A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
1. In the case of a magisterial election, each tribe shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of vacancies for the magistracy in question. Votes shall be assigned to those candidates who received votes by members of the tribe, with those candidates receiving the most valid individual votes receiving the tribe's vote first, then working down in descending order until all the tribe's votes have been assigned.
EXAMPLE: Four candidates are running for Tribunus Plebis.
Each tribe casts two votes, because there are two vacant positions. In tribe III, there are 26 votes for candidate A, 32 votes for candidate B, 2 votes for candidate C, and 13 votes for candidate D. The tribe's two votes are cast for candidates A and B, since they received the two highest vote-totals within the tribe.
2. In the case of a vote on a plebiscitum, each tribe shall vote in favor of the plebiscitum if a majority of the votes received by members of the tribe are in favor. Otherwise, the tribe shall be considered to have voted against the proposed plebiscitum.
3. Should a tie occur within a given tribe, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner.
B. A vote or election shall be decided by a majority of the tribes.
1. In the case of a magisterial election, candidates must receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes in order to win.
a. Should not enough candidates receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes to fill all vacancies, a new election shall be called within 30 days from the end of the current election.
b. Should more candidates receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes than there are vacancies, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner.
2. In the case of a vote on a plebiscitum, 18 of the 35 tribes must vote in favor for the plebiscitum to be adopted.
C. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the rogatores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.
D. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

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XXXII: Lex Cornelia et Maria de civitate eiuranda

1. Resignation of citizenship from Nova Roma, as stated in paragraph II.A.4. of the constitution of Nova Roma, is effected by notification to the censores, or by declaration before three or more witnesses. Messages posted to e-mail lists or to electronic message boards, or statements of intent to resign citizenship made "live" meet the requirement for three witnesses to a resignation if and only if three witnesses to the resignation notify the Censors thereof within 72 hours of the initial proclamation. Individuals wishing to resign their citizenship may contact the censors directly and obviate the need for witnesses.


2. When a citizen resigns citizenship in Nova Roma, the resignation will not take effect for nine days from the date of the censors being notified, counting inclusively of the date of the notification. If the citizen desires to withdraw his or her resignation during this nundinum and remain a citizen, that citizen may freely do so without penalty, except as defined in the next paragraph. The citizen can withdraw the resignation by notifying the censores of his/her desire to withdraw the resignation by at least the same channel that he/she used to submit the resignation. For example, if a citizen submits a message to the e-mail address of the censores, currently censors@novaroma.org, stating that he/she resigns, then the citizen must e-mail the Censores by the same address to withdraw the resignation.


3. If a currently serving magistrate submits and withdraws multiple resignations of citizenship within the same calendar year, the censores will have grounds, after a closed hearing at which the magistrate will have the opportunity to present reasoning for his/her actions, to issue an edictum against the magistrate rendering him/her ineligible to run for elected office for one year. Should the magistrate believe that he/she has a case for appeal of such an edictum, he/she can appeal to a Tribunus Plebis, Praetor or Consul within 30 days of issuance of the edictum as follows:


  • 1. If Plebeian, either to a Tribunus Plebis to bring the appeal to the Comitia Plebis Tributa or to a Praetor or Consul to bring the appeal to the Comitia Populi Tributa.
  • 2. If Patrician, to a Praetor or Consul to bring the appeal to the Comitia Populi Tributa.
  • 3. Note that the decision to convene these comitia, along with the schedule for doing so, is the purview of the tribuni, consules and praetores, and is therefore beyond the scope of this edict.
  • 4. When a citizen resigns citizenship in Nova Roma, and the resignation becomes official after nine days, the ex-citizen is barred from reapplication and reinstatement for a period of six months, effective from the date his or her resignation became official. EXAMPLE: A citizen resigned on May 1, 2000, and his resignation became official on May 9, 2000, he could not be reinstated until November 9, 2000.
  • 5. The ex-citizen, in the event that he desires to reacquire citizenship, must apply in the same fashion as any other person desirous of citizenship would, with the exception that he/she is directed to state in his/her application the reasons behind his/her resignation and decision to reverse the resignation and come back. His/her Roman name may be resumed if no other citizen of Nova Roma has taken it up in his/her absence. No public offices, titles or century points carry over to the returning citizen, with the exception of any religious titles and corresponding century points that may be specified by the Collegium Pontificum. Senatorial status may be resumed at the discretion of both the Senate and of the censores collegially. Gens affiliation in all instances remains at the discretion of the pater or materfamilias.
  • 6. If a citizen resigns, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a second time, that ex-citizen is barred for two years from reinstatement. Such a citizen is furthermore barred from running for any elected public office for two years following re-admission, with no recourse.
  • 7. If a citizen resigns, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a second time, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a third time, that ex-citizen is barred forever from reinstatement. The ex-citizen has despised his citizenship and shown contempt for the state: he may never be reinstated thereafter.
  • 8. The Censors will note the dates of submitted and withdrawn resignations in the censorial album civium.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-25; No-10;

20 May MMDCCLIV

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XXXIII: Lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus

I. Introduction

A. This law is set forth to define the procedures by which a citizen may apply to add, alter, or substitute any portion of his or her Roman name, and to state the guidelines by which such an application may be judged. This is done in order to attain a measure of conformity with ancient Roman naming conventions and tradition. Note that this law, and its procedures and guidelines, apply to changes sought by citizens after the publication of this law, and do not apply to citizens' existing names, although the information herein will certainly be of use to new citizens choosing a Roman name.

B. This law has no impact on chatroom handles, signatures to private or casual e-mail messages, or any other alias that any citizen may choose to use. Rather, 'Roman name' for the purposes of this law refers to the name used by the citizen in public oaths, applications to sodalitates and in other official contexts; this Roman name is the one recorded in the censorial album civium.

C. Note that the use of the male gender throughout this document is done solely for clarity, and is not meant to imply any disparity between the sexes before the law.

D. Also note that this document uses the word sex to describe the physical sex of a person and the word gender to refer to linguistic gender only.

E. It is not the intent of this law to discriminate against or to make any judgment about homosexuality, transgenderedness, or any other sexual identity. No such discrimination should be inferred from any part of this document, nor should it be used as a precedent for any law, magisterial act, edictum, or other action that interferes with the rights of any citizen on the basis of that citizen's sexual identity.

F. The Edictum Censorium de Mutandis Nominibus is hereby rescinded in favor of this lex.

II. Definition of a Roman Name

A. A Roman name consists of a praenomen, nomen, (optionally) cognomen, and (possibly) an agnomen, and, in rare cases, several agnomina.

B. The praenomen is a citizen's given name, and is used to distinguish between members of a particular gens. Since there are very few historical praenomina, and since the role of the praenomen is almost entirely secondary, a citizen is rarely referred to by praenomen alone.

C. The nomen identifies a citizen's gens. Since a change in the stem of a citizen's nomen would necessitate a change in gens -- a case of either adoptio or the founding of a new gens -- it is beyond the scope of this law.

D. The cognomen was originally a nickname. It is used to further identify members within a gens, who could easily be identically named due to the paucity of praenomina. Over time, the cognomen became inherited, and was used to identify specific family lines within a single gens. Changes to adopt certain names as cognomina are restricted, as set forth in paragraphs E and F below. Note that these restrictions do not apply in any way to cognomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

E. An agnomen is an additional form of nickname that is commonly bestowed upon a citizen by others, often to commemorate significant accomplishments or important events in the citizen's life. While it is possible for a citizen to add a new agnomen or change an existing one by request, agnomina of distinction must be awarded by a senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of service to Nova Roma. Official recognition of such awarded agnomina of distinction is completed by the censors' entering the agnomina in the album civium. Following each such entry by the censores, the latter will provide the magister aranearius with the full Roman name of the distinguished citizen and an explanation of the circumstances and reasons surrounding the award of the agnomen, that the magister aranearius may publish this information to the Nova Roma website as he sees fit.

F. Agnomina of distinction include, but are not limited to, the following: Augur, Augustus, Felix, Invictus, Magnus, Maximus, Optimus, Pius, Superbus, Victor. Note that these restrictions do not apply in any way to agnomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

G. EXAMPLE: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos would be Quintus of the Metellus branch of gens Caecilia. His family would be referred to as the Caecilii Metelli, in order to distinguish them from the other families within gens Caecilia. His agnomen, Nepos, distinguishes him from any other Quintus of the Caecilii Metelli. As nepos means grandson, it also most likely distinguishes him as the third in a line of like-named people.

III. Procedures

A. A citizen wishing to change his name shall first contact his paterfamilias and present his reasons for desiring a name change, as well as the desired name. The paterfamilias will in turn contact the censores should he approve of the name change, or should he find that he requires help in determining whether or not to approve the change.

B. Patresfamiliarum are instructed to work cooperatively with members of their gens who desire to change their names in order to help them conform to the letter and spirit of this document.

C. Should a paterfamilias disapprove of a citizen's desired name change, refusing to present it to the censores, said citizen may appeal to the censores within ninety (90) days of the refusal.

D. A paterfamilias who wishes to change his name shall apply to the censores directly.

E. Should an applicant fail to obtain a name change from the censores, he may, within ninety (90) days of the refusal, appeal to a consul or praetor to bring the matter before the people through a vote in the Comitia Populi Tributa.

1. Note that such an action requires the citizen who desires the change to temporarily waive his rights of confidentiality as defined in Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus, in order that evidence for and against the application may be presented to the populace.

2. Also note that the decision to convene the Comitia Populi Tributa, along with the schedule for doing so, is the purview of the consules and praetores, and is therefore beyond the scope of this edict.

IV. Guidelines

A. An application for a name change is confidential. The requested name, along with any and all evidence presented with it, is considered confidential information as covered by the Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus. Censores, patresfamiliarum, and anyone called to provide testimony by any party in the procedure are not to divulge any information applicable to the name change to anyone without the applicant's written permission, except as directed by this law. Such exceptions include the following:

1. A paterfamilias providing relevant information upon referring a request for a new name to the censores.

2. A paterfamilias or other citizen providing relevant information upon a censor, consul, or praetor's request, as in the case of an appeal of a denied application.

3. A citizen presenting evidence before the Comitia Populi Tributa in the case of an appeal to those comitia.

B. The guiding principle in considering name changes is to be conformity with ancient Roman tradition.

1. New praenomina should be historically attested ones.

2. As previously stated, agnomina of distinction (Maximus, Felix, et cetera) are not to be granted to citizens on request, but can be awarded to any citizen by any senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of any special service to the Republic. It is up to the patresfamiliarum and censores to determine what is and is not an agnomen of distinction on a case-by-case basis.

3. Cognomina and agnomina can be new coinages, but must be conducive to Latin declension, and must have a clear meaning -- both semantically and in specific relation to the citizen requesting the added or changed name.

4. The gender of the name is to be consistent. Each part is to agree with all others in gender, and with the sex of the citizen requesting the name change. (1)

C. A citizen who wishes to change the gender of his name counter to that dictated by his sex must present, in support of his application, proof of acceptance of the contrary sex by an authority of a macronation state, or municipality. In other words, if the applicant is physically a man and has a form of macronational or municipal identification listing his sex as female, or is officially recognized as a woman in his country of macronational citizenship, then he may use a feminine name in Nova Roma.

1. An exception to this rule is allowed in the case of transsexual citizens who are discussing surgical sex alteration with a health care provider or undergoing other medical and psychological treatment in preparation for such an operation. In these instances, documentation pertaining to health care provider(s) may be required of the applicant.

2. Post-operative transsexual citizens shall be named according to their current sex.

3. Hermaphrodites shall be named according to the sex in which they are recognized by their country of macronational citizenship.


Notes


(1). The end of paragraph IV, and specially IV.4., has been changed by lex Labiena de nominibus mutandis (24 Sept. 2756 auc).

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XXXIV: Lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis

Lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis defines the two major categories of citizens: the ones who pay their annual tax to Nova Roma budget (even the law below does not set the principle of the annuality), and the others. The first ones are called assidui (sing. assiduus, fem. assidua), and the second ones capite censi (sing. capite census, fem. capite censa). This last expression meaning "recorded as a head (body, person)", the word capite does not vary, for it means "as a head".

The first modification of lex Vedia has been brought by a lex Cornelia which has specified how a cives could have her/his status change from capite census/-a to assiduus/-a.

The second train of modifications has been brought by lex Apula, which has first put in the field of the "legislation" what was before in the Senate's competency: the amount and the proceedings to pay the taxes. Second, lex Apula has authorized the possible removal from office and seat of senators and ordinarii, on one hand, and on the other of "members of the Collegium Pontificum, priests and sacerdotes", who would, having not paid their tax(-es), would become de facto capite censi. The difference between both sub-categories concerns the authority who may takes the removal decision: one of both censors for the first one, the pontifex maximus for the second one.

The last modification of lex Vedia has been brought indirectly via an amendment to lex Apula: Vedia-Cornelia-Apula de assiduis etc. has been added in May 2762 auc a new § II.B, which grants the status of assiduae to every Vestal virgins and exempts them from tax paying.


I. Lex Vedia modified by Apula de assiduis et capite censis is hereby enacted to define the classifications of taxpayers and non-taxpayers, and put in place special conditions on those who are unable or unwilling to support the financial welfare of the Republic through payment of those taxes which may be enacted by the Senate.

II.

A. Citizens who pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the current legislation [(in italics: mod. by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758. The Vedia text said "by the Senate")] shall be considered assidui. No special conditions shall be placed on assidui in regards to their placement in centuries and tribes or their ability to run for or hold office.

B. [paragraph added by Curiatia Iulia de tributo virginum vestalium May xx, 2762, appr. by SC Jul. 18, 2762.:] Those appointed as Vestal virgins by the Collegium Pontificum shall be exempt from paying the annual tax and shall retain their status as assidui so long as they remain Vestal virgins. No special conditions shall be placed on Vestal virgins with regard to their placement in centuries and tribes or upon their ability to run for or hold office."


III. Citizens who do not pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the Senate shall be considered capite censi. The following special conditions shall apply to capite censi:

  • A. The Censors shall place all Capite censi in the last century in Class V as defined by lex Vedia centuriata and those leges which may amend it, and no other Citizens shall be enrolled therein.
  • B. The Censors shall place all Capite censi in the urban tribes as defined by lex Vedia tributaria and those leges which may amend it.
  • C. No Capite census may run for or hold office as one of the ordinarii (including the apparitores), nor be appointed to or hold office as provincial governor nor be titled as senator or member of the Collegium Pontificium or priest or sacerdos [(in italics: added by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758)]. Capite censi may hold provincial or local offices at the discretion of the governor of the province in question.
  • D. (added by lex Cornelia Octavia de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 10, 2755, appr. by SC Dec. 24, 2755 :)
    • 1. All persons obtaining citizenship after this lex takes effect will have Capite census status until and unless payment is made.
    • 2. Any Capite census may become assiduus by paying the appropriate amount, as defined by senatus consultum. If payment is made during a contio or election, the change in status will take place after the election concludes.
    • 3. Upon receipt of tax payment in full, the applicant is considered to assume the rights and privileges of assiduus as defined by lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis and the applicant will be allocated to a rural tribe and appropriate century allocation.

IV. (added by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758 :) Senatores and ordinarii sitting magistrates, who become Capite censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Censors. Members of the Collegium Pontificum, priests and sacerdotes who become Capite censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Pontifex Maximus.

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XXXV: Lex Vedia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

In accordance with paragraph III.B. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Centuriatorum is hereby enacted to set forth the rules and procedures for debate and the taking of votes within the comitia centuriata.

I. A consul or urban praetor may call the comitia centuriata to vote on a law, hear a legal case, or elect magistrates as described in paragraph III.B. of the Constitution of Nova Roma. The following procedure shall be used:
A.The presiding magistrate (defined as the highest-ranked magistrate present who holds imperium shall, in a public forum (such as the official email list, the official web site, or other venues which shall be provided for the purpose) convene the comitia and publish one or more of the following, along with the deadline by which voting must be completed:
  • 1.In the case of a law, the content of the rogationes (proposals to be voted upon). While each proposal must deal with only a single topic, multiple proposals may be considered and voted on by the comitia at the same time.
  • 2.In the case of a magisterial election, the names of the candidates and the offices for which they stand.
  • 3.In the case of a legal case, the charges, names of the litigants, and consequences facing the defendant.
B.The people shall thenceforth engage in contio (discussion) of the various proposals, candidates, or merits of the case. This contio (period of discussion) shall last at least long

enough for three nundinia (market days) to have passed during the interval. Within the first twenty-four hours after the convening of the comitia, the right of intercessio or nuntiatio may be exercised by those Constitutionally empowered to do so.

C.Voting on the proposal shall begin following the first market day following the publication of the proposal. The diribitores and custodes (election officials) shall tally the vote and present the result to the presiding magistrate. Voting shall be done by centuries; a plurality of the members of each century shall determine the vote of the century as a whole. A plurality of the centuries shall then decide the issue. The presiding magistrate shall then publish the result of the vote in at least the same forum as the original vote was called.
II. Leges saturae, which are laws which deal with more than one topic, may not be enacted by the comitia centuriata. Laws dealing with different aspects of the same topic shall not fall into this category.


Notes

As is the case with the two preceding laws, and others to follow, the term "rogator" has been replaced with those of "diribitores" and "custodes" in accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum. The rogatores now assist the censores in registering new citizens; the diribitores and custodes perform the duties of tallying votes and certifying elections formerly assigned to the rogatores. The censores do not participate in these functions, so the phrase "with the assistance of the censors" has also been removed.

The word "trinundium," which does not exist, has been replaced with the term "contio," for that is the intent as demonstrated by the comment in parentheses. It is unlikely that "trium nundinum," a genitive plural signifying a twenty-four day period, is meant by this.

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XXXVI: Lex Vedia de privatis rebus

The Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus is hereby amended to include the following:

"Provincial governors, or their lawfully appointed assistants, may receive confidential information, but only relating to those citizens within their provinciae, in accordance with the restrictions and procedures governing release of such information for magistrates.

"Individual citizens may, at their express request, allow confidential information of their choice to be made available and/or public, and may rescind such permission as they see fit."

Passed by Comitia Centuriata, Yes-67; No-9; Abstain-1, Tie-5

27 August MMDCCLIV

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XXXVII: Lex Cassia Octavia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

The Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Centuriatorum is hereby amended:

I. Paragraph V.A.1 is altered to read as follows:

1. In the case of a magisterial election, each century shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of vacancies for the magistracy in question or the number of candidates who received individual votes from members of that century, whichever is less. Votes shall be assigned to those candidates who received votes by members of the century, with those candidates receiving the most valid individual votes receiving the century's vote first, then working down in descending order until either all the century's votes have been assigned, or there are no remaining candidates who received votes from citizens in that century.

II. The following paragraph is inserted after Paragraph V.A.3.

4. No candidate may win a century unless he or she has received at least one vote from a citizen within that century.

III. In paragraph V.B.1, the phrase "97 of the 193 centuries" shall be replaced with "a simple majority of the centuries casting votes".
IV. In paragraph V.B.2, the phrase "97 of the 193 centuries" shall be replaced with "a simple majority of the centuries casting votes".
V. Paragraph V.B.3 is added:

3. "A simple majority" is hereby defined as "one half of the number of centuries casting votes, plus one". Abstentions are not considered votes, and a century in which all voters abstained shall not be counted toward this total.

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XXXVIII: Lex Cassia de creatione sodalitatum

I. A group or association, cultural, social, historical or political, created by or involving Nova Romans shall be considered officially a part of Nova Roma only by official recognition/approval by the Republic. Any such group that wishes official recognition or status within Nova Roma must make a formal application for inclusion. Until such an application is placed and granted by the Senate or through vote in any one of the Comitia, all such groups are considered completely separate from Nova Roma.

II. The above clause is also binding to all Religious groups, organizations and associations involving Nova Roma Citizens, with the exception that they may only apply to and be approved by the Collegium Pontificum. This is in accord with section IV of the Nova Roma constitution which places all religious associations under the authority of the Collegium Pontificum.

III. Organizations applying for recognition by Nova Roma must present a formal charter and outline of intent before the Senate or to one of the Comitia (or if a religious group to the Collegium Pontificum.) The charter for any group, organization or association applying for recognition within Nova Roma must include:

A. A statement of intent (what the organization is about, and what it is trying to achieve.)

B. An action plan outlining how it intends to achieve its goals.

C. An outline of its internal organization, hierarchy and offices.

IV. A group, organization or association approved for official inclusion into the infrastructure of Nova Roma must adhere to the Constitution and Laws of Nova Roma. An application for official recognition is therefore considered a binding statement of intent to be governed by Nova Roma's laws, constitution and legal government.

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XXXIX: Lex Cassia de iusiurando

"The Lex Iunia Iusiurando is hereby amended so that the following preface will be placed before the Oath of Office:

The Lex Iunia Iusiurando is hereby enacted to put in place an Oath of Office for any citizen assuming any magistracy of Nova Roma, whether elected or appointed.

The following oath must be taken publicly in the major public fora of Nova Roma before someone elected or appointed to any magistracy can assume his or her office. It must be taken on the day, or as soon as possible afterwards, that the office is to be assumed. The office shall be considered vacant until the oath is taken.

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XL: Lex Vedia de magistratuum aetate secunda

The Lex Iunia de Magistratuum is hereby amended as follows, establishing the following procedures for the purpose underaged candidates to petition an exemption to run for office.

VI.A. Citizens who wish to run for office must present the Consuls with their petition for exemption to the age restriction.
VI.A.1. In the case of the annual December magisterial elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls no later than the 31st of October.
VI.A.2. In the case of mid-year elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls as soon as possible, but the presentation of such petitions shall not be regarded as sufficient reason to postpone replacement elections more than thirty days as required by the Constitution, and the right of underage cives to run for office shall not override the Constitutional requirement to fill vacant magistracies in a timely manner.
VI.B. The petition will include the following information:
  • a. Full Roman name
  • b. Length of Citizenship
  • c. Prior experience within Nova Roma
  • d. The office for which they intend to run
VI.C. The Consuls shall present the petition to the Senate for a vote in such manner as to allow due consideration of the petition.

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XLI: Lex Vedia de provinciis

I. This Lex Vedia Provincialis is hereby enacted to enable governors and the Senate more flexibility in establishing and maintaining the administrative institutions and mechanisms of the provinciae.

II. Paragraph V.C. of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby altered to read as follows:

  • C. The Senate may, by Senatus Consultum, create provinciae for administrative purposes and appoint provincial governors therefor, who shall bear such titles as the Senate may deem appropriate. The Senate may review each governor on a yearly basis and it remains in the discretion of the Senate whether or not to prorogue such governors, although this review shall not constitute a ban on the authority of the Senate to remove governors from office as its discretion. Governors shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
1. To hold imperium and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors solely within the jurisdiction of their provinciae;
2. To proclaim those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma, solely within the jurisdiction of their provinciae (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
3. To manage the day-to-day organization and administration of their provinciae;
4. To appoint officers to whom authority may be delegated, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate;
5. To remove officers whom they have appointed, or make changes to their titles and/or delegated authority, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate.

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XLII: Lex Vedia de incorporationis

I. This Lex Vedia de Correctione Incorporationis is hereby enacted in order to acknowledge the change of Nova Roma's state of incorporation from New Hampshire to Maine, and to alter the Constitution accordingly.

II. The term "New Hampshire" in paragraph I.C. of the Constitution is hereby changed to read "Maine".

Passed by Comitia Centuriata, Yes-98; No-1; Abstain-7

23 October MMDCCLIV

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XLIII: Lex Vedia de tribunis

I. This lex is hereby enacted to bring the institution of the Tribunate as it is realized in Nova Roma closer to that of Roma Antiqua, and to alter the Constitution and other official documents accordingly.

II. Paragraph IV.A.7. of the Constitution is hereby altered to read as follows:

7. Tribuni Plebis (Tribune of the Plebs). Five tribunes of the plebs shall be elected by the comitia plebis tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They must all be of the plebeian order, and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:

a. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against the actions of any other magistrate (with the exception of the dictator and the interrex), Senatus consulta, magisterial edicta, religious decreta, and leges passed by the comitia when the spirit and/or letter of this Constitution or legally-enacted edicta or decreta, Senatus Consulta, or leges are being violated thereby;
1. Once a pronouncement of intercessio has been made, the other Tribunes may, at their discretion, state either their support for or their disagreement with that intercessio.
  • i. Each Tribune may issue only one such declaration of support or disagreement, but may change their declaration from one to the other, should they wish to do so.
  • ii. The initial pronouncement of intercessio by a Tribune shall count as that Tribune's declaration of agreement.
  • iii. Should the number or the Tribunes who choose to disagree with an intercessio equal or exceed the number of Tribunes who choose to support it, the intercessio shall be revoked.
2. Intercessio may not be imposed against statements of support for or disagreement with a use of intercessio that are issued pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
3. The issuance and function of Intercessio shall be defined according to procedures described by legislation passed by Comitia.
b. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against another Tribune using the same mechanism as described in paragraph IV.A.7.a.1. above;
c. To be immune from intercessio pronounced by other magistrates, except as described in paragraphs IV.A.7.a. and IV.A.7.b. above;
d. To be privy to the debates of the Senate, and keep the citizens informed as to the subjects and results thereof, in such manner and subject to such restrictions as may be defined by law;
e. To call the Senate to order;
f. To call the comitia plebis tributa to order, except when the Patrician order shall constitute more than 10% of the total population, in which case the power shall be altered to calling the comitia populi tributa to order;
g. To administer the law;
h. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.

III. Upon ratification of the Amendment to the Constitution by the Senate, any leges, magisterial edicta, or other official documents which refer to there being only two Tribunes are hereby amended to reflect the increased number.

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XLIV: Lex Vedia de liberis civium

I. ((Purpose))

This lex is hereby enacted to amend the Constitution of Nova Roma in such manner as to extend certain rights of Citizenship to children of Citizens who are not sui juris in their domicile, and to undertake alterations to Constitutional mechanisms and institutions appropriate to such a change.

II. ((Amendment to chapter II.A))

Paragraph II.A. of the Constitution is hereby altered to read as follows:

A. Citizenship
1. Any person 18 years old or older may apply for Citizenship.
2. Citizens may apply for Citizenship on behalf of their children or legal wards (as defined by relevant macronational law) under the age of 18. Such Citizens shall be known as impuberes.
3. Citizenship is open to anyone regardless of ethnic heritage, gender, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation.
4. Citizenship may be involuntarily revoked by those means that shall be established by law, or may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
5. Impuberes may have their Citizenship relinquished on their behalf by their parent or legal guardian (as defined by relevant macronational law) by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.

III. ((Amendment to chapter II.B))

Paragraph II.B. of the Constitution is hereby altered to read as follows:

B. The following rights of the Citizens who have reached the age of 18 shall be guaranteed, but this enumeration shall not be taken to exclude other rights that citizens may possess:

IV. ((Amendment to chapter II.D.3))

Paragraph II.D.3. of the Constitution is hereby altered to read as follows:

3. Each gens shall, through whatever means it may determine appropriate, have a paterfamilias (fem. materfamilias) who shall act as the leader of the gens and speak for it when necessary. The holder of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The paterfamilias may, at his or her discretion, expel members of their gens, or accept new members into it.
a. The paterfamilias may, at his discretion, exercise the rights ennumerated in paragraph II.B. of this Constitution on behalf of impuberes in their gens, with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II.B.3.) and the right to join the Ordo Equester (paragraph II.B.8.).
b. No impuberes may become paterfamilias of a gens.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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XLV: Lex Octavia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

The Lex Vedia de Ratione Comitorum Centuriatorum is hereby amended with the addition of the following paragraph in Section III.A: 1. In the event that, in an election for a magisterial office, there are not sufficient candidates elected to fill all vacancies in that office, the presiding magistrate may call for a follow-up election among those same candidates who failed to obtain that office in the previous election. For these follow-up elections, the 192-hour (8-day) requirement for the length of the Contio (official discussion period) shall be shortened to 24 hours.

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XLVI: Lex Labiena de intercessione

I. Pursuant to fulfill what is ruled in Paragraph IV.A.7.a.3 of the Constitution, this lex is enacted to define the process by which tribuni plebis may use their power of intercessio.

II. A tribunus plebis may use intercessio by making an official announcement to at least one of Nova Roma’s main communications fora (as defined by the Constitution) within 72 hours of the announcement of the item or action to be vetoed. The items and actions which tribuni plebis may use intercessio against are defined in paragraph IV.A.7.a.1 of the Constitution.

III. The issuance of intercessio shall place the item or action on hold, preventing it from being in any way effective, for 72 hours from the time at which the intercessio is announced.

IV. During this 72 hour period, other tribuni plebis may officially announce their agreement or disagreement with the particular use of intercessio.

IV.A. Such announcements shall be made to at least one of Nova Roma’s main communications fora, and shall be made to the forum in which the original announcement of intercessio occurred.
IV.B. A tribunus plebis who chooses not to state his agreement or disagreement with the use of intercessio shall be assumed to have abstained, and his abstention shall be counted neither for nor against the use of intercessio.
IV.C. The initial use of intercessio shall be assumed to be a statement of agreement with itself. Therefore, the tribunus plebis who initially issued the intercessio in question need not state his agreement with his own action.

V. Should more tribuni plebis agree than disagree with the use of intercessio in question, it shall stand, and the action which was vetoed shall be void. Otherwise, the action which was vetoed shall be allowed to take effect starting immediately at the end of the period allotted for tribuni plebis to state their agreement or disagreement.

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XLVII: Lex Cornelia de tabulis gentium novaromanarum agendis

Pursuant to the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.D.1 and II.D.3) The Comitia Populi Tributa of the People of Nova Roma hereby enact this lex concerning the registration of Gentes, Patresfamiliarum, and Matresfamiliarum with the Office of the Censors. (For the purpose of this lex, the use of the word paterfamilias will include both Paterfamilias and Materfamilias).

I. Each Gens shall be registered with the office of the Censors every year.

II. Registration of Gentes must be completed by the last day of June.

III. The censors must announce the opening of the registration period at least eight (8) weeks before the deadline on the official Nova Roma e-mail list.

IV. Patresfamiliarum are responsible for contacting the Censores using any of these methods:

A. Send an e-mail to the Censors via the official e-mail address of the Office of the Censors, which is censors@novaroma.org at the time of the passage of this lex.

B. Mail a written statement to the Nova Roma post office box.

C. Complete a form on the Nova Roma web site, the address of which shall be specified by the Censores at the beginning of the registration period.

V. The current official address of all Nova Roma Mail correspondence is:

Nova Roma P.O. Box 1897, Wells, ME 04090

At the time of the passage of this lex, the above address is the official address. If the official address changes in the future, the new mailing address should be utilized.

VI. When the deadline is reached, the Censors must publish a list of Gentes that have failed to register with the Office of the Censors. This list must be published on the official Nova Roma email lists, are currently located at novaroma@yahoogroups.com and novaromaannounce@yahoogroups.com.

VII. A Gens that has failed to register with the office of Censors is considered to have NO Paterfamilias. If there are other members of that gens the Censors must work with the Gens to select a new Paterfamilias.

VIII. A Gens that has failed to register with the office of the Censors, and which has no member other than its paterfamilias, shall be removed from the Album Gentium. Its former members shall be considered to belong to no Gens, and shall be given the nomen "Nemo". The nomen formerly used by that Gens will be considered unused and available for future applicants.

IX. Patresfamiliarum who are unable to communicate with the office of Censors may appoint a designate within the Gens to act as Paterfamilias. However, notification must be on file in the office of the Censor(es).

X. During the period of time when there is no paterfamilias in the Gens, the Gens will remain static. No new admissions may take place.

XI. While a Gens is still trying to pick a new paterfamilias, that gens will be listed as closed for new citizens' recruitment. The new paterfamilias must notify the Censors upon receipt of the position of Paterfamilias if he/she wants to reopen the gens for new members.

XII. The following are procedures that must be followed before individual(s) of a gens may be allowed to change gens affiliations due to Patresfamiliarum who are shown to be inactive and non-responsive as a result of the registration process.

A. Once a Pater has failed to respond, the Censores contact the other members of the gens and see if there is any of them willing to be a paterfamilias. The deadline for this process to begin is two weeks from the end of the registration period.

B. If there is just one responsive candidate, he is appointed as the new Paterfamilias, and the gens is then registered.

C. If there is more than one responsive candidate, a decision must be taken as to who the new Pater would be. The exact process for this would be left up to the gens to decide. If member of the gens report to the Censors that they are at an impasse the following two factors may be used to break the impasse:

1. If there is a tie between two members who would become the new Paterfamilias the Century point totals of the candidates would be used as the tie breaker.

2. If there is a tie in century points then the length of citizenship would be utilized to break that tie.

D. After the two-week period has expired, and no responsive candidate has come forward, those remaining gens members will be given the Nomen "Nemo." Each Gens member will be asked to either create a new Gens or join an existing gens. The nomen formerly used by that Gens will be considered unused and available for future applicants.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-28; No-6; Abstain-0

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XLVIII: Lex Cornelia de linguis publicis

I. Due to the increasingly inter macronational nature of the Citizenship of Nova Roma, it has become necessary for the official language policy of the Republic to be defined, in such a way that acknowledges our historical antecedents, practical concerns, and the sensibilities of all of our Citizens. To that end, this Lex Cornelia de Linguis Publicis is adopted.

II. Latin is hereby adopted as the official ceremonial language of Nova Roma. As such, it shall be used in rites conducted by the curule magistrates and appointed priests of Nova Roma on behalf of the entire nation, as well as other circumstances where it may be deemed appropriate.

III. English is hereby adopted as the business language of Nova Roma's central government. As such, it shall be used in official communications from and day-to-day business conducted by the central government (defined for purposes of this proviso as the Senate and non-provincial magistrates). Other languages may be used in such communications where deemed appropriate, but an English translation must accompany such communications.

IV. In order to accommodate the Needs of Citizens who do not speak English, or who speak English as a Second Language, and in accordance with section IV 9 of the Constitution, the Decuria Interpretum is established.

A. The Decuria Interpretum shall consist of ten Interpretes who shall be responsible for making official translations of all proposed Leges and Plebiscita, and all Edicta and official announcements made by the magistrates of Nova Roma, along with all Senatus Consulta. The Interpretes shall also be responsible for providing official translations of all Leges, Plebiscita, Senatus Consulta, Priestly Decreta, and Magisterial Edicta in force at the time this lex is passed. Each of the Interpretes shall have authority to appoint his own scribae. Should the position be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates are available, the Senate shall have the authority to appoint interpretes.

B. Each of the Interpretes shall be responsible for one language.

C. The Position of Interpres Latinitatis is established. The Interpres Latinitatis shall serve as the Caput/Magister of the Decuria Interpretum and shall provide aid to magistrates in complying with section II of this lex in addition to the duties of all members of the Decuria Interpretum.

D. Interpretes for the five non-English and Latin Languages most widely spoken in Nova Roma are hereby established. Until such time as the Senate determines which languages are most widely spoken, The Interpretes will provide translations of the French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish Languages.

E. The Language that the remaining four Interpretes shall provide shall be chosen by the Senate of Nova Roma.

V. In the event of linguistic differences between texts, the language that will be considered official in terms of interpretation shall be English.

VI. This lex does not effect in any way languages used in official or unofficial provincial fora, fora maintained by official Sodalitates, or private fora (including but not limited to email lists organized by private Citizens).

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-18; No-16; Abstain-0

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XLIX: Lex Cornelia Iunia de definitione intervallorum magistratuum

This law shall regulate the amount of times a person may hold certain elected magistracies during a specified time period.

1. No person shall hold the office of censor consecutively or more than twice in a five-year period. This exception to this provision shall be any censor suffectus who has served 6 months or less of his predecessor's term of office.
2. No person shall hold the office of consul for two years consecutively, or hold the office of consul more than twice in any five-year period.
3. No person shall hold the office of praetor or aedile consecutively, or hold any of the aforementioned offices more than twice in any five-year period. The exception to this shall be any praetor suffectus or aedile suffectus who has served 3 months or less of his predecessor's term of office.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa yes: 30; No: 4

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L: Lex Octavia de senatoribus

I. Membership in the Senate of Nova Roma shall be for life, so long as a Senator maintains a minimum level of activity, as defined herein.

II. Level of Activity Required.

A. A Senator is required to cast votes in at least one third of the sessions of the Senate during any calendar year. Should he or she fail to do so, he or she may be removed at the option of the Censores.
B. Voting by proxy shall be considered acceptable for satisfying these requirements if and only if the right of proxy is granted during the discussion period of the session for which proxy is granted.

III. Removal of a Senator.

A. The Censores are empowered to use their judgment when considering the removal of a Senator who has failed to maintain the minimum level of activity, and either to retain or remove that Senator at their option. The Censores should consider whether a valid excuse for failing to remain active has been offered.
B. The Senator to be removed has sixty days to appeal his or her removal to any magistrate capable of convening the Senate. A two-thirds supermajority of the Senate, excluding the Censores, is required to override the Censores and halt the removal.
C. An ex-Senator who has been removed may be later restored to the Senate by the Censores.

IV. Exemptions.

A. Censores, Consuls, and Praetores are exempt during their year in office, regardless of their participation level the previous year. Any Senator appointed less than six months before the end of the preceding year is exempt.
B. In recognition of their service to the Republic, any Senator who has completed a full term as Consul or Censor may be removed from the Senate if and only if he or she fails the test described in Section II for four consecutive years.
C. Any Senator who has served in the Senate for ten years is forever after exempt from removal for reason of inactivity.

V. This law shall go into effect on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVI

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa yes: 30; No: 4

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LI: Lex Cornelia de rebus ordinis equestris agendis

Currently the Constitution reads:

II. C. 2 - Ordo equester (equestrian order). The equestrian order shall consist of citizens who are engaged in the conduct of commerce (preferably with a Roman theme) who request and are granted entry into the equestrian order by the Censors. Such individuals are expected to contribute a portion of the revenue derived from Nova Roma back to the State, and receive reasonable encouragement in their enterprises in return. For purposes of participating in the comitia, holding office, etc. members of the equestrian order shall be considered to be of the patrician or plebeian order, depending on their status prior to inclusion in the equestrian order.

This would be rewritten to state the following:

II. C. 2 - Ordo equester (equestrian order). The equestrian order shall consist of citizens who are engaged in the conduct of commerce (preferably with a Roman theme) who request and are granted entry into the equestrian order by the Censors. Such individuals are expected to contribute a portion of the revenue derived from Nova Roma back to the State, and receive reasonable encouragement in their enterprises in return. Day to day supervision of venues where the Ordo Equester members are engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property will be under the jurisdiction of the Curule Aediles. For purposes of participating in the Comitia, holding office, etc., members of the Equestrian order shall be considered to be of the Patrician or Plebeian Order, depending on their status prior to inclusion in the equestrian order.

A new section will be added under the job description of the Curule Aediles:

1. To hold Imperium;
2. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, and in regard to the venues where the Ordo Equester members are engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
3. To pronounce intercessio against another aedile (curule or plebeian) or magistrate of lesser authority;
4. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
5. To maintain the venues where the Ordo Equester members are engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property. It is the responsibility of the Curule Aediles to report any changes of the Ordo Equester to the Censors.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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LII: Lex Octavia de sermone

I. Definitions

A. A "public forum" is defined as any system of communications where contributions from persons other than its maintainer are distributed or made available to other subscribers, including, but not limited to, mailing lists, real-time chat systems, and web-based bulletin boards.

B. "Moderation" refers to the exercise of powers provided by the software used to implement public fora to approve, reject, pre-screen, or delete messages, approve or reject pending subscribers, and perform other administrative duties.

C. A "moderator" is a person with moderation authority with regard to a particular public forum.

II.

The office of Curator Sermonis (also called Curator Sermonum) is hereby abolished.

III.

The Praetores are hereby given the powers and duties of moderators for all public fora sponsored or owned by the central government of Nova Roma, save for those exceptions listed below. They are empowered to use all moderation features provided, subject to Constitutional free speech guarantees, Tribunician intercessio, and any leges explicitly setting list policies. They may delegate such authority to their appointed scribae.

The Praetores are empowered to create and enforce policies of acceptable behavior in the public fora.

IV. Scope

A. Public fora under the jurisdiction of the Praetores shall include the general discussion mailing list (currently "novaroma@yahoogroups.com"), the announcements mailing list (currently "novaroma-announce@yahoogroups.com"), the web-based message board linked to from www.novaroma.org, any chat system in use on www.novaroma.org, and any other means of communications designated as "public fora" by the Senate, except as detailed below.

B. The web site www.novaroma.org and all sites maintained by elected or appointed magistrates as part of their duties are not considered public fora, except for any features of the site where users other than the maintainers of those sites may submit content for public consumption, such as "message boards".

C. The newsletter, including any part thereof where contributions are accepted from the public, is exempt and shall remain under the control of the Editor Commentariorum.

D. The communications channels of the sodalitates and provinciae are under the jurisdiction of those organizations and therefore exempt.

E. Fora administered by the Tribunes for the purpose of Plebeian discussion are exempt.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the title "curator differum" in Section IV. C. above has been changed to the current and more correct "editor commentariorum."

A. Tullia Scholastica, interpres linguae Latinae, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa in 05 June 2755, Yes: 25; No: 4

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LIII: Lex Cornelia de censu

Pursuant to the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.A. 4 and IV.A.1.b) the following law is hereby enacted to determine the accurate numbers of citizens who make up Nova Roma.

I. A Census of all citizens of Nova Roma should be done every 2 years. This would be the responsibility of the Censors.
II. The Nova Roma Census will last for a period of 8 weeks, and must be completed by the Ides of September. The start and end of the census period will be announced by the Censors on the NR website, official lists, and in the major forums. The official lists are currently located at novaroma@yahoogroups.com and NovaRoma-Announce@y...

Notification must also be published on the Nova Roma Message board.

III. The Census will consist of the following:
A. Active citizens are those citizens that do not need to be contacted by the Censors to determine if they are apart of Nova Roma:

1. Those citizens who voted in the main election (in December) shall be considered "censi." 2. Those citizens who have paid taxes for the current calendar year shall be considered "censi". 3. Paterfamiliae who have successfully responded to the yearly registration of the Lex Cornelia de Tabulis Gentium Novaromanarum Agendis shall be considered “censi”. 4. Persons who became citizens during the current calendar year shall be considered "censi".

IV. Inactive citizens are those citizens who fail to meet at least one of the conditions in IV ::A. The following will lay down some of the procedures to contact inactive citizens. Inactive citizens are those citizens who will need to be contacted by the National Census. The following methods will be used to contact inactive citizens:
  • 1. Bulk Email. At least two attempts should be done to contact citizen via this avenue.
  • 2. Individual email. If a Citizen email bounces back as invalid from the bulk email, the Censors shall send them an individual email to verify there was not a problem with an email service filter.
  • 3. Phone calls. If a Citizen is unreachable due to an invalid email address, the Censors shall attempt to contact them by phone. This may be done on the Provincial level under the direction of the Censors if possible.
  • 4. Surface mail. "Inactive" Citizens who are unreachable by email or phone shall receive a mailing from the Censors. This may also be done on the Provincial level if possible. Surface mail information should be forwarded to whatever official NR address is specified by the Censors. Surface mail information must reach the Censors before the Ides of September.

The Current Official address of all Nova Roman Mail correspondence is:

Nova Roma P.O. Box 1897 Wells, ME 04090

At the time of the passage of this lex, the above address is the official address, if the official address changes in the future; the new address should be utilized.

  • 5. A temporary banner and link will be put on the main NR website for the duration of the Census, where individual citizens may input their information to comply with the Census.
V. All communicated information pertaining to the Census shall be noted in a database on the Nova Roma Website, the address of which will be specified by the Censores at the beginning of the Registration Period. Citizen information may be inputted into this database by the Censores, their appointed assistants, or by the individual citizens.
VI. By the Ides of August, the Censors should post a list to the official email list of Nova Roma displaying the names of those citizens who have failed to respond.
VII. If a citizen fails to respond to the contact attempts, that person will no longer be considered a citizen of Nova Roma. His name will be stricken from the Album Civium and if he/she is a Pater/Mater, the Censors will abide by the Constitution, any laws, and any Censorial edict if the appointment of a paterfamilias is necessary. However, the Censors have the discretion to waive this clause if both Censors feel there are legitimate reasons for the citizen to remain incommunicado.
VIII. If a citizen who knows of an extended period of unavailability that will coincide with the census, he may contact the censors up to 3 months before the census is to begin to inform them of his active status and his desire to be counted in the census. Such contact will be considered by the censors as having fulfilled the citizen's duty to reply during the census period. Proxies are not permitted during the National Census effort.
IX. A former citizen may appeal to the Senate to have his removal from the Album Civium reconsidered. Such an appeal must be filed with the consuls within 90 days of the former citizens removal from the Album Civium. A 2/3rds vote of the Senate is needed to overturn the decision of the censors.
X. A budget is to be provided for the Censors' Office to offset costs for conducting the census. This budget is to be included only for the years that a Census takes place. The amount to be set aside would be established by the Senate of Nova Roma.
XI. The First Census will take place during the Consulship of Marcus Octavius Germanicus and Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (2755 AUC)

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LIV: Lex Cornelia Vedia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

I. All previous laws relating to the Comitia Populi Tributa are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the voting of leges by the Comitia Populi Tributa. This Lex Cornelia Vedia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum is hereby enacted to define the procedures by which the Comitia Populi shall conduct the business of electing magistrates and voting on leges.
II. Calling the Comitia to Order.

Either a Consul or Praetor may, as described in the Constitution, call the Comitia to order, to hold a vote on a lex or leges, or to hold an election. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.

A. This shall be done by making a public announcement announcing the call in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purpose, in which must be included:
  • 1. The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia is being called for an election);
  • 2. Date of Citizenship of each candidate.
  • 3. The full text of any leges which are being voted on (when the Comitia is being called to legislate),
  • 4. The dates when the members of the Comitia shall begin and finish voting,
  • 5. Any special instructions that pertain to the mechanics of the vote, if any.
B. The presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that candidates for a vote hold whatever qualifications are required by law. The Censors shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.
III. Timing of the vote.
A. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates before the People for vote.
B. During the Contio, the following conditions shall apply:
  • 1. Those constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio or nuntiatio.
    • a. The exercise of intercessio will remove an individual item from the vote, but voting on the other items will still be allowed.
    • b. The exercise of nuntiatio shall extend the Contio, postponing the start and end dates of the voting period by 24 hours, during which time nuntiatio may again be exercised.
    • c. Should the exercise of nuntatio cause the voting period to move such that it conflicts with calendarical restrictions as defined by the Collegium Pontificum, the presiding magistrate may change or extend the dates of the vote and/or contio at his discretion.
  • 2. A member of the Collegium Augurum shall be invited by the presiding magistrate to seek favorable auspices for the conduct of the vote, subject to those rules and regulations the Collegium Augurum shall set forth by decreta. Should the presiding magistrate himself be a member of the Collegium Augurum, he may take the auspices for the vote himself.
C. The period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 120 hours (5 days).
D. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum.
E. The rogatores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within 48 hours of the close of the voting period.
F. The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receiving the results from the rogatores, in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the vote was published.
IV. Voting procedures.
A. The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the censors shall make available to the rogatores a list of valid voter identification codes and the centuries and/or tribes with which they are associated. The rogatores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
B. In consultation with the rogatores, the curator araneum shall make available a cista; a secure web-based form to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the rogatores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Each Citizen shall have the opportunity to vote for a single candidate for each office for which a vacancy exists, regardless of the number of vacancies within a given magistracy. Citizens may cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot, or may waive their right to cast a vote for a given magistracy. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote.
V. Procedures for counting votes.
A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
  • 1. In the case of a magisterial election, each tribe shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of vacancies for the magistracy in question. Votes shall be assigned to those candidates who received votes by members of the tribe, with those candidates receiving the most valid individual votes receiving the tribe's vote first, then working down in descending order until all the tribe's votes have been assigned.

EXAMPLE: Four candidates are running for Consul. Each tribe casts two votes, because there are two vacant positions. In tribe III, there are 26 votes for candidate A, 32 votes for candidate B, 2 votes for candidate C, and 13 votes for candidate D. The tribe's two votes are cast for candidates A and B, since they received the two highest vote totals within the tribe.

  • 2. In the case of a vote on a lex, each tribe shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of the votes received by members of the tribe are in favor. Otherwise, the tribe shall be considered to have voted against the proposed lex.
  • 3. Should a tie occur within a given tribe, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner.
B. A vote or election shall be decided by a majority of the tribes.
  • 1. In the case of a magisterial election, candidates must receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes in order to win.
    • a. Should not enough candidates receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes to fill all vacancies, a new election shall be called within 30 days from the end of the current election.
    • b. Should more candidates receive votes from at least 18 of the 35 tribes than there are vacancies, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner.
  • 2. In the case of a vote on a lex, 18 of the 35 tribes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted.
C. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the rogatores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.
D. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

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LV: Lex Cornelia Octavia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

I. All previous laws relating to the Comitia Centuriata are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the voting of leges by the Comitia Centuriata. This Lex Cornelia Octavia de Ratione Comitiorum Centuriatorum is hereby enacted to define the procedures by which the Comitia Centuriata shall conduct the business of electing magistrates and voting on leges.

II. Calling the Comitia to Order. Either a Consul or Praetor may, as described in the Constitution, call the Comitia to order, to hold a vote on a lex or leges, or to hold an election. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.

A. This shall be done by making a public announcement announcing the call in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purpose, in which must be included:

1. The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia is being called for an election); 2. Date of Citizenship of each candidate. 3. The full text of any leges, which are being voted on (when the Comitia is being called to legislate); 4. The dates and time when the members of the Comitia shall begin and finish voting; 5. Any special instructions that pertain to the mechanics of the vote, if any.

B. The presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that candidates for a vote hold whatever qualifications are required by law. The Censors shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.

III. Timing of the vote. A. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates before the People for vote. 1. In the event that, in an election for a magisterial office, there are not sufficient candidates elected to fill all vacancies in that office, the presiding magistrate may call for a follow-up election among those same candidates who failed to obtain that office in the previous election. For these follow-up elections, the 120-hour (5-day) requirement for the length of the Contio (official discussion period) shall be shortened to 24 hours.

B. During the Contio, the following conditions shall apply:

1. Those constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio or nuntiatio. a. Intercessio may be exercised against either the entire election or vote, or against one or more individual items on the ballot. If there are any items on the ballot that have not been subjected to intercessio, voting on them shall proceed normally. The removal of an item from the ballot due to intercessio shall not prevent that item from being placed upon the ballot for a different vote at a later time. b. The exercise of nuntiatio shall extend the Contio, postponing the start and end dates of the voting period by 24 hours, during which time nuntiatio may again be exercised. c. Should the exercise of nuntatio cause the voting period to move such that it conflicts with calendarical restrictions as defined by the Collegium Pontificum, the presiding magistrate may change or extend the dates of the vote and/or contio at his discretion.

2. A member of the Collegium Augurum shall be invited by the presiding magistrate to seek favorable auspices for the conduct of the vote, subject to those rules and regulations the Collegium Augurum shall set forth by decreta. Should the presiding magistrate himself be a member of the Collegium Augurum, he may take the auspices for the vote himself.

C. The period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 120 hours (5 days).

D. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum.

E. The rogatores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within 48 hours of the close of the voting period.

F. The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receiving the results from the rogatores, in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the vote was published.

IV. Voting procedures. A. The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the censors shall make available to the rogatores a list of valid voter identification codes and the centuries with which they are associated. The rogatores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.

B. In consultation with the rogatores, the curator araneum shall make available a cista; a secure web-based form to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the rogatores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.

C. Each Citizen shall have the opportunity to vote for a single candidate for each office for which a vacancy exists, regardless of the number of vacancies within a given magistracy. Citizens may cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot, or may waive their right to cast a vote for a given magistracy. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote.

V. Procedures for counting votes. A. Votes shall be counted by centuries.

1. In the case of a magisterial election, each century shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of vacancies for the magistracy in question or the number of candidates who received individual votes from members of that century, whichever is less. Votes shall be assigned to those candidates who received votes by members of the century, with those candidates receiving the most valid individual votes receiving the century's vote first, then working down in descending order until either all the century's votes have been assigned, or there are no remaining candidates who received votes from citizens in that century. 2. In the case of a vote on a lex, each century shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of the votes received by members of the century are in favor. Otherwise, the century shall be considered to have voted against the proposed lex. 3. Should a tie occur within a given century, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner. 4. No candidate may win a century unless he or she has received at least one vote from a citizen within that century.

B. A vote or election shall be decided by a majority of the centuries.

1. In the case of a magisterial election, candidates must receive votes from a simple majority of the centuries casting votes in order to win. a. Should not enough candidates receive votes from at least a simple majority of the centuries casting votes to fill all vacancies, a new election shall be called within 30 days from the end of the current election. b. Should more candidates receive votes from at least a simple majority of the centuries casting votes than there are vacancies, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias, or if such shall not decide the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner.

2. In the case of a vote on a lex, a simple majority of the centuries casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. 3. "A simple majority" is hereby defined as "one half of the number of centuries casting votes, plus one". Abstentions are not considered votes, and a century in which all voters abstained shall not be counted toward this total.

C. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the rogatores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.

D. Only the aggregate votes of the centuries shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

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LVI: Lex Octavia de privatis rebus

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LVIII: Lex Octavia altera de comitiis centuriatis

This Lex is hereby enacted to set the number of centuries as required by Paragraph II.E.2 of the Constitution of Nova Roma, as amended by the Lex Octavia de comitiis centuriatis. In the event that the amendment does not pass, this lex shall be ineffective.

I. The number of centuries shall be determined by dividing the number of Assidui citizens by eight, rounding down. This calculation shall take place every time that a reallocation of centuries is performed by the Censores. If this calculation results in a number greater than 193, then there shall be only 193 centuries. If this calculation results in a number less than 51, there shall be exactly 51 centuries.

II. The Censores may determine the number of centuries in each class by edict, as previously established by the Lex Iunia centuriata. If the Censores choose not to do so, then the same proportions already in effect from the previous allocation shall be adhered to as closely as possible, in order to preserve the relative sizes of the classes. For purposes of this calculation, the century containing the Capite Censi shall be considered outside of any class.

III. The relative sizes of each class shall be initially set as follows:

  • Class I: Twenty-Nine percent of the Assidui centuries.
  • Class II: Twenty-Four percent of the Assidui centuries.
  • Class III: Twenty percent of the Assidui centuries.
  • Class IV: Sixteen percent of the Assidui centuries.
  • Class V: Eleven percent of the Assidui centuries, plus one century reserved for the Capite Censi only.

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LIX: Lex Salicia de prorogatione et cumulatione

Preamble. Pursuant to fulfilling the precepts set forth in the Preamble of the Constitution of Nova Roma and accordingly bringing our Res Publica as close as reasonable and possible to the political system of Ancient Rome, this lex seeks to reestablish the ancient prohibitions of prorogatio, continuatio and cumulatio.

I. This lex covers the presentation of candidacies for the different magistracies of the Res Publica. Only elected magistrates fall under the scope of this lex; appointed officials do not have to follow what is indicated below.

II. The election of new magistrates for the following year shall be announced by the consules for the Comitia Centuriata and the Comitia Populi Tributa, and by the Tribuni Plebis for the Comitia Plebis Tributa, before the Ides of November. Candidacies for these offices will have to be made public as established by the law before the Kalends of December.

III. In this first round of candidacy presentation, no current holder of a magistracy shall present his or her candidacy for that very same position (prorogatio). No individual shall present his or her candidacy to more than one magistracy (cumulatio).

IV. If, after the Kalends of December, a certain magistracy has a number of legal candidates that is lower than the number of offices to be filled, the period of presentation of candidacies shall be extended by an additional nundinum for that magistracy only. During this extended period, the provisions indicated in paragraph III of this lex shall be considered temporarily withdrawn for candidacies to that magistracy.

V. The consules shall ensure the application of this lex.

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LX: Lex Salicia de suffragiis in comitiis populi tributis

Preamble. Given that for some of the magistracies of the Res Publica, run-off elections have proved to be a frequent affair; and given that those run-off elections mean a serious waste of time and effort both for our magistrates and our citizenry, this law pursues to reduce the frequency of those run-off elections by increasing the number of votes cast by each citizen.

I. The Lex Vedia [Altera] de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum, paragraph IV.C is modified to read as follows:

"C. Each Citizen shall have the opportunity to cast a number of votes equal to one half of the number of vacancies within each magistracy, rounding fractions up. Citizens shall not be allowed to cast more than one vote for a single candidate. Citizens may cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot, or may waive their right to cast a vote for a given magistracy. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote."

II. The Lex Vedia [Altera] de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum, paragraph V.A.3 is modified to read as follows:

"3. Should a tie occur within a given tribe, the winner shall be the candidate who has received the vote of more tribes in total; if such shall not finally decide the issue, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias. If this second disposition does not finally solve the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The custodes may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner."

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the title "rogatores" in II. above has been changed to "custodes." The rogatores are no longer election officials; the diribitores count votes, and the custodes break ties and certify the elections].

[A. Tullia Scholastica, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

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LXI: Lex Salicia iudiciaria

PRAEFATIO.

The intent of this law is to establish a judicial system in Nova Roma, setting the legal procedures that must be followed to present a case to a court and to constitute that court. This judicial system shall be based on the imperium of the praetores, thus intending to fulfill article IV.A.3.b. of the Constitution of Nova Roma.

These procedures are based on the Roman republican procedural model, both because it probably is the model that best suits Nova Roma and because it is the basis for all the procedural systems of modern Western nations. Some concessions to Nova Roma's particular structure have had to be made; but, in spirit, it follows the ancient Roman procedure.

PARS PRIMA: DE PETITIONE ACTIONIS.

I. Any citizen of Nova Roma shall be able to bring an action against another citizen of Nova Roma. The plaintiff shall be addressed in this law as "actor". The defendant shall be addressed as "reus".

II. The actor must announce the action he is intending to exert to one of the praetores ("editio actionis"), and then the actor must ask the praetor to start the procedure ("petitio actionis"). The praetor shall decide, within 72 hours, if the petitio actionis shall be presented to a court or if it shall be dismissed. A praetor can dismiss a petitio actionis if and only if one of the following cases applies:

A. The praetor has no competence in the issue.

Example: a praetor can not mediate between two foreign parties, for his competence is limited to the citizens of Nova Roma.

B. The parties are not sui iuris in Nova Roma.

Example: a minor can not play the part of an actor.

C. The claim is incongruent.

Example: "Ticius must be expelled from Nova Roma because he is bearded" is an incongruent claim, for it is not supported by law, precedent or common sense.

III. If the claim is dismissed by the praetores, the actor shall be able to present his case again to the praetores in the future, waiting for two new praetores to be elected by the Comitia if necessary.

IV. If the claim is approved by the praetores, it shall be presented to a court of justice defined according to this law. The reus shall be informed of the nature of the claim presented against him and of the identity of the actor within thirty-six (36) hours after the claim's approval.

PARS SECVNDA: DE FORMVLA.

V. Once a claim has been accepted by a praetor, that same praetor shall prepare a formula to present to the iudices. The formula shall consist of a logical statement that instructs the iudices on the decision they must take. The formula shall be structured into four parts: institutio iudicis, intentio, demonstratio and condemnatio. An explanation of each part follows:

A. INSTITVTIO IVDICIS: This clause appoints a certain iudex to judge the case (see below).

B. INTENTIO: This part expresses the claim of the actor; i.e., it shall express what the actor seeks by petitioning the praetor. There are two kinds of intentio: intentio certa, when the facts that lead to the actor's claim are so obvious that they do not need to be proved, and intentio incerta, when the actor must prove the facts that justify his claim.

Example: Intentio Certa: "According to the contract signed by Titius..." Intentio Incerta: "If it is proved that Ticius owes Gaius 1,000 sestertii, Gaius shall pay Ticius that same amount".

C. DEMONSTRATIO: This is the clause that further defines an intentio incerta.

D. CONDEMNATIO: This is the clause that allows the iudices to condemn or absolve.

Example: a formula could be something like this: "Let Sulpicius be the iudex. If it is proved that Ticius owes Gaius 1,000 sestertii, you, iudex, shall condemn Ticius to pay 1,000 sestertii to Gaius; else, you shall acquit Ticius."

The clauses would be: Institutio Iudicis: "Let Sulpicius be the iudex." Demonstratio: "If it is proved that ..." Intentio: "... Ticius owes Gaius 1,000 sestertii ..." Condemnatio: "... you, iudex, shall condemn Ticius to pay 1,000 sestertii to Gaius; otherwise, you shall acquit Ticius."

VI. To write down a formula, a praetor shall use one of these three sources as a basis:

A. Lex: the intentio and the condemnatio shall never be in disagreement with the current laws of Nova Roma. They must follow these laws when the situation is explicitly treated by them.

B. Iurisprudentia: in those cases where the laws do not present an explicit treatment of a certain situation, a praetor shall create iurisprudentia (jurisprudence) applicable to all similar situations. Iurisprudentia is an expression of the Imperium of the praetor, and it has the same legislative power as a praetorial edictum. Because of this, laws approved by the Comitia shall always supersede iurisprudentia, and a certain praetor can alter previous iurisprudentia through an official edictum whenever common sense dictates that such a course of action is necessary.

PARS TERTIA: DE IVDICIBVS.

VII. Once the formula is ready, iudices (judges) shall be appointed from the album iudicum, a list of all the citizens that can legally judge a case. The album iudicum shall include the names of all the assidui citizens that have been citizens of Nova Roma for over a year.

VIII. The number of iudices that shall make up the tribunalis (court of justice) for a certain case shall be decided by the praetor according to the following guidelines:

A. The tribunalis shall be composed of ten (10) iudices whenever the intentio includes accusations of laesa patria (seriously threatening the well-being of the Republic), bribery, embezzlement of public funds, prevarication, electoral fraud, attacks to dignitas, slander or libel, or whenever the sententia might imply the loss of citizenship for one of the parties.

B. In all other occasions, the tribunalis shall be composed of a single iudex.

IX. The praetor shall aleatorily take a number of names equal to the number of iudices from the album iudicum. The following considerations apply:

A. If the praetor considers that some of the iudices thus appointed are obviously related by ties of interest to one of the parties, then the praetor shall, at his own discretion, dismiss those iudices and cast lots to appoint different iudices from the album iudicum.

B. A citizen thus appointed to a court shall be able to ask for an exemption from that judicial work if there are factors that do not allow him to serve in that position. The praetor must be asked for that exemption within thirty-six (36) hours of the official announcement of that appointment; the praetor shall grant that exemption at his own discretion, or he shall deny it, thus forcing the appointed iudex to serve or face an accusation of contempt.

C. Each party shall be able to dismiss a maximum of three (3) iudices, forcing a new iudex to be aleatorily taken from the album iudicum with each veto. Once both parties agree with a certain group of iudices, or both have already used their three vetoes, the remaining iudices shall be the final iudices, unless one of the preceding paragraphs applies.

D. If both parties can agree on a certain citizen(s) of Nova Roma to judge their case before a definitive group of legal iudices has been appointed, then the praetor shall include that citizen (or those citizens) among the iudices for the current case.

PARS QVARTA: DE IVDICIO

X. Once a tribunal has been appointed, the praetor shall inform the iudices of the formula that they shall apply. The praetor shall decide if the trial is going to be conducted under the public scrutiny or, should the dignitas of innocents be at stake, declare a secret summary and move the trial away from public scrutiny.

XI. Any of the parties can choose to appoint an advocatus (advocate or barrister) to speak for them in front of the iudices, or they can choose to speak by themselves. An advocatus shall not receive a fee for his services.

XII. The actor shall present evidence to back his demands, and then the reus shall present evidence to back his defense. Evidence shall consist of anything that is relevant to the case, including written texts, visual evidence, and the statements of witnesses or experts. In the case of statements, each party shall have the right to ask questions of the witnesses and experts presented by the other party.

XIII. The praetor shall be the final judge to determine what pieces of evidence are relevant to the case.

XIV. Once both parties have presented their evidence, each party shall have the opportunity to make one final statement in front of the iudices, with the actor speaking in the first place. Then the praetor shall call for a sententia (sentence) from the iudices, according to paragraph XV, reminding the iudices that, in case of doubt, they must *not* condemn the reus.

PARS QVINTA: DE SENTENTIA

XV. Once the praetor has called for a sententia, the iudices shall have seventy-two (72) hours to deliberate; within those seventy-two (72) hours, the iudices shall individually issue one of the following sentences:

A. ABSOLVO: if the tribunal's majority decision is "absolvo", the reus shall be acquitted.

B. CONDEMNO: if the tribunal's majority decision is "condemno", the reus shall be condemned according to the formula previously established by the praetor.

C. Should there be a draw in the tribunal's votes, the reus shall be acquitted.

XVI. Once all the iudices have issued their sententiae, the praetor shall immediately inform the parties of the sententia, and shall enforce any penalties through his imperium.

PARS SEXTA: DE POENA

XVII. In those cases where the laws of Nova Roma or the praetor's sense deem it necessary, the formula shall include one or several of the following penalties to be inflicted upon a convicted reus:

A. MVLTA PECVNIARIA: a fine payable to the treasury of Nova Roma. The convicted reus shall be counted among the capite censi until the fine has been paid.

B. DECLARATIO PVBLICA: the convicted reus shall publicly recognize the actor's intentio, in any public fora indicated in the formula. The convicted reus shall suffer inhabilitatio (see below) until the declaration has been made to the praetor's satisfaction.

C. INHABILITATIO: the convicted reus shall be disqualified from voting, holding a magistracy, or exerting a certain right for a set period of time or until a certain condition is met; any condition or time period must be explicitly stated in the formula.

D. EXACTIO: the convicted reus shall lose his Novoroman citizenship and all the rights and duties associated with it for a set (but not necessarily limited) period of time, or until a certain condition is met; any condition or time period must be explicitly stated in the formula.

PARS SEPTIMA: DE PROVOCATIONE AD POPVLVM

XVIII. In those cases where a sententia implies a loss of citizenship, the reus shall have the right to publicly claim a confirmation vote from the Comitia Centuriata. Once the reus claims this right, the consules shall call the Comitia Centuriata within fifteen (15) days to vote upon the reus's expulsion. Should the Comitia Centuriata confirm the sententia, the sententia shall be applied. Should the Comitia Centuriata vote against the sententia, the sententia shall be nullified.

XIX. Once a reus has been absolved, either by a tribunalis or by the Comitia Centuriata, he shall not be judged again under the same accusations.

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LXII: Lex Salicia de convocatione tribunicia comitiorum

Preamble.

In order to fulfill the article VI.7. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, this lex seeks to establish the procedures by which the Tribuni Plebis shall call the Comitia Plebis Tributa and the Comitia Populi Tributa to order.

I. The Tribuni Plebis shall always be allowed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order when the issues at hand concern the internal operation of the Comitia Plebis Tributa themselves, or to elect the plebeian magistrates.

II. In any other occasion, a Tribunus Plebis that wishes to present his proposals to the People shall first announce his intention on the public fora established by the Laws of Nova Roma for magisterial announcements and edicta. This announcement shall include a call for the Censores to publicly disclose the following information:

a. Current total number of ciizens of Nova Roma. b. Current number of members of the Ordo Patricius (Patrician Order). c. Current ratio between the two figures above (nº of Patrician citizens/total nº of citizens).

The censores shall have three days (72 hours) to present the required information. Should the censores fail to do so, and should the information not be easily available at the Nova Roma main web site (if it is available, the Tribunus Plebis shall use that information as if it had been provided by the Censores), the Tribunus Plebis shall consider that the numbers of the last summoning of the Comitia are still valid.

III. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing over a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Populi Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

IV. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens *not* exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing under a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

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LXIII: Lex Arminia de ratione edictorum

The purpose of this law is to determine the validity of the edicts of Novaroman magistrates.

I. This lex is valid only for those magistrates defined in the Article IV.A. of the Constitution, that is, the magistratus ordinarii.

II. An edict of a magistrate is valid only until the end of the year when that edict was issued. This includes the term of office of a scribe or assistant, which ends with to the term of office of the same magistrate.

III. An edict can be revalidated in the year following by a successor magistrate by means of another edict announcing which of the edicts will stand.

IV. When the names of the new magistrates are known after the annual elections, the Praetores will have four nundina (25 days) to present the valid edicts issued by the magistrates to the new magistrates.

V. After these four nundina, and with the new magistrates in office, the edicts not endorsed will be revoked.

VI. This law will be valid only after the next year, that is, 2756 AUC or 2003 CE.

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LXIV: Lex Salicia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis

Preamble. Given that for some of the magistracies of the Res Publica, run-off elections have proved to be a frequent affair; and given that those run-off elections mean a serious waste of time and effort both for our magistrates and our citizenry, this law pursues to reduce the frequency of those run-off elections by increasing the number of votes cast by each citizen.

I. The Lex Labiena de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum, paragraph IV.C is modified to read as follows:

"C. Each Citizen shall have the opportunity to cast a number of votes equal to one half of the number of vacancies within each magistracy, rounding fractions up. Citizens shall not be allowed to cast more than one vote for a single candidate. Citizens may cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot, or may waive their right to cast a vote for a given magistracy. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote."

II. The Lex Labiena de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum, paragraph V.A.3 is modified to read as follows:

"3. Should a tie occur within a given tribe, the winner shall be the candidate who has received the vote of more tribes in total; if such shall not finally decide the issue, the winner shall be the candidate who is a paterfamilias or materfamilias. If this second disposition does not finally solve the issue, the winner shall be decided by lot. The rogatores may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner."

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LXV: Lex Salicia de convocatione tribunicia comitiorum

Preamble.

In order to fulfill the article VI.7. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, this lex seeks to establish the procedures by which the Tribuni Plebis shall call the Comitia Plebis Tributa and the Comitia Populi Tributa to order.

I. The Tribuni Plebis shall always be allowed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order when the issues at hand concern the internal operation of the Comitia Plebis Tributa themselves, or to elect the plebeian magistrates.

II. In any other occasion, a Tribunus Plebis that wishes to present his proposals to the People shall first announce his intention on the public fora established by the Laws of Nova Roma for magisterial announcements and edicta. This announcement shall include a call for the Censores to publicly disclose the following information:

a. Current total number of ciizens of Nova Roma. b. Current number of members of the Ordo Patricius (Patrician Order). c. Current ratio between the two figures above (nº of Patrician citizens/total nº of citizens).

The censores shall have three days (72 hours) to present the required information. Should the censores fail to do so, and should the information not be easily available at the Nova Roma main web site (if it is available, the Tribunus Plebis shall use that information as if it had been provided by the Censores), the Tribunus Plebis shall consider that the numbers of the last summoning of the Comitia are still valid.

III. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing over a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Populi Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

IV. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens *not* exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing under a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

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LXVI: Lex Cornelia Octavia de assiduis et capite censis

Preamble.

The purpose of this amendment will be to revise section III. C of the Senatus Consultum on taxation and add an amendment to the Lex Vedia de Assidui et Capiti Censi, by placing all newly approved citizens in the classification of Capiti Censi.

This Lex has two key aims.

1. To modify the current status by placing all newly approved citizens in the classification of Capiti Censi.

2. To give new citizens the option to be reclassified as Assidui by paying the current year's tax in full.

I. All persons obtaining citizenship after this lex takes effect will have Capiti Censi status until and unless payment is made.

II. Any citizen of the Capiti Censi may become Assidui by paying the appropriate amount, as defined by Senatus Consultum. If payment is made during a contio or election, the change in status will take place after the election concludes.

III. Upon receipt of tax payment in full, the applicant is considered to assume the rights and privileges of Assidui as defined by the Lex Vedia de Assidui et Capiti Censi and the applicant will be allocated to a rural tribe and appropriate century allocation.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-18; No-13; Abstain-x

24 December MMDCCLV

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LXVII: Lex Fabia de censu

The Lex Cornelia de censu is hereby superseded by this Lex Fabia de Censu.

Pursuant to the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.A. 4 and IV.A.1.b) the following law is hereby enacted to determine accurately the number of citizens who make up Nova Roma.

I. A Census of all citizens of Nova Roma should be done every two (2) years. This will be the responsibility of the Censors.

II. The Nova Roma Census will last for a period of sixteen (16) weeks, and must be completed by Pridie Kal. Novembres (the 31st of October). The start and end of the Census period will be announced by the Censors on the NR website, official lists, and in the major fora. The official lists are currently located at nova-roma@yahoogroups.com and NovaRoma-Announce@yahoo.com. Notification must also be published on the Nova Roma Message board. The Censors shall also ask the Governors to announce the Census period on the provincial level.

III. The Census will consist of the following:

A.Those who meet any of the following criteria will still be considered citizens:

1. Those who voted in the main election (in November and/or December).

2. Those who have paid taxes for the current calendar year.

3. Patresfamiliarum who have successfully responded to the yearly registration of the Lex Cornelia de Tabulis Gentium Novaromanarum Agendis.

4. Persons who became citizens during the current calendar year.

5. Persons who have been successfully contacted as described in section IV.

B. Inactive citizens are those citizens who fail to meet at least one of the conditions in IV A.

1.The following will establish some of the procedures for contacting inactive citizens. Inactive citizens are those who will have to be contacted by the National Census.

2. The following methods will be used to contact inactive citizens:

a. Bulk E-mail. At least two attempts should be done to contact citizens by this means.

b. Surface mail. "Inactive" citizens who are unreachable by e-mail shall receive a mailing.

1)This shall be done on the provincial level by Governors and legati under the supervision of the Censors.

2) In those Provinciae where there is no Governor and in those areas not yet included in a Provincia, the Censors shall ask a Governor of the nearest possible Provincia to the residence of that inactive citizen to do this.

3) If this is not possible, it shall be done by the Censors.

4) Surface mail information should be forwarded to whatever official Nova Roman address that is specified by the Censors. Surface mail information must reach the Censors before Pridie Kal. Novembres (the 31st of October). The Current Official address of all Nova Roman Mail correspondence is:

Nova Roma P.O. Box 1897 Wells, ME 04090


At the time of the passage of this lex, the above address is the official address; if the official address changes in the future, the new address should be utilized.

c. Phone calls. If a Citizen is unreachable by e-mail or surface mail, he/she shall be contacted by telephone. This shall be done on the provincial level by Governors and legati under the supervision of the Censors. In those Provinciae where there is no Governor and in those areas not yet included in a Provincia, this shall be optional, and it can be done by the Governor of the nearest possible Provincia to the residence of the "inactive" citizen upon request of the Censors, or by a Censor himself.

d. A temporary banner and link will be put on the main Nova Roma website for the duration of the Census where individual citizens may input their information to comply with the Census. Further, the Censors shall recommend such a banner and link to be put on any other Nova Roman website (Provinces, Magistrates, Sodalitates).

IV. All communicated information pertaining to the Census shall be noted in a database on the Nova Roma Website, the address of which will be specified by the Censores at the beginning of the Registration Period. Citizen information may be entered into this database by the Censores, their appointed assistants, or by the individual citizens.

V. By Pridie Kal. Octobres (the 30th of September), the Censors should post a list to the official e-mail lists of Nova Roma displaying the names of those citizens who have failed to respond.

VI. If a citizen fails to respond to the contact attempts, that person will be considered a "Socius" (Ally), but not a citizen. If he/she is a Pater/Materfamilias, he/she shall lose this position immediately and the Censors will abide by the Constitution, any laws, and any Censorial edict if the appointment of a Paterfamilias is necessary. However, the Censors have the discretion to waive this clause if both Censors feel there are legitimate reasons for the citizen to remain incommunicado.

VII. If a citizen knows of an extended period of unavailability that will coincide with the census, he may contact the Censors up to three (3) months before the census is to begin to inform them of his active status and his desire to be counted in the census. Such contact will be considered by the Censors as having fulfilled the citizen's duty to reply during the census period. Proxies are not permitted during the National Census effort.

VIII. At any time, a Socius may contact the Censores and ask to regain his/her Citizenship, which will then be granted unless there are compelling reasons otherwise.

IX. In the Album Civium it shall be clearly indicated whether an individual is a Civis (citizen) or a Socius.

X. At the end of the National Census, postage or telephone expenses incurred by the magistrate will be reimbursed by either a monetary payment or a tax credit. All such payments or credits shall be disbursed in exchange for receipts, receipt copies and bills (if it is not possible to obtain receipts) and must be approved by the Senate.

It will be up to the Censors to choose which of these two methods to follow to compensate the other involved magistrates in the most economical fashion. Furthermore, it will be up to the Senate to authorize payout.

It shall be up to the Senate to choose which of these two methods to follow to compensate the Censors in the most economical fashion.

XI. A budget shall be allocated by the Senate to meet expenses to compensate magistrates involved in the Census.

XII. The First Census will take place during the Consulship of Caeso Fabius Quintilianus and Titus Labienus Fortunatus (2756 AUC).

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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LXVIII: Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

1.

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Centuriata are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the voting of leges by the Comitia Centuriata. This Lex Fabia de Ratione Comitiorum Centuriatorum is hereby enacted to define the procedures by which the Comitia Centuriata shall conduct the business of electing magistrates, voting on leges, and voting to convict or acquit citizens brought to trial before the Comitia Centuriata.

2. Calling the Comitia to Order.

Either a Consul or Praetor may, as described in the constitution, call the Comitia to order to hold a vote on a lex or leges, to hold an election, or to conduct a trial. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.

A

This shall be done by making a public proclamation announcing the call in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purpose, in which must be included:

1.

The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia are being called for an election);

2.

Date of Citizenship of each candidate.

3.

The full text of any leges, which are being voted on (when the Comitia are being called to legislate);

4.

The dates and time when the members of the Comitia shall begin and finish voting;

5.

Any special instructions that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.

6.

In the case of a trial, the name of the accused, and the charges and specifications of which they are accused.

B

The presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that candidates for a vote hold whatever qualifications are required by law. The Censors shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.

3. Timing of the vote.

A

The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates before the People for vote.

1.

In the event that, in an election for a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates elected to fill all vacancies in that office, the presiding magistrate may call for a follow-up election among those same candidates who failed to obtain that office in the previous election. For these follow-up elections, the 120-hour (5-day) requirement for the length of the Contio (official discussion period) shall be shortened to 24 hours.

B

During the Contio, the following conditions shall apply:

1.

Those constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio or obnuntiatio.

1.

Intercessio may be exercised against either the entire election or vote, or against one or more individual items on the ballot. If there are any items on the ballot that have not been subjected to intercessio, voting on them shall proceed normally. The removal of an item from the ballot due to intercessio shall not prevent that item from being placed upon the ballot for a different vote at a later time.

2.

The exercise of obnuntiatio shall extend the Contio, postponing the start and end dates of the voting period by 24 hours, during which time obnuntiatio may again be exercised.

3.

Should the exercise of nuntatio cause the voting period to move such that it conflicts with calendrical restrictions as defined by the Collegium Pontificum, the presiding magistrate may change or extend the dates of the vote and/or contio at his discretion.

2.

A member of the Collegium Augurum shall be invited by the presiding magistrate to seek favorable auspices for the conduct of the vote, subject to those rules and regulations the Collegium Augurum shall set forth by decreta. Should the presiding magistrate himself be a member of the Collegium Augurum, he may take the auspices for the vote himself.

C

In the case of a vote on a lex, the period between the start and end of the voting must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).

D

In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of an accused citizen tried before the Comitia Centuriata, the period between the start and end of the voting must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).

E

The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum.

F

The diribitores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within 48 hours of the close of the voting period; in the cases of a magisterial election, the diribitores shall also announce in the appropriate public fora various running tallies as provided in V.B below.

G

The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receiving the results from the diribitores in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the comitia was published.

4. Voting procedures.

A

The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the censors shall make available to the diribitores a list of valid voter identification codes and the centuries with which they are associated. The diribitores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.

B

In consultation with the diribitores, the magister aranearius shall make available a cista, a secure web-based form, to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the diribitores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.

C

In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark the each candidate "yes (uti rogas)" or to leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: "you may vote for as many candidates as you wish, but you are advised to vote only for those candidates you strongly support." In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have the option to vote "yes (uti rogas)" or "no (antiquo)." In the case of a trial each voter shall have the option to vote "absolvo" (I absolve, innocent), or "condemno" (I condemn, guilty). Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote.

5. Procedures for counting votes.

A

Votes shall be counted by centuries.

1.

In the case of a magisterial election, the votes of each century shall be calculated as follows. For each century, the candidates shall be ordered by the number of 'yes' votes they receive from voters in that century, the candidate who receives most 'yes' votes (ties being decided by lot) being numbered 1, and so on in descending order. If any candidates have no 'yes' votes from voters in that century, those candidates shall not be listed.

2.

In the case of a vote on a lex, each century shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of the votes received by members of the century are in favor. Otherwise, the century shall be considered to have voted against the proposed lex.

3.

In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of a citizen tried before the Comitia Centuriata, each century shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from members of that century are marked "condemno." Ties within a century will result in that century voting to acquit.

4.

The custodes may decide how decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner. In the case of trials, no decisions will be made by lot.


B

(the whole paragraph has been replaced by lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum July, 18, 2762 auc. The new applicable text is: )

In the case of magisterial elections, the voting period shall last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days), with all centuries casting their votes concurrently. Reports of the voting results shall be announced sequentially.

1. The Diribitores shall select by lot one century from among the first class centuries to serve as the Centuria Praerogativa. No century containing only one member shall be selected for this purpose.

2. Within forty-eight (48) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the Diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have cast votes thus far in the Centuria Praerogativa, and shall announce those results no later than 48 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

3. Ninety-six (96) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the Diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted thus far, and shall announce the results of only the first class centuries no later than 120 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

4. All voting shall cease after no less than 192 hours (8 days) have past and no more than 216 hours (9 days) have past after the beginning of the voting period. The Diribitores shall then tally all votes cast and within 48 hours later report the results solely to the presiding magistrate and to his or her colleague as per 3.F.


note of the praetura: Lex Curiata Iulia changes the previous proceedings. Now, every century may vote from the opening of the vote. The notion of prerogative century now just has consequences on first the tally and second the announce of the cast votes: first the prerogativa, second the first classes, third all the reminding ones.

C

Results shall be counted by century.

1.

In the case of a magisterial election, the results are calculated as follows.

1.

In the first round, the first (number one) preferences of the centuries are compared. If at this stage any candidate is the first preference of more than fifty per cent of the centuries (not including any 'void' centuries - centuries in which no 'yes' votes were cast), that candidate is elected. If no candidate has a majority of first-preference votes, then the candidate who is the number one choice of fewest centuries (ties being decided by lot) is eliminated. The election or elimination of a candidate ends the first round.

2.

If there still are vacancies to be filled, there is a second round in which each century which voted for the elected or eliminated candidate as its first choice is given to its second choice candidate. If any such century has no second choice, that century becomes 'void'. As before, if any candidate now has a majority of the centuries (not including any 'void' centuries), he or she is elected. If not, the candidate with the fewest centuries is eliminated. This concludes the second round.

3.

If there are still vacancies to be filled, each century held by the candidate who was elected or eliminated in the previous round is given to its second choice candidate or, if that candidate has been elected or eliminated, to its third choice candidate. Any century having no candidate as its next choice becomes 'void'. Any candidate who now has a majority of centuries (not including 'void' centuries) is elected, and if no candidate has a majority then the candidate with the fewest centuries is eliminated, ending the third round.

4.

This procedure is repeated until all the vacancies are filled.

5.

If at the end of any round the number of candidates is equal to the number of vacancies and all the candidates have the same number of centuries, the tie is decided by lot, but rather than eliminate the loser, the winner is elected, and the round ends.

2.

In the case of a vote on a lex, a simple majority of the centuries casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted.

3.

In the case of a trial before the Comitia Centuriata, a majority of the centuries most vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be convicted.

4.

In the case of a magisterial elections, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the number of centuries (not including 'void' centuries) plus one, fractions being rounded down".

5.

In the case of a vote on a lex, a "simple majority" is hereby defined as "one half of the number of centuries casting votes, plus one, fractions being rounded down". A century in which no voters cast votes shall not be counted toward this total.

6.

In the case of a trial before the Comitia Centuriata, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of centuries, plus one, fractions being rounded down."

Even those centuries in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total.

D

Votes may be tallied by automated means should the diribitores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.

E

Only the aggregate votes of the centuries shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.




Notes of the praetura :


1/ In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the titles of rogatores and curator araneum have here been changed to the current applicable diribitores, custodes, and magister aranearius. The rogatores are now registrars of new citizens working in the censor's office; the diribitores count votes, and the custodes break ties and certify elections [A. Tullia Scholastica, interpres linguae Latinae, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].


2/ The previous and original text of paragraph V.B. was the following one:

"In the case of a magisterial election, voting shall be sequential.

1. A century from the first class shall be selected by lot by the diribitores to vote first. No century containing only one member shall be selected for this purpose. For the first 48 hours of the voting period only members of that century shall be permitted to vote.

2. Twenty-four (24) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted so far according to the method set out in A.1 above, and shall announce the result no later than 48 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

3. Forty-eight (48) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the rest of the centuries in the first class shall be permitted to vote; members of the century selected under B.1 above who have not yet voted shall still be permitted to vote.

4. Ninety-six (96) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted so far according to the method set out in A.1 above, and shall announce the results no later than 120 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

5. One hundred twenty (120) hours after the beginning of the voting period, everyone who is eligible to vote but has not yet done so shall be permitted to vote. All voting shall cease no less than 216 hours after the beginning of the voting period."

[Pr. Memmius Nov. a.d. XVII Kal. Dec. 2762 auc]

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LXIX: Lex Salicia poenalis

PARS PRIMA: PRINCIPIA GENERALIA

1. Temporal Applicability:

  1. A crime is committed in the moment when the reus acted or, in the case of a crime by omission, failed to act.
  2. All crimes and their associated penalties shall be defined by the laws that are in force at the time of the commission of the crime.
  3. Should those laws change during the application of a punishment, the law that is most favourable to the reus shall prevail.
  4. A crime is actionable from the moment of its discovery; if no actor shall have filed an action alleging that the reus has committed the crime within five (5) years of the crime's discovery, at the conclusion of that five-year period the praetores shall accept no further action alleging that instant crime.

2. Application in Space and Duality of Legislation:

  1. A crime is committed in the physical or virtual place where the reus acted or, in the case of a crime by omission, failed to act.
  2. This law shall be applied in the land of the Republic of Nova Roma, within all the physical buildings owned by the Republic of Nova Roma, and in all the communication venues owned or used by the Republic of Nova Roma.
  3. Due to the very nature of Nova Roma's sovereignty, and following the duality principle defined in the Constitution of Nova Roma, many crimes shall not be treated directly by Novoroman laws. In those cases, the appropriate macronational laws shall be considered applicable as well as this law. The praetores shall be held responsible for denouncing those crimes to the appropriate macronational authorities, and all the magistratus of Nova Roma shall give their assistance in the performance of that duty.

3. Rights of Citizenship:

  1. For the purposes of this lex the following rights of citizenship, including those which may be impaired temporarily or abrogated permanently by conviction, are defined:
    1. Suffragium, to include:
      1. The right to vote in any or all comitia to which the citizen may legally have access. This right shall not be construed as permitting patricians to vote in the Comitia Plebis Tributa nor persons who have not been legally adlected to vote in the Comitia Curiata.
      2. The right to participate in contio; this right shall not be construed as permitting patricians to participate in contio in the Comitia Plebis Tributa nor persons who have not been legally adlected to participate in contio in the Comitia Curiata.
      3. The rights to bring actions under leges poenales and to give evidence therein. The right to bring actions under leges poenales may not be impaired or abrogated by conviction except by exactio for life.
      4. The right to fair trial by law for offence; this right may not be impaired or abrogated by conviction except by exactio for life.
      5. The right to possess or accumulate century points.
      6. Provocatio, the right of appeal to the Comitia.
      7. The right to the protections afforded by law; this right may not be impaired or abrogated by conviction except by exactio for life.
    2. Honores, the right to seek or hold public office, elective or appointive.
    3. Commercium, to include:
      1. Vindicatio, the rights to be party to civil actions under the law and to give evidence therein; the right to be party to civil actions under the law may not be impaired or abrogated by conviction except by exactio for life.
      2. In iure cessio, the right to make contracts.
      3. Mancipatio, the right to buy and sell property or services, including the use of any venue under the legal authority of Nova Roma to do so;
      4. Testamenti factio, the right to make testamentary instruments.
  2. The rights enumerated in this lex poenalis are not exhaustive, nor shall they be construed as limiting in any way rights granted under the Constitution of Nova Roma or other rights established by law.
  3. Action may be brought by any citizen for violation of any right enumerated in this lex, the Constitution of Nova Roma, or the laws of Nova Roma, except as a result of conviction for offence under law.
  4. Nothing in this lex shall be construed as constraining Nova Roman citizens from seeking macronational redress for actions which constitute offences under macronational law.

4. Penalty Determination and Principles of Reparation and Deterrence:

  1. Reparation and deterrence are hereby defined as the principles that guide the determination of penalties.
  2. The primary goal of all penalties shall be to secure for the affected party and, if the crime be against society, for the state fair reparation from the offender, proportionate to the harm done or intended and taking into account the circumstances of the offence and of the offender, in the form of apologies, services, compensation or other benefits. The form of the reparation should, if possible, be such as to directly put right the wrong done to the affected party and to society. Due weight shall also be placed on the need of society to deter the commission of offences.
  3. When writing the formula according to the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, the praetores shall choose a penalty that falls within the limits established by the laws of Nova Roma.

5. Commission by action or inaction:

  1. Crimes may be committed either by actively causing an illegal event or state of affairs or by allowing an illegal event or state of affairs to occur through inaction.
  2. A punishment due to inaction shall only be applied when the reus had a legal duty to act and, by omitting to perform that duty, caused a situation or created a risk to the detriment of others. An omission with intent to create such a situation or risk shall ordinarily receive a heavier penalty than one without such intent.
  3. For purposes of this lex, legal duties to act may arise from:
    1. The imposition of a duty by the constitution, a lex, a senatus consultum, an edictum or a decretum;
    2. Forming a contract in which a duty is stated or is clearly implicit;
    3. Standing in a familial relationship with another which implies a duty of care;
    4. Explicitly accepting a duty of care toward another;
    5. Causing or being responsible for a situation or sequence of events which is likely to be harmful or detrimental to others and being aware of one's responsibility.

6. Exclusion of Offence, Presumption of Innocence, and Burden of Proof:

  1. No act shall be punished when any of the following conditions apply:
    1. The reus acted in self-defence to repel an illicit violation of the legal rights of an innocent, including himself, through proportional and reasonable measures.
    2. The reus acted in exercise of his legal rights.
    3. The reus acted in compliance with a legal duty.
    4. The affected party (if different from the actor) explicitly approves the reus' action.
  2. A reus shall be presumed innocent until guilt is determined by the iudices beyond a reasonable doubt. If proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt is not presented, the iudices must acquit the reus.
  3. The burden of proof in any action is on the actor. No reus shall be compelled to testify against himself, nor shall a reus who willingly chooses to testify on his own behalf be exempt from cross-examination.
  4. Acquittal shall preclude any further action against the reus for the alleged instant offence.

7. Sui Iuris Status Requirement:

  1. Should a citizen who is not sui iuris under the laws of Nova Roma commit any infraction specified by this law, his pater/materfamilias or tutor shall be held accountable for inability to prevent commission of the infraction.
  2. Should a peregrinus, a non-citizen, seek to file an action under the laws of Nova Roma, he must accept in writing the jurisdiction of Nova Roma and agree to abide by the decision of the court; without execution of such an agreement, the praetor shall accept no actions filed by a peregrinus. If an action is filed against a peregrinus, that peregrinus will be afforded the rights of citizenship pertaining to fair trial for offences and the giving of evidence in the proceeding, if and only if the peregrinus shall execute in writing an agreement to observe the procedures of the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria and to accept and comply with the decision of the court. If a peregrinus refuses to execute the aforesaid agreement, the Iudices must issue a default judgment against the peregrinus. A peregrinus against whom a default judgment has been issued shall be banned from application for citizenship and from access to the public fora of the Republic of Roma Nova until the said peregrinus has accepted and met the terms of his sentence.

8. Representative action:

  1. Whoever perpetrates an infraction while willingly acting in the name of other(s) shall be held primarily accountable for the commission of the infraction; whoever instructs another to perpetrate an infraction shall not normally be held primarily accountable for the offence but may be charged with conspiracy.

9. Incitement, Conspiracy, and Attempted Offences:

  1. It shall be an offence to incite a person to commit a criminal offence, to conspire with another person to commit a criminal offence, or to attempt to commit a criminal offence. The penalty for incitement, conspiracy or attempt to commit a given offence shall be proportional to the severity of the offence, but may be less at the discretion of the praetor than the penalty for the actual commission of the offence.

10. Court Composition:

  1. Following the paragraph VIII.a of the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, and expanding it, all the crimes defined by this law shall be judged by a tribunalis composed by ten (10) iudices.

11. Contumacy:

  1. Whoever refuses to accept a penalty imposed by a legitimate Novoroman court shall be guilty of contumacy. If after thirty days the convicted reus has failed to perform the actions indicated in the sententia to the satisfaction of the praetores, the convicted reus may suffer EXACTIO for a maximum period of one year.

12. Legal Precedence:

  1. A praetorian formula can be vetoed by all the magistrates constitutionally empowered to do so. Once a sententia has been issued by a legal Novoroman court, since this court represents the will of the Comitia, only a vote in the Comitia may rescind a sententia by the passage of a lex. If the sententia includes EXACTIO, only the Comitia Centuriata can rescind the poena.


PARS ALTERA: DE CRIMINIBVS POENISQVE

13. Definition of Poenae:

  1. Article XVII of the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria is amended, to wit:
"XVII. In those cases where the laws of the Republic of Nova Roma deem it necessary, the praetor's formula shall include one or several of the following penalties to be inflicted upon a convicted reus:
A. MVLTA PECVNIARIA: restitution payable to a victim and/or a fine payable to the treasury of Nova Roma by a reus.
B. DECLARATIO PVBLICA: the convicted reus shall publicly recognize the actor's intentio, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma, in any public fora indicated in the formula. The convicted reus shall suffer inhabilitatio (see below) until the declaration has been made to the praetor's satisfaction.
C. INHABILITATIO: impairment or abrogation of some or all rights of citizenship, as defined in paragraph II. of the Lex Salicia Poenalis, of the convicted reus for a period of time or until a certain condition is met; any condition or time period must be explicitly stated in the formula.
D. EXACTIO: the convicted reus shall lose his Novoroman citizenship and all the rights, privileges, and duties associated with it for a period of time, or until a certain condition is met; any condition or time period must be explicitly stated in the formula."

14. CALVMNIAE (Libel and Slander):

  1. Whoever is proven to have made to a third party a false and defamatory statement about a person which has damaged the dignity or reputation of that person may be compelled to make a DECLARATIO PVBLICA: the convicted reus shall then present a public retraction and apology in order to restore the actor's dignity and reputation in one of Nova Roma's official venues within thirty days of the official announcement of the sentence.
  2. The convicted reus may be placed under moderation on Nova Roma's official communications venues for a maximum period of six months. The messages of a citizen under moderation may be censored; in those cases, the praetores shall publicly announce the censoring of the message, and shall provide the original message upon request to those magistrates entitled to use intercessio against the praetores' decision within twenty-four (24) hours of their announcement.

15. SOLLICITVDO (Electronic Harassment)

  1. The Lex Fabia on electronic harassment is hereby rescinded.
  2. It shall be an offence for a person who has sent messages of a disturbing nature by e-mail or instant message to a citizen to refuse to cease sending such messages when so requested by the recipient. Messages of a disturbing nature are those messages which cause fear or revulsion in the recipient and include, but are not restricted to, messages that are of an unwanted sexual nature, derogatory, or hateful.
  3. The praetor's formula may include any or all of the following poenae:
    1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma, and, if deemed necessary by the praetor's formula,
    2. MVLTA PECVNIARIA, compelling the reus to pay an amount to the sum of up to the sum of fifty dollars ($50.00) to the Aerarium Publicum;
    3. The convicted reus may be placed under moderation on Nova Roma's official communications venues for a maximum period of six months. The messages of a citizen under moderation may be censored; in those cases, the praetores shall publicly announce the censoring of the message, and shall provide the original message upon request to those magistrates entitled to use intercessio against the praetores' decision within twenty-four (24) hours of their announcement; or
    4. On second conviction for the offence, EXACTIO for a period not to exceed one year.
  4. Actions against official communications of the Republic of Nova Roma or its magistrates shall not be accepted by the praetor under this offence.

16. FALSVM (Fraud, Swindle, Perjury and Falsification):

  1. It shall be an offence knowingly and intentionally to provide false or misleading information to other persons or bodies in such a way as to hinder them in the fulfillment of their legal duties, to induce them to part with any property or surrender any right which is theirs, or to incite them to perform an action detrimental to their interests. This includes (but is not limited to) intentional lies in front of a legal Novoroman tribunalis and knowingly providing false information to a Novoroman magistrate.
  2. If any action detrimental to the interests of the state or its citizens follows from a falsum, that action shall be voided. Any damage created by the detrimental action shall be repaired, if possible, by the reus. The praetor may include in his formula instructions to other magistrates and provisions to repair that damage within the limits established by the laws of Nova Roma.
  3. The praetor's formula may include any or all of the following poenae:
    1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma.
    2. MVLTA PECVNIARIA, compelling the reus to pay an amount to the sum of the loss of the victim to that victim (even if different from the actor), and, if deemed necessary by the praetor, up to the sum of the loss of the victim to the Aerarium Publicum.
    3. INHABILITATIO from any of the following:
      1. The Ordo Equester for a period to be determined by the praetor's formula; and, if deemed necessary by the praetor's formula,
      2. Some or all rights of commercium for a period to be determined by the praetor's formula; and, if deemed necessary by the praetor's formula,
      3. Some or all rights of suffragium and honores, for a period not to exceed five years.

17. ABVSVS POTESTATIS (Magisterial Abuse):

  1. Whenever it is proven that a magistrate of Nova Roma has used his magisterial powers to act against the lawful rights of a person as defined by the laws and Constitution of Nova Roma, or to gain illegal advantages for himself or for others, the illegal action shall be voided. Any damage created by this illegal action shall be repaired, if possible, by the reus. The praetor may include in his formula instructions to other magistrates and provisions to repair that damage within the limits established by the laws of Nova Roma.
  2. The praetor's formula may include any or all of the following poenae:
    1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma.
    2. MVLTA PECVNIARIA, compelling the reus to pay an amount to the sum of the loss of the victim to that victim (even if different from the actor), and, if deemed necessary by the praetor, up to the sum of the loss of the victim to the Aerarium Publicum.
    3. INHABILITATIO from some or all rights of suffragium and honores for life;
    4. EXACTIO for life.

18. CONTVMELIA PIETATE (Offences against Piety):

Whoever incites in another person hatred, despite or enmity towards a person or group on the basis of the religious beliefs or practices of that person or group, or who in any other way infringes the freedom of another person to hold religious beliefs or to engage in religious teaching, practice, worship or observance, shall make a DECLARATIO PVBLICA and may also be moderated as in paragraph XIV.B. above.

19. AMBITVS ET LARGITIO (Voting Irregularities):

Whoever intentionally falsifies the outcome of a comitial vote, violates the secrecy of a comitial ballot, bribes or corrupts a comitial voter, obstructs a comitial vote or in any other way illegally influences the outcome of a comitial vote may be condemned to any or all of the following poenae:
  1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma.
  2. INHABILITATIO from some or all rights of suffragium and honores, for a period not to exceed five years;
  3. EXACTIO for any period up to life.

20. PECVLATVS (Fund Embezzlement):

  1. It shall be an offence to misappropriate or otherwise embezzle any part of the Aerarium Publicum or of the funds entrusted by the Senate.
  2. The praetor's formula may include any or all of the following poenae:
    1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma.
    2. MVLTA PECVNIARIA of not less than the amount misappropriated and not more than four times the amount misappropriated, to be determined by the praetor's formula.
    3. INHABILITATIO from some or all rights of suffragium and honores, for a period not to exceed five years.

21. LAESA PATRIAE (Treason Against the Republic):

  1. The definition of laesa patriae includes, but is not limited to, any overt act by a citizen which a reasonable person would conclude to be damaging or defamatory to the republic, its religio, or its institutions, including acts which may expose the republic, its religio, or its institutions to macronational legal action, if such act is not legally authorised by the republic or its agents, and/or acts which endanger the ability of the republic, its religion, or its institutions to perform its legal functions;
  2. The offense may be aggravated for purposes of penalty by any citizen who openly declares enmity to the republic, its religio, or its institutions in connection with an act described in (1); and that
  3. The penalty for laesa patriae shall be not less than deprivation of citizenship for one year nor more than permanent deprivation of citizenship, according to the formula of the praetor. Whoever acts in such a manner as to seriously and explicitly endanger the continued existence of the Republic of Nova Roma, its properties, its institutions, its constitution, or the position of the Religio Romana as the state religion shall suffer EXACTIO for a period up to life. No one shall be prosecuted under this offence for any legislative proposal or peaceful attempt to reform the State by means of legislation.

22. INIVRIA (Injury):

  1. It shall be an offence to intentionally strike a person or to damage or destroy his property contrary to law.
  2. If any action detrimental to the interests of the state or its citizens follows from a iniuria, that action shall be voided. Any damage created by the detrimental action shall be repaired, if possible, by the reus. The praetor may include in his formula instructions to other magistrates and provisions to repair that damage within the limits established by the laws of Nova Roma.
  3. The praetor's formula may include any or all of the following poenae:
    1. DECLARATIO PVBLICA, including an apology to the actor, the victim (if different from the actor), and the Republic of Nova Roma, as defined in paragraph XIII.A. above.
    2. MVLTA PECVNIARIA, compelling the reus to pay an amount to the sum of the loss of the victim to that victim (even if different from the actor), and, if deemed necessary by the praetor, up to the sum of the loss of the victim to the Aerarium Publicum.
    3. INHABILITATIO from some or all rights of suffragium and honores, for a period not to exceed five years;
    4. EXACTIO for any period up to life.

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LXX: Lex Labiena de praetoribus agendis in loco parentium

1. Any citizen who is 18 years of age or older and unable to contact a paterfamilias or materfamilias (hereinafter referred to as the paterfamilias) may present a petition to a praetor.

2. Upon receiving such a petition, the praetor may either dismiss the petition or summon the paterfamilias to answer the petition. The summons shall be delivered to the last known e-mail address of the paterfamilias and published on Nova Roma's official mailing list. The praetor is free to pursue other courses of action in an effort to contact the paterfamilias as the praetor sees fit.

3. If the paterfamilias responds to the summons within 45 days, the petition shall be dismissed.

4. If the paterfamilias fails to respond to the summons within 45 days, the praetor shall have the authority to act in loco parentis and approve or deny the petition.

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LXXI: Lex Labiena de custodia perpetua fori

In the event that no praetor is elected during Nova Roma's yearly elections for magistrates, the praetors of the preceding year, along with any scribae they have appointed for the task, shall continue to act as the moderators of the main list until a praetor is elected to take their place.

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LXXII: Lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis

1. Membership:

  • 1. The citizens of Nova Roma have the right to form local communities. These local communities shall have internal autonomy to the extent stated in this law.
  • 2. Every citizen of Nova Roma living within the geographical limits of a certain local community (as defined by its "foedus" (charter)) shall have the right to be a member of that local community. No one who does not live within those geographical limits shall be a member of that local community.
  • 3. Every member of a local community shall have the right to relinquish his or her membership in that local community without losing any of his or her rights as a citizen of Nova Roma.
  • 4. Loss of Nova Roman citizenship shall involve loss of membership in a local community.
  • 5. Subject to the above requirements, every local community has the right to determine its own membership.

2. Features of local communities:

  • 1. In order to receive official approval by Nova Roma a local community must have the following features:
    • 1. An "Album Civium" (roll of citizens) that lists the names of the citizens of Nova Roma who are also members of the local group.
    • 2. Local "comitia" (an assembly) of citizens.
    • 3. A "tabularium" (law repository) to keep the local laws approved by the local comitia and the edicta issued by local magistrates.
    • 4. A certain number of local magistrates.
  • 2. According to their size, there shall be two kinds of local groups:
    • 1. An "oppidum" shall be a local group of at least five members.
    • 2. A "municipium" shall be a local group of at least thirty-five members.

3. Approval of local communities:

  • 1. Approval of an oppidum:
    • 1. In order to gain official approval as an oppidum, a group of five or more citizens of Nova Roma shall present a "foedus" (charter) to the provincial governor. If the requirements in III.a.2 are met, the governor may approve the foedus by edictum.
    • 2. The foedus shall clearly define the following: the official name of the oppidum; its geographical limits; the existence of comitia oppidana; the titles, duties and rights of its magistrates; the procedures for the election of its magistrates; the procedures for the maintenance of its album civium.
    • 3. Once he has approved the foedus of the oppidum, the governor shall appoint two provisional "aediles" to handle the election of the oppidum's first magistrates from among the citizens of the oppidum. Those provisional aediles shall arrange and conduct a legal election within sixty days from their appointment. Their office shall expire on election of regular aediles.
    • 4. The governor must be informed of any change to the oppidum's foedus, and shall then, after any appropriate discussions with the oppidum, issue an edictum either endorsing the change or withdrawing official approval from the oppidum.
    • 5. The provincial governor may at any time rescind the approval of an oppidum.
    • 6. The provincial governor is answerable to the Senate for his actions concerning the matters in III.a.
    • 7. In countries sine provinciis, the Senate may appoint a representative to act in a governor's stead.
    • 8. Acting as the Board of Directors, the Senate may recognise oppida as local chapters of Nova Roma in order to allow them to benefit from Nova Roma's status as a non-profit-organisation.
  • 2. Approval of a municipium:
    • 1. In order to gain official approval as a municipium, a group of thirty-five or more citizens of Nova Roma shall present a "foedus" (charter) to the provincial governor. The governor shall forward the foedus unchanged to the consules, who shall present it to the Senate. The governor may add a recommendation which shall be presented to the Senate along the foedus.
    • 2. The foedus shall clearly define the following: the official name of the municipium; its geographical limits; the existence of comitia municipalia; the titles, duties and rights of its magistrates; the procedures for the election of its magistrates; the procedures for the maintenance of its album civium.
    • 3. Once the foedus has been approved by the Senate, it shall have the legal precedence of a senatus consultum for purposes of legal precedence under article I.B. of the constitution.
    • 4. Once the foedus has been approved by the Senate, the governor shall appoint provisional "duumviri" to handle the election of the municipium's first magistrates from among the citizens of the municipium. Those provisional duumviri shall arrange and conduct a legal election within sixty days from their appointment. Their office shall expire on election of regular duumviri.
    • 5. The foedus shall then be presented to the comitia municipalia for ratification as a lex municipalis.
    • 6. The Senate must be informed of any change to the municipium's foedus, and shall then, after any appropriate discussions with the municipium, issue a senatus consultum either endorsing the change or withdrawing official approval from the municipium.
    • 7. The Senate may at any time rescind the approval of a municipium.
    • 8. Acting as the Board of Directors, the Senate may recognise municipia as local chapters of Nova Roma in order to allow them to benefit from Nova Roma's status as a non-profit-organisation.
    • 9. In countries sine provinciis, the foedus may be presented directly to the consules.

4. Comitia:

  • 1. In order to meet the requirements of II.a.2 a local community must have local comitia (an assembly of its members) as described in this paragraph. In the case of an oppidum, these local comitia shall be called "comitia oppidana", in the case of a municipium, they shall be called "comitia municipalia".
  • 2. Voting in a "comitia oppidana" or "comitia municipalia" shall require physical presence of the voter in the place where the "comitia oppidana" or "comitia municipalia" are being held.
  • 3. The local comitia shall elect all local magistrates and enact leges (called "leges oppidanae" or "leges municipales" as appropriate) binding upon the members of the local community.
  • 4. The local comitia shall be called to order by the highest ranking magistrate of the local community (as defined in the foedus) through an edictum.
  • 5. All the members of a local community shall have the right to speak and vote in its comitia.
  • 6. The local comitia shall be called to order at least once every three months for informational sessions.

5. Legal precedence:

  • 1. Leges approved by the comitia of a local community shall have precedence over edicta of local magistrates of that community.
  • 2. Leges approved by the comitia of a local community and edicta issued by local magistrates shall take a lower precedence than the constitution and laws of Nova Roma, the senatus consulta of the Senate of Nova Roma, the edicta of magistrates of Nova Roma (including the provincial governor), and the decreta of the pontifical and augural colleges of Nova Roma.
  • 3. The actions of local comitia and magistrates shall be subject to intercessio by the provincial governor and by the tribuni plebis and curule magistrates of Nova Roma in accordance with the constitution and the laws of Nova Roma.
  • 4. Local magistrates shall be considered under the authority of their provincial governor in terms of authority conflict.

6. Local Magistrates:

  • 1. In order to meet the requirements of II.a.4 a local community must have at least two magistrates as described in this paragraph.
  • 2. The highest ranking magistrates of an oppidum shall use the title "aediles", those of a municipium shall use the title "duumviri". These offices shall be collegial magistracies composed of two members of equal power.
  • 3. In the case of a municipium, the foedus may also define a "decuria municipalis" (local senate).
  • 4. The local magistrates defined by the foedus may have the following rights and duties:
    • 1. To issue those edicta necessary to carry out those tasks which they are mandated by the law to engage in (such edicta being binding upon themselves as well as the other members of the local community);
    • 2. To call the local comitia to order;
    • 3. To pronounce intercessio against another local magistrate of equal or lesser authority;
    • 4. To maintain the local album civium and the tabularium;
    • 5. To appoint scribae to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
  • 5. The foedus may define different levels of power and authority for the local magistrates within the limits established in VI.a and VI.c.
  • 6. Local magistrates will be elected by the comitia of the local community annually.

7. A local group based in the city of Rome, Italy, shall use the title "urbs" in order to recognize Rome's glorious past.

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LXXIII: Lex Didia Gemina de potestate tribunicia

I. IVS SENATVS CONVOCANDI (The Right of Convoking the Senate).

Any Tribunus Plebis may call the Senate to order as set forth in the Constitutio, article IV. VII. D. I, and therefore follows the rules governing internal procedures of the Senatus as article V. F of the Constitution states.

II. IVS AUXILI FERENDI (The Right of Bringing Assistance)

A. Since the Ius Auxili Ferendi is a fundamental prerogative of a Tribunus Plebis as set forth in IV. 7. A of our Constitutio, in order for an act of intercessio to be valid the following procedure must be followed whether it is requested by a citizen or performed in his official capacity.

1. When a Tribunus Plebis issues an intercessio, it must include the following elements in a reasoned exposition in which the Tribunus shall note whether the auxilium was requested or ex-officio:
  • a. The official name(s) of the citizen(s) who has requested the Tribunus Plebis to issue the intercessio, or the official name(s) of the citizen(s) on whose behalf the Tribunus has provided auxilium ex officio.
  • b. The official name and office of the magistrate(s) against whose act or acts the intercessio or auxilium has been interposed.
  • c. The article(s) of the Constitution or the leges violated by the magistrate's act(s).
2. If the intercessio of a Tribunus Plebis does not include these three elements, the intercessio shall be invalid. The time constraints of the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall continue to hold such that, if a new intercessio is not issued before the seventy-two hour limit, counted from the act(s) which occasioned the original intercessio, the Tribunus Plebis shall issue no new intercessio pertaining to that act or those acts.
3. When a Tribunus Plebis issues an intercessio against the act(s) of another Tribunus Plebis, it must include the following elements:
  • a. The official name and office of the Tribunus Plebis against whose act(s) that intercessio is interposed.
  • b. The article(s) of the Constitution or the leges violated by the Tribunus Plebis' act(s).
4. If the intercessio of a Tribunus Plebis does not include these two elements, the intercessio shall be invalid. The time constraints of the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall continue to hold such that, if a new intercessio is not issued before the seventy-two hour limit, counted from the act(s) which occasioned the original intercessio, the Tribunus Plebis shall issue no new intercessio pertaining to that act or those acts.
5. When a Tribunus Plebis shall issue an intercessio or provide auxilium, the procedures for ratification or voiding by the other Tribuni Plebis specified in the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall be followed. There shall be no requirement that a Tribunus Plebis issue any statement on the matter at hand except agreement or disagreement with the original intercessio/auxilium.

B. When administering the law in accordance with Article IV. A. 7. d. iii of the Constitution, a Tribunus Plebis must adjudicate in accordance with current law and the iurisprudentia established by the Praetor and serve the interests of the Plebs and the citizens of Nova Roma.

C. Resolving Disputes Among the Plebs.

A Tribunus Plebis shall arbitrate disputes between plebeian citizens if the parties involved so agree. If any party shall refuse to agree to such arbitration, the Tribunus Plebis shall refer the matter to the Praetor for adjudication under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. If the parties agree to arbitration by a Tribunus Plebis, they shall accept the decision of the Tribunus and may not seek further relief under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The Tribunus Plebis who shall arbitrate the dispute will be chosen by an agreement of the parties. If there is no agreement, the oldest Tribunus Plebis will arbitrate the dispute.

III. TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS (Tribunician Power).

The office of Tribunus Plebis is Sacred in the Republic and endowed on this account with the following powers:

A. Summa Coercendi Potestas.

Any citizen or magistrate who interferes with the official action(s) of a Tribunus Plebis shall be fined by that Tribunus with a multa pecuniaria of no more than thirty U.S. dollars ($30.00), paid to the treasury of Nova Roma and devoted to Ceres. Such a penalty cannot be suspended or revoked except by intercessio of another Tribunus Plebis, or a Praetorian appraisal which should permit the fined citizen further recourse at law under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The right of provocatio will be respected as Article II. B. 5 of the constitution states.

B. Potestas Sacrosancta.

Any citizen or magistrate who shall do violence to a Tribunus Plebis in the course of his official duties or refuse to abide by a legal exercise of intercessio shall be brought before the Praetores and judged in accordance with the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The severity of the poena shall be determined in the Praetor's formula in accordance with the severity of the offence. The trial for this offence should be completed within sixty days of submission of the petitio actionis to the Praetor by the Tribunus Plebis, respecting Praetor's use of his discretion on dates. Completion of the term of office of the actor Tribunus Plebis shall not affect trial for an offence for which a petitio actionis has been filed prior to the completion of that Tribunus Plebis' term.

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LXXIV: Lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

I. ((Repeal))

The Lex Salicia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis is hereby repealed.

II. ((Repeal))

The Lex Labiena de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum is hereby repealed.

III. ((Conflict with previous leges))

Any other previously enacted Leges and Edicta concerning voting in the Comitia Plebis Tributa are considered valid where the contents of those Leges and Edicta do not conflict with the LEX MORAVIA DE SVFFRAGIIS IN COMITIIS PLEBIS TRIBVTIS ET RATIONE COMITIORVM PLEBIS TRIBVTORVM. Where they are in conflict, the LEX MORAVIA DE SVFFRAGIIS IN COMITIIS PLEBIS TRIBVTIS ET RATIONE COMITIORVM PLEBIS TRIBVTORVM shall supersede.

IV. Calling the Comitia to Order

As described in the Constitution, a Tribunis Plebis may call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order, to hold a vote on a plebiscite or plebiscites, or to hold an election. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.

A. The Comitia Plebis Tributa shall be called to order by making a public announcement in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purposes. The announcement must include:
1. The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia Plebis Tributa are being called for magisterial elections).
2. Date of Citizenship of each candidate.
3. The full text of any plebiscite(s) which will be voted on (when the Comitia Plebis Tributa is being called to vote on legislation).
4. In the case of a trial, the name of the accused, and the charges and specifications of which they are accused.
5. The dates on which the contio shall begin and end, and the dates on which the members of the Comitia Plebis Tributa shall begin and end voting.
6. The dates appropriate for voting according to the guidelines set by the Collegium Pontificum.
7. Special instructions that are relevant to the mechanics of the vote, if any.
B. In the case of a magisterial election, the presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that the candidates meet all candidacy requirements as established by law. The Censores shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.

V. Timing of the Vote

A. (Sub-section repealed by the Lex Arminia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum) Before calling the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order, the presiding magistrate shall request of the Collegium Augurum that the auspices be taken to ensure that the contio and voting dates are auspicious. This shall be done approximately five (5) days before the presiding magistrate plans on calling the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order. This request shall include:
1. In the case of legislation, the full text of the proposed plebiscite(s) to be voted on.
2. In the case of a magisterial election, the full names of the candidates and the offices for which they are running.
3. In the case of a trial, the name of the accused, and the charges and specifications of which he or she is accused.
4. The proposed dates of the contio and the voting.
B. (Sub-section repealed by the Lex Arminia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum) Should the auspices be favourable, the presiding magistrate shall call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order.
C. (Sub-section repealed by the Lex Arminia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum) Should the auspices be found unfavourable, the presiding magistrate shall choose new dates and shall request of the Collegium Augurum that the auspices be retaken (including the items mentioned in V.A.1, 2, 3 & 4 above).
D. The announcement containing the call to vote shall be issued a minimum of 72 hours (3 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates on which the citizens of the Comitia Plebis Tributa shall vote.
In the event that, in an election for a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates elected to fill all vacancies in that office, the presiding magistrate may call for a follow-up election among those same candidates who failed to obtain that office in the previous election. For these follow-up elections, the 120-hour (5-day) requirement for the length of the Contio shall be shortened to twenty-four (24) hours.
E. During the Contio, those Constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio, nuntiatio or obnuntiatio.
Intercessio may be exercised against either the entire election or vote, or against one or more individual items on the ballot. If there are any items on the ballot that have not been subjected to intercessio, voting on them shall proceed normally. The removal of an item from the ballot due to intercessio shall not prevent that item from being placed upon the ballot for a vote at a later time.
F. The period between the start and end of the voting in a magisterial election or on plebiscite(s) must last a minimum of 120 hours (5 days).
G. In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of an accused citizen tried before the Comitia Plebis Tributa, the period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 192 hours (8 days).
H. No citizen who is registered as a patrician by the Censors shall be permitted to cast a vote in the Comita Plebis Tributa.
I. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. The presiding magistrate shall then by decree extend or move the original start and ending times of the contio and/or voting times.
J. The diribitores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within forty-eight (48) hours of the close of the voting period.
K. The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within forty-eight (48) hours of receiving the results from the diribitores, in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the vote was published.

VI. Voting Procedures for Magisterial Elections

A. The Censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the Censors shall make available to the diribitores a list of valid voter identification codes and the tribes with which they are associated. The diribitores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
B. In consultation with the diribitores, the magister aranearius shall make available a cista, a secure web-based form, to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification code and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the diribitores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Each voter shall be given opportunity to cast his or her vote in the following manner:
1. The ballot shall consist of a listing of the candidates for office listed in alphabetical order based on the candidates' nomina, praenomina, and, where applicable, cognomina and agnomina. The list shall be placed on the ballot in a single column.
2. Beside the name of each candidate the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the candidate.
3. A voter may vote for the number of candidates equal to the number of vacant positions. A voter may choose to vote for only some of the candidates or none of the candidates.
4. There shall be an area on the ballot for a write-in candidate should the voter wish to cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot.
5. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive their right to cast any votes for a given magistracy.
6. Once cast, no vote can be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should a voter cast subsequent ballots with the same voter identification code, only the first ballot shall be counted and all subsequent ballots shall be considered null and void.
D. Procedures for counting votes.
1. Votes shall be according to tribes.
2. Each tribe shall cast the number of votes equal to the number of vacancies available for a given office. The vote of the tribe shall be counted as the candidates who receive the highest amount of votes equal to the number of vacancies within that tribe.
3. The candidates equal to the number of vacancies who receive the highest amount of tribal votes shall be declared elected.
4. Should there not be enough candidates to fill all of the vacancies, a new election shall be called within thirty (30) days from the end of the current election following the procedures stated in V. above.
5. Ties within the tribe shall be resolved as follows:
a. The tied candidates shall have their ties resolved by awarding the tied tribe to the candidate(s) that received the most votes of the Tribes in total.
b. If the above does not settle the tie then the custodes are instructed to cast lots in a manner that gives each tied candidate equal odds of winning the tie.
c. Should a tie occur between candidates in excess of the number of vacancies the ties shall be resolved in the same manner as stated above (VI. D. 2. i. and VI. d. 2. ii)

VII. Voting Procedures for Plebiscites

A. The Censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code is to be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the Censors shall make available to the diribitores a list of valid voter identification codes and the tribes with which they are associated. The diribitores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
B. In consultation with the diribitores, the magister aranearius shall make available a cista, a secure web-based form, to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification code and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the diribitores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. The ballot shall be constructed as follows:
1. The full text of the plebiscite(s) shall appear on the ballot.
2. Beside the title of each plebiscite, the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the plebiscite.
3. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive their right to cast a vote for a given plebiscite(s).
4. Once cast, no vote can be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should a voter cast subsequent ballots with the same voter identification code, only the first ballot shall be counted and all subsequent ballots shall be considered null and void.
D. Procedures for counting votes.
1. Votes shall be counted according to tribes.
2. Should a majority of the votes within a tribe approve of the plebiscite(s) that tribe shall cast one vote of approval for that plebiscite(s).
3. Should a majority of the votes within a tribe disapprove the plebiscite(s) or a tie occur within that tribe, that tribe shall cast one vote of disapproval for that plebiscite(s).
E. (Sub-section repealed by the Lex Arminia de Suffragiis in Comitiis Tributis) In order for a plebiscite to be enacted as law the plebiscite must receive approval of no fewer than 18 of the 35 tribes.

VIII. Voting Procedures in the case of a Trial

A. The Censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code is to be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the Censors shall make available to the diribitores a list of valid voter identification codes and the tribes with which they are associated. The diribitores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.
B. In consultation with the diribitores, the magister aranearius shall make available a cista, a secure web-based form, to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the diribitores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required
C. The ballot shall be constructed as follows:
1. The name of the accused, and the charges and specifications of which he or she is accused.
2. There shall be an area on the ballot where each voter shall have the option to vote "absolvo" (absolve, innocent), or "condemno" (condemn, guilty).
3. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive his or her right to vote on the accused's guilt or innocence.
4. Once cast, no vote can be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should a voter cast subsequent ballots with the same voter identification code, only the first ballot shall be counted and all subsequent ballots shall be considered null and void.
D. Procedures for counting votes.
1. Votes shall be counted according to tribes.
2. In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of a citizen tried before the Comitia Plebis Tributa, each tribe shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from members of that tribe are marked condemno. Ties within a tribe will result in that tribe voting for acquittal.
E. (Sub-section repealed by the Lex Arminia de Suffragiis in Comitiis Tributis) In order for a citizen to be convicted, no fewer than 18 of the 35 tribes shall vote 'condemno'.

IX. ((Mechanical counting))

Votes may be tallied by automated means should the diribitores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.

X. ((Order of business))

On a ballot that has a mixture of magisterial elections, plebiscite(s), and/or a trial, the listing of candidates and the respective offices shall be placed first on the ballot, followed by the plebiscite(s), and/or the details of the trial respectively.

XI. ((Reporting))

Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.


[In accordance with subsequent law and praetorian edictum, the titles "rogatores" and "curator araneum" have been replaced by the more correct "diribitores" and "custodes" for the former, and "magister aranearius" for the latter. The diribitores count votes, the custodes break ties and certify elections, and the rogatores, who used to perform both functions, now register new citizens in conjunction with the censores]. </div>

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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LXXV: Lex Moravia de renuntiatione senatus actorum

I. Procedures for Reporting the Senate's Call to Order.

A. The reporting Tribune shall publish the agenda of the Senate's meeting in the Forum romanum and the Comitia Plebis Tributa forum/-a (1) within 72 hours of the presiding magistrate's call to order of the Senate.

B. Within this announcement to the people, the Tribune shall include:

1. The date that the Senate has been called to order as well as the date when voting shall begin and the date when voting shall end.
2. A summary of the items on the Senate's agenda which shall be discussed and voted on.
3. Any additional comments that the reporting Tribune feels are necessary for the people's better understanding of the agenda.
4. If the Senate will be voting on an item which is of a confidential nature (for example, the dismissal of a citizen) for the protection of the citizen(s) in question, the reporting Tribune should confer with the Senate as to what details of the vote should be reported to the citizens.

II. Procedures for Reporting the Results of the Senate's Meetings

A. The reporting Tribune shall report the results of the Senate meeting in the Forum romanum and the Comitia Plebis Tributa forum/-a (1) within 168 hours (7 days) of the close of voting of the Senate.

B. Within the report to the people, the Tribune shall include:

1. The date that the Senate was called to order as well as the date that voting began and the date that voting ended.
2. A list of the full names and initials of all Senators who voted.
3. The full name of the Senators who were empowered by fellow Senators to present his/her vote by proxy.
4. The full name of the Senators who did not vote.
5. The number of yes ('uti rogas') votes necessary in order for an agenda item to be passed.
6. For each agenda item, the reporting Tribune shall include:
  • a. The full text of the agenda item.
  • b. Whether or not the agenda item was passed.
  • c. The initials of all voting Senators accompanied by their vote and comments (if any).
  • d. Any additional comments that the reporting Tribune feels are necessary for the people's better understanding of the report.
  • e. If the Senate has voted on an item which is of a confidential nature (for example the dismissal of a citizen) for the protection of the citizen(s) in question the reporting Tribune should confer with the Senate as to what details of the discussion/comments/voting should be reported to the citizens.



(1) : the original text is "in the Nova Roma and the Comitia Plebis Tributa fora". This writing let the reader think that the Comitia Plebis Tributa (CPT) fora is not in Nova Roma. Here, what was meant is referring to the Forum romanum aka "the main list". The word "fora", applied to the Comitia Plebis, has then been corrected in "forum/-a", to let the future open, though, currently, there is but one CPT forum.

Correction made by application of lex Equitia de corrigendum legum erratis and of legal principle "Qui potest majus potest et minus".

P. Memmius Albucius, praetor 2762 auc.

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LXXVI: Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

I. All previous laws relating to the Comitia Populi Tributa are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the voting of leges by the Comitia Populi Tributa. This Lex Fabia de Ratione Comitiorum Populi Tributorum is hereby enacted to define the procedures by which the Comitia Populi shall conduct the business of electing magistrates, voting on leges, and voting to convict or acquit citizens brought to trial before the Comitia Populi Tributa.

II. Calling the Comitia to Order. Either a Consul or Praetor may, as described in the Constitution, call the Comitia to order to hold a vote on a lex or leges, to hold an election, or to conduct a trial. The magistrate who calls the Comitia to order shall be referred to herein as the presiding magistrate.

A. This shall be done by making a public announcement announcing the call in those public fora which shall have been designated for such purpose, in which must be included:

1. The names of candidates for office and the office for which they are running (when the Comitia is being called for an election);

2. Date of Citizenship of each candidate;

3. The full text of any leges which are being voted on (when the Comitia are being called to legislate);

4. The dates when the members of the Comitia shall begin and finish voting.

5. Any special instructions that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.

6. In the case of a trial, the name of the accused, and the charges and specifications of which he or she is accused.

B. The presiding magistrate shall have the responsibility for taking all reasonable precautions to ensure that candidates for a vote hold whatever qualifications are required by law. The Censors shall assist in such efforts as to the best of their ability.

III. Timing of the vote.

A. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the vote. This period shall be known as the Contio, and shall be used for formal discussion of the issues and/or candidates before the People for a vote.

1. In the event that, in an election for a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates elected to fill all vacancies in that office, the presiding magistrate may call for a follow-up election among those same candidates who failed to obtain that office in the previous election. For these follow-up elections, the 120-hour (5-day) requirement for the length of the Contio (official discussion period) shall be shortened to 24 hours.

B. During the Contio, the following conditions shall apply:

1. Those constitutionally empowered to do so may exercise their powers of intercessio or nuntiatio.

a. Intercessio may be exercised against either the entire election or vote, or against one or more individual items on the ballot. If there are any items on the ballot that have not been subjected to intercessio, voting on them shall proceed normally. The removal of an item from the ballot due to intercessio shall not prevent that item from being placed upon the ballot for a different vote at a later time.

b. The exercise of nuntiatio shall extend the Contio, postponing the starting and ending dates of the voting period by twenty-four (24) hours, during which time nuntiatio may again be exercised.

c. Should the exercise of nuntiatio cause the voting period to move such that it conflicts with calendrical restrictions as defined by the Collegium Pontificum, the presiding magistrate may change or extend the dates of the vote and/or contio at his discretion.

2. A member of the Collegium Augurum shall be invited by the presiding magistrate to seek favorable auspices for the conduct of the vote, subject to those rules and regulations the Collegium Augurum shall set forth by decreta, by selecting by lot the presidium (the first tribe to be counted) and ruling whether or not the lot is auspicious. The selection of Suburana shall always be regarded as inauspicious. Should the presiding magistrate himself be a member of the Collegium Augurum, he may take the auspices for the vote himself.

C. In the case of a vote on a lex, the period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 120 hours (5 days).

D. In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of an accused citizen tried before the Comitia Populi Tributa, the period between the start and end of the voting must last no less than 192 hours (8 days).

E. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted and/or suspended due to calendrical issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum.

F. The diribitores shall tally the vote and shall deliver the results to the presiding magistrate within 48 hours of the close of the voting period.

G. The presiding magistrate shall announce the results of the vote within 24 hours of receiving the results from the diribitores, in at least the same venues as the original announcement calling the vote was published.

IV. Voting procedures.

A. The censors shall issue to each citizen a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of vote fraud. In a timely fashion prior to the vote, the censors shall make available to the diribitores a list of valid voter identification codes and the centuries and/or tribes with which they are associated. The diribitores shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with particular voter identification codes.

B. In consultation with the diribitores, the magister aranearius shall make available a cista, a secure web-based form, to allow citizens to vote directly through the official Nova Roma web site. This form shall record the voter identification number and desired vote(s) of the individual. The information thus collected will either be forwarded to the diribitores as it is gathered, or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.

C. For each candidate in the case in the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark the candidate 'yes (uti rogas)' or to leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: 'you may vote for as many candidates as you wish, but you are advised to vote only for those candidates you strongly support'. For each proposed law in the case of legislation, each voter shall have the option of voting 'yes (uti rogas)' or 'no (antiquo)'. In the case of a trial, each voter shall have the option of voting "absolvo" (absolve, innocent), or "condemno" (condemn, guilty). Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first one recorded shall be used when tallying the vote.

V. Procedures for counting votes.

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.

1. In the case of a magisterial election, the votes of each tribe shall be calculated as follows. For each tribe, the candidates shall be ordered by the number of 'yes' votes they receive from voters in that tribe, the candidate who receives most 'yes' votes (ties being decided by lot) being numbered 1, and so on in descending order. If any candidates have no 'yes' votes from voters in that tribe, those candidates shall not be listed. Any tribe containing no 'yes' votes is 'void'.

2. In the case of a vote on a lex, each tribe shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of the votes received by members of the tribe are in favor. Otherwise, the tribe shall be considered to have voted against the proposed lex. Ties shall be decided by lot.

3. In the case of a vote on the guilt or innocence of a citizen tried before the Comitia Populi Tributa, each tribe shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from members of that tribe are marked condemno. Ties within a tribe will result in that century voting to acquit.

4. The custodes may decide how such decisions by lot shall be made in a fair manner. In the case of trials, no decisions will be made by lot.

B. The results of the tribes shall be counted sequentially, as follows.

1. The votes of all the tribes are compared, beginning with the presidium (as selected under II.B.2) and rotating through the rest of the tribes in their standard order.

2. The standard order of the tribes is: Suburana, Esquilina, Collina, Palatina, Romilia, Scaptia, Stellatina, Teretina, Voturia, Sergia, Tromentina, Oufetina, Fabia, Clustuminia, Lemonia, Horatia, Quirina, Cornelia, Sabatina, Aemilia, Aniensis, Falerna, Camillia, Galeria, Pomptina, Claudia, Velina, Menenia, Papiria, Votinia, Poblilia, Pollia, Maecia, Pupinia, Arnensis. So if, for exmple, the presidium is Pupinia, the next tribe will be Arnensis, the next Suburana, and so on.

3. In the case of a magisterial election, results are calculated as follows.

a. As soon as 18 (or, if any tribes are 'void', more than half the remaining tribes) tribes with the same first (number one) preference have been counted, that candidate is immediately elected. If no candidate is the first preference of a majority of the tribes, the candidate who is the first choice of fewest tribes (ties being decided by lot) is eliminated. The election or elimination of a candidate ends the first round.

b. If there are still vacancies to be filled, there is a second round in each tribe which voted for the elected or eliminated candidate as its first choice is given to its second choice candidate. If any tribe has no second choice, it becomes 'void'. The tribes are now compared again in the same order. As before, as soon as a majority of tribes (not including 'void' tribes) have been counted voting for the same candidate, that candidate is elected. If no candidate has a majority, the candidate with the fewest tribes is eliminated. This concludes the second round.

c. If there are still vacancies to be filled, each tribe held by the candidate who was elected or eliminated in the previous round is given to its second choice candidate or, if that candidate has been elected or eliminated, to its third choice candidate. Any tribe having no candidate as its next choice becomes 'void'. The tribes are counted again, in the same order, and any candidate who now has a majority of tribes (not including 'void' tribes) is elected; if no candidate has a majority then the candidate with the fewest tribes is eliminated, ending the third round.

d. This procedure is repeated until all the vacancies are filled.

e. If at the end of any round the number of candidates is equal to the number of vacancies and all the candidates have the same number of tribes, the tie is decided by lot, but rather than eliminate the loser, the winner is elected, and the round ends.

2. In the case of a vote on a lex, the tribes shall be counted in order, and as soon as a simple majority of the tribes casting votes have voted in favour, the lex is passed; if a majority votes against, the lex fails.

3. In the case of a trial, the tribes shall be counted in order, and as soon as 18 tribes have voted to condemn, the reus is convicted; if 18 or more tribes vote to absolve, the reus is absolved.

4. In the case of a magisterial elections, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the number of tribes (not including 'void' tribes) plus one, fractions being rounded down".

5. In the case of a vote on a lex, a "simple majority" is hereby defined as "one half of the number of tribes casting votes, plus one, fractions being rounded down". A tribe in which no voters cast votes shall not be counted toward this total.

6. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Populi Tributa, a "majority" is defined as 18 or more tribes. Tribes in which no votes are cast shall be counted as voting for acquittal.

C. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the diribitores determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.

D. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

[In accordance with the subsequent Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the titles "rogatores" and "curator araneum" have been changed to the current, and more correct, "diribitores" or "custodes" and "magister aranearius," respectively. The duties formerly assigned to the rogatores have been divided; the diribitores now count votes, the custodes break ties and certify elections. The rogatores now assist the censores in registering new citizens].

[A. Tullia Scholastica, interpres linguae Latinae, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

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LXXVII: Lex Fabia centuriata

In accordance with paragraph II. E. 2. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Fabia Centuriata is hereby enacted to instruct the Censors in the matter of the division of the voting citizenry of Nova Roma into their respective centuries. This Lex Fabia replaces the item II. B of the Lex Vedia Centuriata, enacted in 30 Jul. 2752. The Lex Iunia Centuriata, approved in 22 Dec. 2752, is hereby rescinded.

Item II. B shall be read as follows: II. B. The record of public service of each citizen shall be quantified according to the following rules. (Except for points awarded for term of citizenship, points shall be awarded cumulatively, but shall not carry over from year to year).

Century points will be recalculated for all citizens. Points will be awarded for all relevant events in each citizen's records based upon the values established in this lex. The law will take effect on the 1st of January 2757 AUC

II.B.1. MAGISTRATVS ORDINARII If a magistrate only serves part of his term as a suffectus or resigns his/her office while in office, Past Service points will be awarded partially. This will be based on two-month increments rounding down. Current Service points will be awarded for the period remaining, also based on two-month increments rounding down.

Censor: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Consul: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Praetor and Tribunus Plebis: 20 CP 10 CP (past service)

Aedilis Curulis 14 CP 7 CP (past service)

Aedilis Plebis: 12 CP 6 CP (past service)

Quaestor and Vigintisexvir: 10 CP 5 CP (past service)

II.B.2. MAGISTRATVS EXTRAORDINARII

Dictator: 30 CP 15 CP (past service)

Interrex: 6 CP 3 CP (past service)

II.B.3. APPARITORES Citizens may hold more than one position in a magistrate's staff, but get points for the highest one only.

Accensus: 5 CP 2 CP (past service)

Scriba: 5 CP 2 CP (past service)

II.B.4. PROVINCIAL POSITIONS Citizens may hold more than one provincial position, but get points for the highest one only. The ranks and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each governor. The LEX VEDIA PROVINCIALIS (now a part of the Constitution) was "enacted to enable governors and the Senate more flexibility in establishing and maintaining the administrative institutions and mechanisms of provinciae." The main idea of this part of this law is also founded on flexibility. No limit is set for each rank of officials, except for the first rank officials.

Governor: 20 CP 10 CP (past service)

1st rank Official (one per provincia): 8 CP 4 CP (past service)

2nd rank Official: 6 CP 3 CP (past service)

3rd rank Official: 4 CP 2 CP (past service)

4th rank Official: 2 CP 1 CP (past service)

Provincial Sacerdos: 14 CP

II.B.5. SACERDOTES

Pontifex Maximus, Rex/Regina Sacrorum, Flamen Maior, Vestal Maxima: 30 CP

Pontifex, Flamen Minor, Augur, Vestal: 20 CP

Other Sacerdotes: 20 CP

II.B.6. OTHER POSITIONS

Senator: 20 CP

Pater Patriae: 10 CP

The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.

II.B.7. SODALITATES POSITIONS (officially sanctioned sodalitates only) Citizens may hold more than one sodalitas position, but get points for the highest one only. The positions and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each Head.

Head of a Sodalitas 10 CP

Person of High Authority: 6 CP

Person of Minor Authority: 3 CP

II.B.8. ORDINES AND CANDIDATURES

Ordines: Ordo Patricius - 10 CP Ordo Plebeius - 5 CP Ordo Equester - 7 CP, which is in addition to those already awarded for membership in the Patrician or Plebeian orders.

Length of citizenship: Less than 6 months - 2 CP More than 6 months - 5 CP More than 12 months - 10 CP Each year after 1 year - + 10 CP (up to 50)

Unsuccesssfully run for office: 2 CP

It is not possible to accumulate century points by unsuccessfully running for more than one office per year. </div>

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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LXXVIII: Lex Labiena de nominibus mutandis

I. Section IV.4 of Lex Cornelia et Maria de Mutandis Nominibus is hereby amended to read:

The gender of the name is to be consistent; each part is to agree with all others in gender.

II. All subsections under section IV.4 of Lex Cornelia et Maria de Mutandis Nominibus are hereby repealed.

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LXXIX: Lex Labiena de civium iure

Article II.B.6 of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to read:

The right to privacy; security in one's home, person, and property; and authority over one's home, person, and property. Homes may not be searched, persons may not be detained, and property may not be seized, except by judicial ruling or by a special provision of law;

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LXXX: Lex Labiena de gentibus

I. ((Amendment to chapter II.C.1))

Article II.C.1 of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to read:

Ordo Patricius (patrician order)
a. The Ordo Patricius shall consist of a minium of 30 families.
b. Should there be less than 30 patrician families the Senate shall have the power to nominate a plebeian family to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status.
c. The Senate shall have the power to nominate additional families to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status if this elevation does not cause the Ordo Patricius to exceed 5% of the population of Nova Roma.
d. A patrician family may allow its members to form new patrician families.

II. ((Transitional arrangements))

At the time of adoption of this amendment the family of the paterfamilis of a gens recognized as patrician shall be recognized as a Patrician Family.

III. ((Amendment to chapter II.D))

Article II.D of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to read:

Gentes and Families. Families being the backbone of Roman society, the prerogatives and responsibilities of the family are of primary importance to Nova Roma. Except where specifically dealt with in this constitution and the law, each family shall have the right to determine its own course of action, and parents shall have the undisputed right and responsibility to see to the education and raising of their children.
1. Each gens shall be registered with the censors, who will maintain records of gens membership and other relevant information.
2. No two gentes may have the same nomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
3. Each gens shall consist of a minimum of one family.
4. No two families within a gens may have the same cognomen (surname) unless they are differentiated by an agnomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
5. Each family shall, through whatever means it may determine appropriate, have a paterfamilias (fem. materfamilias) who shall act as the leader of the family and speak for it when necessary. The holder of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The paterfamilias may, at his or her discretion, expel members of their family, accept new members into it by adoption, or allow members who are not impuberes to form new families belonging to the same order as the paterfamilis.
a. The paterfamilias may, at his discretion, exercise the rights ennumerated in paragraph II.B. of this Constitution on behalf of impuberes in their gens, with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II.B.3.) and the right to join the Ordo Equester (paragraph II.B.8.).
b. No impuberes may become paterfamilias of a gens.

IV. ((Amendment to chapter III.A))

Article III.A of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to include the following three new subsections:

3. To approve or reject the elevation of a plebeian family to the Ordo Patricius;
4. To approve or reject an adoption that elevates a plebeian to the Ordo Patricius or lowers a patrician to the Ordo Plebeius;
5. To approve or reject an application from a patrician who wishes to renounce his status and become a member of the plebeian order.

V. ((Further transitional arrangements))

All current citizens shall be grandfathered into the familia of their preference. These citizens shall retain the right to change familia for one year after the adoption of this amendment. This right shall not be used to force a paterfamilias to accept a citizen that he does not want into his familia.

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LXXXI: Lex Fabia Labiena de iure augurum

Article VI.B.2 of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to read:

The Collegium Augurum (College of Augurs) shall be the second-highest ranked of the priestly Collegia. The eldest member of the Collegium shall be the Magister Collegi. The Collegium Augurum shall consist of nine Augurs, five from the Plebeian order and four from the Patrician order. They shall be appointed by the Collegium Pontificum, and shall hold their offices for life, excepting in cases of resignation of office, resignation of citizenship, or loss of Assiduus citizenship by process of law. Resignation of office or citizenship by an Augur must be made in writing to the Pontifex Maximus and the Magister Collegi; the Pontifex Maximus and Magister Collegi shall be informed in writing of any process of law by which such an Augur has lost citizenship. Augurs who have resigned their office, resigned their citizenship, or have lost their citizenship by process of law shall remain sacer in their persons but may exercise no augural powers or functions, nor shall they be accounted members of the Collegium Augurum.

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LXXXII: Lex Labiena de obnuntiatione

I. ((Constitutional amendment))

Article VI.B.2.b.ii of the Constitution of Nova Roma is hereby amended to read:

To declare obnuntiatio (a declaration that unfavorable and unsolicited omens have been observed that justify a delay of a meeting of one of the comitia or the Senate).

II. ((Interpretation of other documents))

Any mention of nuntiatio throughout Nova Roma's official documents, including leges, decreta, senatus consulta, edicta, etc., that have been enacted to date shall be assumed to refer to obnuntiatio. These official documents shall be emended to change nuntiatio to obnuntiatio by the curator araneum and his or her staff at the earliest reasonable opportunity.

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LXXXIII: Lex Equitia de corrigendum legum erratis

Paragraph IV. A. 8. of the Constitution of Nova Roma mandates that the webmaster and other vigintisexviri 'fulfill such necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law.'

It is both prudent and desirable to rectify the many minor errors in our laws which alter neither their spirit nor intent, but which mar them nonetheless.

I. The webmaster is hereby assigned the duty of correcting typographical, orthographic, grammatical, and similar errors existing in past, present, and future legislation, insofar as these alter neither the spirit nor the intent of the law.

A. The webmaster shall undertake this with the assistance of a competent Latin translator.
B. The praetors shall be informed of any and all changes made under the authority of the webmaster, and shall verify that none alters the spirit or the intent of the law.

II. Magistrates are hereby required to have all proposed laws reviewed by a competent Latin translator to ensure that any errors which may occur in proposed laws are corrected before the webmaster may include them in a cista for voting. [A 'cista' is what we call a web page containing the names of candidates and the text of proposed laws so that voters may see them before voting].

III. The webmaster, or a competent proofreader designated by this magistrate, shall also review all proposed laws for errors named in Paragraph I above, and correct them as necessary before including them in a cista for voting.

IV. This law shall take effect immediately upon ratification by the Comitia Populi Tributa.

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LXXXIV: Lex Arminia de officiis aedilium plebis

I. This law is intended to bring Nova Roma closer to the Ancient Way, and to contribute to the growth of the Res Publica through greater organization of its Plebeian Class.

II. This law brings the duties of the Plebeian Aediles into the scope of the Plebeian Class. These are not the sole duties of the plebeian aediles, since the Nova Roman Constitution or any law voted by the Comitia on this subject may give the plebeian aediles duties affecting the entire Res Publica.

A. Among these are keeping and managing any funds, equipment, buildings, or properties of the Plebs, or funds received by donation or fund raising, in the same way as any funds, equipment, buildings, or properties assigned to the care of the Plebs by the Nova Roma government are the responsibility of their aediles

B. The plebeian aediles will answer to the Tribunes for the properties of the Plebs.

C. Organizing and moderating the Comitia Plebis Tributa Forum.

D.

1. Keeping the archives of the Plebs, all tribunician legislation, edicts of magistrates of the plebs (Tribunes, Plebeian Aediles).
2.Working together with other magistrates to keep the correct versions (and their translations when available) of these documents in the Tabularium.

E. Organizing at least two major plebeian ludi: the Ludi Cereales and the Ludi Plebeii.

1. The Plebeian Aediles are free to set the agenda of events for the Ludi, or even to change the dates of beginning/ending or the events as they deem appropriate.
2. If both Plebeian Aediles feel unable to organize one of these games, they may ask a Curule Aedile to organize the game. If neither Curule Aedile can organize the game, the game becomes responsibility of the Tribunes.
3. If both Plebeian Aediles are unreachable and the beginning of the Ludi is approaching, the Tribunes must reach an agreement between themselves or with the Curule Aediles to hold these ludi. These two Ludi may not be omitted in any way; they must occur.
4. The Plebeian Aediles will have the final responsibility in accordance with the morality and dignitas of the ludi.

F. Organizing the Tribunes' list of vetos or tribunician intercessio on a given subject, and providing it to the magistrates when asked.

G. Setting the agenda of the Comitia Plebis Tributa Voting, as it is elected after or at the same time as the approval of this lex by the Comitia.

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LXXXV: Lex Arminia senatoria

This law is intended to bring the Nova Roman Res Publica closer to the Ancient Way, restore the aedilician equilibrium, to contribute to the harvest of members for the Senate, and restore the rights of the curule magistrates.

1. Any individual elected to the office of Plebeian Aedile may, at the discretion of the censors, be included in the album Senatorum six months after assuming office (assuming that the individual was not already a member of the Senate).
2. Curule Aediles, as curule magistrates, have the right to observe the Senate sessions and speak in them. However, an aedile can vote only if the individual is already a member of the Senate.

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LXXXVI: Lex Arminia de cursu honorum

This lex is intended to bring Nova Roma closer in line with the ancient Roman way, and allow better diffusion of Nova Roma to the whole world.

A. A plebeian candidate must spend at least six months in the Tribuneship, Quaestorship, Curatorship or Propraetorship to run for the aedileship of the plebs.

B. A current plebeian scriba of one of the current plebeian aediles may run for the aedileship without the exigencies of paragraph A. of this lex if he proves he was an aedile's scriba for at least six months.

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LXXXVII: Lex Arminia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

Lex Arminia de Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum is intended to bring Nova Roma closer to the Ancient Way.

Sub-Sections V. A, V. B and V. C of Lex Moravia de Suffragiis in Comitiis Plebis Tributis et Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum are hereby revoked and these dispositions are declared void of legal application.

All other sub-sections of section V continue to be valid as well as the rest of the Lex Moravia de Suffragiis in Comitiis Plebis Tributis et Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum.

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LXXXVIII: Lex Arminia de ministris provincialibus

This law applies to clarify a specific case in the Lex Arminia de edictis.

1. Due to the passing of potestas et imperium, when there is a change of governor [1] in a province, all of his provincial apparitores (such as scribae, legati, etc.) are automatically relieved from their duties. If the new governor [1] desires to keep a previous apparitor, he must re-issue an edictum nominating him or her.

2. Confirming lex Arminia de edictis, all provincial edicta are automatically revoked when there is a change of governor [1], and the new magistrate does not confirm them in his/her imperium.

3. When the term of governor [1] of a province is extended by the Senate, there is no need to re-issue the edicta of the previous year; the same magistrate is the issuer.




[1] The original version said "Propraetor or Proconsul". In fact, the constitution well mentions "governors" to be appointed by the senate at the head of Nova Roma provinces. Currently, the governors are called legati pro praetore, except for provinces ruled by a praetor or consul, former praetor or consul. In this case, the governor has the title of, for example, "praetor [name of the province at the Latin genitive case]". Italia, not been currently considered as a 'province', is ruled by a praefectus Italiae.


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LXXXIX: Lex Arminia de levandis censorum oneribus

This law is intended to alleviate the burden of the censors, recognizing the expansion of Nova Roma through many countries, languages, and cultures, and allow for improved promulgation of Nova Roma in all parts of the world.

1. A censor, via an edictum specifying the names of specific citizens to be contacted and the time interval during which the edictum is effective, may temporarily delegate censorial powers to a provincial governor and to that governor's designated legate in order to reach a citizen within that governor's province.

2. A provincial governor empowered under the terms of this law shall issue a report to the censor detailing the results of the search. This report may, at the censor's discretion, be made public after any sensitive information has been removed from it.

3. The censor may use the information provided in the provincial governor's report in the execution of censorial duties.

This law shall take effect immediately.

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XC: Lex Arminia de fovenda lingua latina

This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The Latinist shall be released from paying the tax for the following year. To be considered assiduus (assidua), the Latinist must only write to the Consular Quaestor in charge of tax collection during the tax payment period confirming his (her) status as Latinist.

4. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

5. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

6. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies.


Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: This lex was amended by Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua latina corrigenda and reads as follows:

"This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

4. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

5. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies."

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XCI: Lex Arminia Equitia de dignitate curuli

This law is intended to properly define an ancient Roman term within the Nova Roman legal system and be a basis for present and future legislation.

1. Any magistrate holding 'curule dignity' will have the following rights:

A. The right to wear the toga praetexta.
B. The right to sit in the curule chair.
C. The right to address the Senate.

2. This law shall not be interpreted as defining in any way which magistratures possess curule dignity.

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XCII: Lex Arminia Equitia de imperio

This law is intended to correct the use of an ancient Roman definition in the Nova Roman legal system and to be a basis for present and future legislation.

1. POTESTAS

In Nova Roma, we understand potestas as:

A. Ius coercendi minor, the power to compel obedience in the name of the state, within the duties of the magistrate.
B. Ius edicendi, the power to issue edicts and nominate scribes.
C. Partial iurisdictio, the power to interpret the law within the duties of the magistrate holding the Potestas.
D. Ius contionis habendae, the power to hold a contio, including a question in a Comitia already called by a magistrate. The question must be included by the magistrate who called the comitia under the official authority of the magistrate holding the ius contionis habendae.

2. IMPERIUM

In Nova Roma, we understand Imperium as:

A. Having all the rights of potestas, as described above.
B. Ius agendi cum populo, calling the People to vote in any of their legislative Comitia.
C. Ius agendi cum senatu, calling to Senate to vote or placing a proposed senatus consultum on the Senate agenda.
D. Ius coercendi maior, the power to compel obedience using major force, on all Nova Roma subjects. In Nova Roma, this explicitly excludes physical force, and includes the force of law.
E. Full iurisdictio, the power to interpret the law, on all levels on all Nova Roma subjects.

3. TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS

In Nova Roma, we understand Tribunicia Potestas as:

A. The special powers held by a Tribunus Plebis, powers outside of and separate from Potestas and Imperium, as determined by the uses of the Mos Maiorum of Roma Antiqua or specific legislation of Nova Roma.
B. The holder of Tribunicia Potestas is not subject to any Potestas or Imperium when acting ex officio within his Tribunicia Potestas.
C. Tribunicia Potestas possesses all the rights of Potestas defined in Paragraph I above.
D. Tribunicia Potestas does not automatically grant to its holder the concept of 'Sacrosanctity' either by the Mos Maiorum of Roma Antiqua or any lex or decretum in Nova Roma.

4. OTHER DETERMINATIONS

A. It is not within the scope of this law to define which magistratures have Potestas, Imperium and Tribunicia Potestas as described here.
B. All legal uses of the terms Potestas, Imperium and Tribunicia Potestas will follow the definition of this law.
C. This law recognizes that the Imperium of two different magistrates has different degrees, and the higher Imperium overrides the lower Imperium. However, the level of Imperium as compared to others shall be specified in the legislation attributing Imperium to a magistrature. Identical levels of Imperium within the same magistrature may veto each other.
D. Identical levels of Potestas within the same magistrature may veto each other.
E. Imperium can have geographic boundaries. These boundaries will be called provinciae. Imperium within a provincia will have all the rights described by this lex, except paragraphs I. A.; I. C; I. D; II. B and II. C. Imperium within a provincia also gains the right for its holder to be a representative of the Nova Roma government within the Provincia on all subjects.

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XCIII: Lex Arminia de potestate tribunicia ad comitia convocanda

This law is intended to clarify a particular point of the Lex Salicia de Convocatione Tribunicia Comitiorum and to confirm a legal practice already used in Nova Roma.

1. This law explains that all matters concerning the procedures for summoning the Comitia Plebis Tributa also concern the power of the tribunus plebis to call them (potestas tribunicia).
2. According to the Lex Salicia de Tribunicia Convocatione Comitiorum, a tribune has the power to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa instead of the Comitia Plebis Tributa on specific occasions.
3. Therefore this law confirms that all procedures for summoning the Comitia Plebis Tributa regarding any law also apply to the Comitia Populi Tributa.
4. If Lex Salicia de Convocatione Tribunicia Comitiorum is revoked, or if the tribunes lose the power to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa, this law is also revoked.

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XCIV: Lex Arminia de ministris tribunorum

This law is intended to bring the concept of assistants for the tribunes closer to the ancient custom.

1. All apparitores nominated by a tribunus plebis for his assistance shall therefore be called "viatores."
2. A viator shall be nominated by an edictum, and must be a plebeian citizen.
3. The viator is only an apparitor [assistant], and does not share any of the special powers of a tribune, as specified in other legislation, nor may the tribune delegate these powers to these assistants. However, the viator may be delegated to execute the orders of a tribune within his tribunicia potestas.

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XCV: Lex Equitia Galeria de ordinariis

Article IV of the Nova Roma Constitution is amended to read as follows.

IV. Magistrates are the elected and appointed officials responsible for the maintenance and conduct of the affairs of state. There are two categories of magistrates: those who are ordinarily elected, the ordinarii; and those who are only occasionally appointed or elected, the extraordinarii. Qualifications necessary to hold these positions may be enacted by law properly passed by one of the comitia.
An office becomes vacant if the magistrate resigns or dies. If a magistrate has not been in contact with the Senate or the Censors for 60 days, and has not previously notified the Senate and People that he will need to be out of contact, the Censors shall, having tried and failed to contact him and having declared their efforts publicly, declare the office vacant. If an office becomes vacant and suitable candidates are at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within forty-five days. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, as defined by the comitia that elected him, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him.
The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:

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XCVI: Lex Equitia de mutandis appellationibus duorum magistratuum minorum

Equitian Law concerning changing the titles of two minor magistrates:

Since correct Latin is an important part of Nova Roma's public image and of our mission to disseminate Romanitas, we endeavor to correct mistakes in our public Latin, in order to make ourselves understandable to readers, writers, and speakers of modern Latin.

1. The titles of two of our minor magistrates, whose offices did not exist in antiquity, have until this time been incorrect Latin.
2. The titles of these two magistracies shall be changed as follows:
A. The title "curator araneum" shall be changed to "magister aranearius."
B. The title "curator differum" shall be changed to "editor commentariorum."

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XCVII: Lex Arminia Equitia de sanctitate

This law, together with the Lex Arminia Equitia de imperio and the Lex Arminia Equitia de dignitate curuli, is intended to define the last of the five characteristics of the powers of Nova Roman magistrates.

Una cum Lege Arminia Equitia de Imperio et Lege Arminia Equitia de Dignitate Curuli, haec lex ultimam quinque proprietatum potestatum magistratuum Novae Romae definitura.


  • I:

-A. Etsi verbum "sanctitas" ab origine religiosum est, haec lex de consecutionibus legitimis sanctitatis modo tractabit.

- A. Although "sanctitas" is originally a religious term, this definition and law will deal only with the legal consequences of sanctitas.

-B. Definitiones religiosae et consecutiones sanctitatis Religioni Romanae attribuendae a proposito huius legis absunt.

- B. Religious definitions and the consequences of the attribution of sanctitas to the Religio Romana are not within the scope of this law.

  • II:

-A. Nulli magistratui licet et sanctitatem et dignitatem curulem uno tempore habere, nisi magistratus provincialis dignitas curulis sit.

- A. No magistrate may hold both sanctitas and curule dignitas at the same time, unless the curule dignitas is from a provincial magistrature.

-B. Nullus magistratus cui ambae hae proprietates sunt definiatur.

- B. No magistrature may be defined as having both these attributes.

  • III:

-Licet magistratui cui proprium sanctitatis est nec signum nec habitum peculiare quidquam habeat, ne togam peculiarem quidem gerat.

- A magistrate possessing the attribute of sanctitas may not possess any special symbol or feature of that magistrature, including the wearing of any special toga.

  • IV:

-A. Per magistratum suum, non licet magistratui cui sanctitas est legibus Novae Romae in crimen vocari.

- A. A magistrate possessing sanctitas may not be charged under Nova Roman law during his magistracy.

-B. Plane autem haec lex nominatim ad crimina macronationum non pertinet.

- B. This law, however, explicitly states that this provision does not apply to macronational charges.

  • V:

-Si magistratus cui sanctitas est moderandus sit, liberetur intercessione unius tribuni plebis simplici.

- If a magistrate possessing sanctitas is put on moderation, he may be released by a simple veto of one tribune of the plebs.

  • VI:

-Haec lex non explicabitur qualis ullo modo circumscribens quos magistratus sanctitatem possideant.

- This law shall not be interpreted as defining in any way which magistracies possess sanctitas.

Repealed by Lex Minucia, a.d. III Non. Mai. MMDCCLIX (05 May 2006)

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XCVIII: Lex Arminia de suffragiis in comitiis tributis

This law is intended to correct a procedure for counting the votes of the tribal assemblies of Nova Roma.

I. ((Application))

This law applies to the approval of any measure of the Comitia Plebis Tributa or any other Comitia which follow the procedures of the Comitia Plebis.

II. ((Majority needed))

A simple majority of the voting tribes shall be sufficient to pass a proposal submitted to the Comitia.

III. ((Definition))

A "simple majority" is hereby defined as "one half of the number of tribes casting votes, plus one; fractions shall be rounded down". A tribe in which no voters cast votes shall not be counted toward this total.

IV. ((Repeal))

Paragraphs VII. E and VIII. E of the Lex Moravia de Suffragiis in Comitiis Plebis Tributis et Ratione Comitiorum Plebis Tributorum are hereby revoked and void of legal application.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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XCIX: Lex Equitia de tirocinio civium novorum

I.A. Nova Roman citizenship begins at the instant a pater or materfamilias recognizes a person as a member of his or her Nova Roman familia and informs the appropriate Nova Roman magistrates in charge of citizen registration of this recognition.
B. In the case of newly-created familiae whose patres or matresfamiliarum are new citizens receiving citizenship at the same time as the familiae are being formed and registered, citizenship begins with the approval of the Censors.
II. Beginning Kalendis Ianuarias, MMDCCLVIII, all new citizens of Nova Roma shall be subject to a probationary period of at least 90 days, during which they will not be allowed the 'iura publica', the right to vote and to stand for any public office.
III.A. The probationary period will end when 90 days have passed and the new citizen has taken and passed a simple examination covering elementary matters of Nova Roman citizenship and basic Roman history, religion, language, and social practices.
B. This examination shall be made available, upon request of the applicant, in any of the languages for which Nova Roma has qualified translators.
C. The examination will be developed by the Censors or such other magistrates as the Censors may designate, and shall be reviewed annually by the Senate.
D. The examination will be graded by the Censors or by such other persons as may be directed by law.
IV.A. These requirements may be wholly or partially waived by the Senate in exceptional circumstances.
B. Examples of such exceptions would include, but not be limited to:
1. Applicants who have been peregrine citizens of a municipium or oppidum for 6 months.
2. Applicants who are peregrine citizens of municipia or oppida who have been elected to an elective office such as duumvir or aedilis.
3. Applicants sponsored by a curule magistrate, including provincial governors.
4. Applicants with exceptional academic and professional qualifications.
V.A. Minor citizens who join Nova Roma after Kalendis Ianuarias, MMDCCLVIII and who have not yet reached 18 years of age may take the examination up to 90 days before their 18th birthday.
B. Taking and passing the examination early will not entitle them to vote or stand for office before their 18th birthday.

LATIN VERSION

I. A. Vt pater aut materfamilias personam gentilem tollat et magistratus proprios quibus praestat cives in album referre de hac approbatione certiores faciat, civitas Novae Romae ilico coepit.

B. Ad familias nuper creatas quarum patres vel matresfamiliarum cives novi sunt, civitatem simul recipientes ac familias constituentes in album referentesque, censoribus probantibus civitas incipit.

II. A Kalendis Ianuariis MMDCCLVIII, omnes cives novi Novae Romae tirocinio ut minimum nonaginta dierum subicientur, per quod eis iura publica non licebit; nec suffragium ferant, nec aliquem honorem publicum petant.

III. A. Post nonaginta dies, cum civis novus periculum probationis simplicis de rebus magni momenti civitati Novae Romae, rudimentisque historiae, religionis, linguae, consuetudinum civiliumque Romanorum subeat et approbetur, tirocinium conficiet.

B. Petitore roganti, haec probatio in promptu erit versa in omnes linguas quibus interpretes periti Novae Romae adsunt.

C. Probatio a censoribus vel magistratibus aliis designatis a censoribus excoletur, et quotannis a Senatu recensebitur.

D. Exercitia a censoribus vel talibus aliis e lege praescriptis notabitur.

IV. A. In rebus raris, haec necessaria omnino vel partim a Senatu remittentur.

B. Nullo pacto circumscribantur; exempla immunitatum talium autem includant:

1. Petitores qui cives peregrini municipi vel oppidi sex menses fuerunt.

2. Petitores qui cives peregrini municipi vel oppidi qui duumviri, aediles, vel magistratus suffragiis creati delecti sunt.

3. Petitores a magistratu curuli provinciae praesidenteve commendantur.

4. Petitores qui potestates raras academicas professionisve habent.

V. A. Civibus impuberibus qui post Kalendas Ianuarias MMDCCLVIII participes Novae Romae erunt et qui nondum duodeviginti annos nati sunt periculum probationis subeant usque ad nonaginta dies ante diem natale duodevicesimum suum licet.

B. Periculo probationis praemature subeundo et superando non liceat suffragia ferant aut honores petant ante diem natalem suum duodevicesimum.

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C: Lex Equitia de civitate eiuranda

I. The Lex Cornelia et Maria de civitate eiuranda is hereby amended as follows:

A. Section III is hereby annulled.
B. Section V is hereby altered to read as follows:
  • 1. The ex-citizen, in the event that he desires to reacquire citizenship, must apply in the same fashion as any other person desirous of citizenship would, with the exception that he/she is directed to state in his/her application the reasons behind his/her resignation and decision to reverse the resignation and come back. His/her Roman name may be resumed if no other citizen of Nova Roma has taken it up in his/her absence.
  • 2. As offices are de facto resigned when Citizenship is resigned, no public offices held at the time of resignation automatically carry over to the returning citizen, with the exception of any religious title and corresponding century points that may be specified by the Collegium Pontificum.
  • 3. Any titles, honors and effects of past offices, or century points carry over to the returning citizen only after a period of six months, with the exception of any religious title and corresponding century points that may be specified by the Collegium Pontificum.
  • 4. Senatorial status may be resumed at the discretion of the Censores collegially.
  • 5. Gens affiliation in all instances remains at the discretion of the pater or materfamilias.
C. Section VI is hereby altered to read as follows:
  • 1. If a citizen resigns, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a second time, that ex-citizen is barred for two years from reinstatement.

Repealed by Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda, a.d. III Non. Mai. MDCCLIX (05 May 2006)

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CI: Lex Equitia de vigintisexviris

Preamble

In Roma Antiqua, the Vigintisexviri--literally, 'the twenty-six men'--were minor magistrates who handled much of the routine administrative business of Rome. In Nova Roma, we preserve the title VIGINTISEXVIRI for minor magistracies, without requiring twenty-six, and without restricting these magistracies to men.


I. A. The leges Vedia vigintisexviri, Minucia de rogatoribus, and Equitia de mutandis appellationibus duorum magistratuum minorum, are hereby repealed.

B. All Nova Roman laws, decrees, and edicts which make reference to magistrates of the Vigintisexviri are revised to use the titles defined below.


II. In accordance with the Constitution of Nova Roma, the following minor magistracies are defined within the category of Vigintisexviri: [1]


  • A. Editor commentariorum (ed. of written news) [2]

1. The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State.
2. The editor commentariorum shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
3. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate on the nomination of a consul.
4. The editor commentariorum shall serve for three years.
5. A deputy editor commentariorum shall also be appointed by a vote of the senate on the nomination of a consul. The deputy will serve as the chief assistant to the editor commentariorum. If during the three year term a vacancy occurs the deputy editor commentariorum shall assume the duties for remainder of that term as editor commentariorum.
  • B. Rogatores. Magistratus ad consignandos suffragium ferentes.
1.a. Until the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), four rogatores shall be responsible for the administration of elections and the recording of votes among the curiae.
1.b. Each rogator shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
1.c. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, four rogatores shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
1.d. The rogatores may divide their duties amongst themselves as they see fit and practical.
1.e. Since the rogatores are by definition privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as rogatores.
2.a. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), two rogatores shall be elected to act as subordinate magistrates to the censores, responsible for registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process.
2.b. During intervals when no censors are serving in office, the rogatores may carry out the routine maintenance of the Album Civium and the Album Gentium in concert with the magister aranearius.
2.c. Each rogator shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
  • C. Diribitores--Suffragiorum computatores
1. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), up to four diribitores shall be responsible for the counting of votes among the curiae.
2. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, four diribitores shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
3. The diribitores may divide their duties among themselves as they see fit and practical with the approval of the custodes.
4. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.
5. Diribitores shall only count votes, and shall not engage in any tie-breaking.
  • D. Custodes. Iudices Electionum.
1. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), two custodes shall be esponsible for certifying the tally of votes in elections as reported to them by the diribitores, breaking any ties among the centuries and tribes, and providing the results of elections to the magistrates presiding over the elections.
2. Since by definition the custodes are privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as custodes.
3. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, both custodes shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
4. Custodes may, if they choose, assist the diribitores in the vote-counting process.
5. In the event that there are no diribitores, the custodes shall assume the duties of diribitores until sufficient diribitores have been elected.

III. As minor magistrates, all vigintisexviri shall possess the Ius Edicendi, the right to publish edicta within the scope of their magisterial duties.

IV. A. All vigintisexviri shall be elected by the Comitia Populi Tributa during the annual elections.

B. The normal term of office for the vigintisexviri shall be one year.

C. Suffectus (replacement) vigintisexviri magistrates elected to replace magistrates who are unable to continue in office shall serve until the end of the year in which they are elected.

V. If any of the minor magistracies of the vigintisexviri become vacant after the Ides of September in a given year, the Senate may appoint a suffectus to fill that magistracy for the remainder of the year in lieu of holding an election in the Comitia Populi Tributa

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CII: Lex Equitia familiaris

I. Legal Status.

A. Every citizen is either sui iuris (in his own power) or alieni iuris (in another's power).
B. Any citizen who is a paterfamilias (father of the household) or a materfamilias (mother of the household) is sui iuris; any citizen who is sui iuris is a paterfamilias or materfamilias.
C. Any citizen who is a filiusfamilias (son in power) or a filiafamilias (daughter in power) is in the patria potestas (hereafter 'potestas') of his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias.
D. A wife who is married cum manu is in the manus of her husband; if her husband is a filiusfamilias she is also in the potestas of her husband's paterfamilias and / or materfamilias. If her husband is sui iuris, he is her paterfamilias; if her husband is alieni iuris, his paterfamilias and / or materfamilias is / are her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias.
E. Any citizen who is in potestas or in manus is alieni iuris.

II. Familiae.

A. A familia (household) consists of a paterfamilias and everyone who is in his potestas or manus; or a materfamilias and everyone who is in her potestas; or two heads of household together in a free marriage and everyone who is in their shared potestas.
B. Within this law, the phrase 'paterfamilias and / or materfamilias' means the paterfamilias where he has sole potestas over his familia, or the materfamilias where she has sole potestas over her familia, or both heads of household where they share potestas over their familia.
C. Within this law, the phrase 'paterfamilias or materfamilias' means the paterfamilias where he has sole potestas over his familia, or the materfamilias where she has sole potestas over her familia, or either one of the heads of household where they share potestas over their familia.
D. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias hold(s) potestas over his, her, or their legal descendants (except those who have been emancipated, married cum manu into another familia, or adopted into another familia) and the wives cum manu of those legal descendants.
E. A male citizen who is sui iuris is the paterfamilias of all those in his potestas or manus; a female citizen who is sui iuris is the materfamilias of all those in her potestas.
F. Potestas cannot be shared except by two citizens who are married to one another in a free marriage and are both sui iuris. Where two or more citizens who are sui iuris but are not married to one another in a free marriage have a claim under this law to potestas over another citizen, the praetores may decide the matter, giving potestas to whichever party is best able to fulfill the duties and exercise the rights of a paterfamilias or materfamilias towards the person concerned.
G. For the purpose of family law, and with regard to their familia, a sui iuris citizen couple in a free marriage who share potestas are treated as a single legal person, and any action taken by one of them by virtue of their potestas is considered a joint action by both together. For all other purposes each remains individually answerable at law for his or her own actions.

III. Rights & Duties of Patria Potestas and Manus.

A. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may make legal contracts and transactions, and acquire, hold, and dispose of property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations, on behalf of his or her familia or its individual members.
B. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may give or withhold specific or general consent for members of his or her familia to make legal contracts or transactions, or acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations.
C. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may regulate the conduct of members of his or her familia by means of rewards and punishments. No officer or organ of the state shall interfere either to assist or to prevent the imposition of punishment by a paterfamilias or materfamilias upon a member of his or her familia.
D. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias hold(s) responsibility for the upbringing, education, good conduct, and well-being of those in his, her, or their potestas or manus.

IV. Legal Capacity

A. A citizen who is alieni iuris has no legal capacity to make or witness any legal contract or transaction, or to acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations, except with the explicit consent (whether specific or general) of his or her paterfamilias or materfamilias.
B. A citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 has no legal capacity to make or witness any legal contract or transaction, or to acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations, except through his or her tutor or tutrix.
C. Anyone who, having entered into such a contract or transaction, later discovers that the other party was at the time alieni iuris and acting without the necessary consent, has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed that contract or transaction as between himself or herself and the paterfamilias and / or materfamilias of the original party.
D. Any paterfamilias or materfamilias who discovers that anyone in his or her potestas or manus has entered into such a contract or transaction without the necessary consent has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed the contract or transaction as between himself or herself and the other party.
E. Anyone who, having entered into such a contract or transaction, later discovers that the other party was at the time sui iuris but below the age of eighteen (18) and not acting through his or her tutor or tutrix, has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed that contract or transaction.
F. Any tutor or tutrix who discovers that his or her pupillus or pupilla has entered into such a contract or transaction without acting through him or her has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed the contract or transaction.

V. Legal Action.

A. A citizen who is alieni iuris may not be party to legal action except where explicitly provided by lex, decretum, edictum, or senatus consultum.
B. If a citizen who is alieni iuris commits an offence, his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias are liable for it; if, in such a case, the paterfamilias' and / or materfamilias' failure to prevent the commission of the offence was due to his or her unavoidable physical absence, the praetor may, at his or her discretion, include in the formula an exceptio (defence) or vis maior (insurmountable necessity).
C. If anyone commits an offence against or incurs a legal obligation to a citizen who is alieni iuris, the latter's paterfamilias or materfamilias may take legal action on his or her behalf.
D. A tutor or tutrix may represent and act on behalf of his or her pupillus or pupilla in legal matters, but is not personally liable for the offences of the pupillus or pupilla.
E. No one shall be held legally liable for any offence except one who was legally liable at the time.

VI. Changes In Legal Status

A. A filiusfamilias or filiafamilias becomes sui iuris if he or she is emancipated.
B. A filiusfamilias or filiafamilias becomes sui iuris if he or she has no legal ascendant who is a citizen.
C. A wife cum manu becomes sui iuris if her marriage is dissolved.
D. A wife cum manu becomes sui iuris if her husband dies or loses his citizenship.
E. A citizen who is alieni iuris becomes sui iuris if he or she is or becomes a flamen, rex sacrorum, a pontifex, or a civil magistrate.
F. A paterfamilias or materfamilias becomes alieni iuris if he or she is adopted by adrogatio.
G. A materfamilias becomes alieni iuris is she is married cum manu.

VII. Marriage

A. If two people live together with affectio maritalis (marital affection), i.e., regarding themselves as married to one another, their relationship is a free marriage.
B. If a male and a female citizen live together for a full year with affectio maritalis without the woman being absent from their home for three or more nights in a row, they may declare their relationship a marriage cum manu contracted by usus. Without such declaration their marriage remains a free marriage.
C. If a male and a female citizen undergo the ceremony of coemptio in the presence of five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions, their relationship is a marriage cum manu contracted by coemptio.
D. If a male and a female citizen of whom one is a patrician or a member of the collegium pontificium undergo the ceremony of confarreatio in the presence of the pontifex maximus, their relationship is a marriage cum manu contracted by confarreatio.
E. If two people are married to one another under the law of the state in which they live but meet none of the criteria set out in VII. A., B., C., or D., their relationship is a free marriage.
F. If a materfamilias marries cum manu, those in her potestas are transferred to the potestas of her husband.

VIII. Dissolution Of Marriage.

A. If a person in a free marriage notifies his or her spouse in writing that he or she wishes the marriage to end, that marriage is dissolved. If, however, both spouses regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as if there had been no dissolution.
B. If a person in a free marriage contracts a new marriage in any of the ways set out in VII, the former marriage is dissolved. If, however, the original spouses regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as if there had been no dissolution.
C. If a husband married cum manu by coemptio or by usus emancipates his wife, the marriage is dissolved. If, however, the spouses retain affectio maritalis or regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as a free marriage.
D. If a couple married cum manu by confarreatio undergoes the ceremony of diffareatio, the marriage is dissolved. If, however, the spouses retain affectio maritalis or regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as a free marriage.

IX. Prohibited Marriages.

A. No marriage may exist if either party is younger than 18 years.
B. No marriage may exist between a citizen and his or her legal or biological ascendant or descendant.
C. No marriage may exist between a citizen and his or her legal or biological collateral relative if either party is fewer than two degrees removed from their common ascendant; except that a marriage between adoptive collateral relatives may exist if at least one party is sui iuris.
D. No marriage may exist between a citizen and the former spouse of his or her legal or biological ascendant or descendant, or between a citizen and the legal or biological ascendant or descendant of his or her former spouse.

X. Emancipation

A. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may emancipate a person, thus releasing him or her from potestas or manus, provided that he, she, or they notify the praetores of the emancipation, and provided that five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions also notify the praetores that they bear witness.
B. A citizen who is alieni iuris and whose paterfamilias and / or materfamilias refuses(s) to emancipate him or her may petition the praetores; if the praetores, after consulting with the paterfamilias and / or materfamilias, consider the refusal unreasonable, they may declare the petitioner sui iuris.

XI. Adoption.

A. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may adopt by adrogatio another citizen who is sui iuris provided that the adoptive parent(s) is / are at least 18 years older than the adopted child, and provided that the adoptive parents(s) and the adopted child all notify the pontifex maximus of their consent, and provided that the pontifex maximus consents, and provided that the comitia curiata bears witness (without right of refusal).
B. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may adopt by adoptio another citizen who is alieni iuris provided that the adoptive parent(s) is / are at least 18 years older than the adopted child, and provided that the adoptive paterfamilias and / or materfamilias and the former paterfamilias and / or materfamilias all notify the praetores of their consent, and provided that five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions also notify the praetores that they bear witness.
C. A citizen adopted by adrogatio becomes the legal child of the adoptive parent(s) and passes into his, her, or their potestas, and ceases to be the legal child relative of his or her former relatives except those in his or her potestas or manus; anyone in the potestas or manus of the adopted child becomes the legal descendant of the adoptive parent(s) in whatever relationship is appropriate to the new relationship between the adopted child and the adoptive parent(s), and passes into the potestas of the adoptive parent(s).
D. A citizen adopted by adoptio becomes the legal child of the adoptive parent(s) and ceases to be the legal relative of his or her former relatives, and passes from the potestas of his or her former paterfamilias and / or materfamilias into the potestas of the adoptive parent(s).
E. A citizen adopted by adrogatio or by adoptio takes the name of his or her adoptive father (or, if there is no adoptive father, the name of his or her adoptive mother), adjusted to his or her gender as appropriate, and adds an agnomen formed from his or her former nomen with the ending -ianus or -iana (e.g., Salix becomes Salicianus, Equitia becomes Equitiana). Any other relatives transferred from one familia to another by adrogatio also change their names in the same way.

XII. Tutela.

A. Any citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 must have a tutor or tutrix (guardian); a citizen who has a tutor is referred to as a pupillus or pupilla.
B. If a citizen is emancipated by his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias, his or her former paterfamilas and / or materfamilias is / are his or her tutor, tutrix, or tutores, unless during the emancipation process it is explicitly stated in the notification to the praetores and explicitly witnessed by all the witnesses that one of the witnesses it to be tutor instead.
C. If a citizen is emancipated by the praetores, the praetores must appoint a tutor or tutrix.
D. If a citizen becomes sui iuris on the death of his or her paterfamilias or materfamilias, and if in a valid will the deceased has nominated an eligible citizen as tutor or tutrix, the nominated citizen has thirty (30) days from the time when the will takes effect to accept the nomination; if he or she does not, he or she is considered to have refused.
E. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of eighteen (18) has no tutor under XII. B., XII. C., or XII. D., his or her nearest eligible legal relative is tutor or tutrix, without right of refusal; if several eligible legal relatives are equally closely related, they are joint tutores.
F. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of eighteen (18) has no tutor under XII. B., XII. C., XII. D., or XII. E., the praetores may appoint a consenting eligible citizen to be tutor or tutrix.
G. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 has need of a temporary tutor or tutrix (for instance while waiting for a tutor nominated in a will to accept, or to take legal action on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla against the latter's regular tutor or tutrix), the praetores may appoint a consenting eligible citizen to be tutor or tutrix for a specified period or until a specified condition be fulfilled.
H. To be eligible to be a tutor or tutrix a person must be a full citizen over the age of eighteen (18), sui iuris, and not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement of the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
I. A tutor or tutrix may make legal contracts or transactions, and acquire, hold, and dispose of property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations, on behalf of his or her pupillus or pupilla, but only in such a way as to conserve or increase the property and contractual rights and benefits of his or her pupillus or pupilla.
K. A tutor or tutrix must make arrangements and, if necessary, financial provision for his or her pupillus' or pupilla's education and upbringing.
L. When a pupillus or pupilla reaches the age of eighteen (18) his or her tutor or tutrix is relieved or his or her duties and must surrender to the pupillus or pupilla any property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations acquired or held on his or her behalf.
M. If a pupillus or pupilla enters the potestas of another citizen, his or her tutor is relieved of his or her duties and must surrender to the new paterfamilias and / or materfamilias any property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations acquired or held on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla.

XIII. Succession.

A. Any citizen who is sui iuris and aged eighteen (18) or above, and who is not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement or the ruling of a magistrate with imperium, may make a legal will.
B. A will is invalid unless witnessed by five citizens who have the capacity to witness legal transactions, and unless the testator was of sound mind at the time when the will was written, and unless the will clearly names as heir at least one citizen who is sui iuris (or becomes sui iuris on the testator's death) and not prohibited from acting as heir by a court judgement or the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
C. A citizen named as heir in a valid will may refuse up to thirty (30) days after discovering that he or she has been named as heir. The will may name another eligible citizen as secondary heir in case the primary heir refuses, and so on indefinitely. If no heir so named accepts, the will is invalid. A citizen who becomes sui iuris as a result of the death of the deceased may not refuse the inheritance.
D. If a paterfamilias or materfamilias dies without leaving a valid will, any citizens who become sui iuris as a result of the death become heirs without right of refusal; if no citizens become sui iuris as a result of the death, the nearest eligible legal relative(s) become(s) heir(s), each having the right to refuse up to thirty (30) days after discovering that he or she is heir; if there are no eligible legal relatives prepared to accept the inheritance, the inheritance passes to the gens of the deceased and may be disposed of by agreement of the patresfamiliarum and matresfamiliarum of the gens.
E. If more than one person is heir and the will, if there is one, does not state in what proportions they are to share the inheritance, the inheritance is shared equally; except that if there is no valid will and the heirs are those who have become sui iuris as a result of the death, stirpitial representation applies as in ancient law. If one person who is named co-heir in a will refuses the inheritance, his or her share goes to the other heirs in proportion to their existing shares.
F. The heir(s) inherit(s) any property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations which were held by the deceased and within the jurisdiction of Nova Roma, and must put into effect the instructions given by the deceased in any valid will except any instructions which are illegal, immoral, or impossible; and must assume responsibility for the familial sacra of the deceased.

XIV. Remedies.

A. Any citizen who has the legal capacity to take legal action may bring an action under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, or whatever lex shall supersede it, against a paterfamilias and / or materfamilias for seriously and consistently failing in his, her, or their duties to his, her, or their familia or a particular member of it. The praetor shall direct in his or her formula that if the reus, rea, or rei be found guilty his, her, or their familia or a particular member of it be removed from his, her, or their potestas or manus and, if necessary, placed under the tutela of a tutor or tutrix. The praetor may include other penalties at his or her discretion.
B. Any citizen who who has the legal capacity to take legal action may bring an action under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, or whatever lex shall supersede it, against a tutor or tutrix for failing in his or her duties to his or her pupillus or pupilla. A pupillus or pupilla may petition the praetores to appoint a temporary tutor or tutrix to bring such an action on his or her behalf. The praetor shall direct in his or her formula that if the reus be found guilty his pupillus or pupilla be removed from his or her tutela and placed under the tutela of another tutor or tutrix. The praetor may require the reus or rea to make restitution for any avoidable diminution of the property or contractual rights or benefits of the pupillus or pupilla and to meet personally any contractual obligations incurred by the tutor or tutrix on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla, and may include other penalties at his or her discretion.

XV. New Citizens.

A. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as the legal child of another citizen takes that citizen's nomen and cognomen, and may choose a praenomen and agnomina subject to the approval of his or her new legal parent and of the magistrates tasked with citizen registration. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as the legal child of a married citizen couple takes the nomen and cognomen of his or her legal father, and may choose a praenomen and agnomina subject to the approval of his or her new legal parents and of the magistrates tasked with citizen registration.
B. A person who is the biological child of a citizen or of a married citizen couple, or who is the legally adopted child of a citizen or of a married citizen couple according to the law of the state in which he or she lives, shall have the right to become a citizen as the legal child of that citizen or married citizen couple.
C. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as a paterfamilias or materfamilias takes the nomen appropriate to his or her gens and a cognomen not already held by any member of that gens.

XVI. Miscellaneous Provisions.

A. To have capacity to witness a legal transaction a person must be a citizen, sui iuris, aged eighteen (18) years or above, and not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement of the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
B. All citizens retain those rights guaranteed in the Constitution of Nova Roma. The rights of alieni iuris citizens may be exercised on their behalf by their paterfamilias, materfamilias, tutor, or tutrix, except where an alieni iuris citizen is petitioning a praetor directly.
C. No citizen may vote in comitia for another citizen, regardless of familial status, unless a proxy statement has been filed by the citizen granting a voting proxy. This proxy statement must be filed with the presiding magistrate of the comitia during the contio period prior to the vote.
D. The praetores may clarify, supplement, and interpret this law with reference to the relevant provisions and practices of republican Roman law, and with reference to the principles of justice and equity, as was done by the praetores of antiquity.

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CIII: Lex Equitia de iurisdictione

This law is enacted in order to further define the term "competence" as used in the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria

I.

The praetores shall have competence to grant trial in any matter between citizens (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus or between peregrini provided that the conditions set in the Lex Salicia Poenalis, Article VII. B are observed), with the following exceptions:

A.The praetores shall not grant trial against a reus who is a sitting magistrate.
B.The praetores shall not grant trial against a reus who is a former dictator regarding any action taken by that person in the course of his duties as dictator.

II.

Whenever a praetor shall receive a petitio actionis regarding which he is forbidden by this lex from granting trial, he shall dismiss the petitio actionis under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria article II. A.

III.

The governor of a provincia shall have competence to grant trial in any matter between citizens who live in that provincia (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus who both live in that provincia or between peregrini who both live in that provincia provided that the conditions set in the Lex Salicia Poenalis, Article VII. B are observed).

A.In such cases, all laws concerning the administration of justice shall apply as usual, any reference to the praetor or the praetores being construed as referring to the governor.
B.Should the praetores receive any petitio actionis concerning a matter which is between two citizens who live in the same provincia, or between a citizen and a peregrinus who live in the same provincia, or between two peregrini who live in the same provincia, they shall pass the petitio to the governor of that provincia.
C.Should a petitio submitted to a governor be dismissed by that governor, or should the governor fail to respond to such a petitio within 120 hours (5 days) of its submission, the petitioner may submit the same petitio to the praetores, and the praetores may deal with the petitio as under the lex Salicia iudiciaria and all other relevant laws.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CIV: Lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda

Preamble

We, the Senate and People of Nova Roma, as an independent and sovereign nation, herewith set forth this Constitution as the foundation and structure of our governing institutions and common society. We hereby declare our Nation to stand as a beacon for those who would recreate the best of ancient Rome. As a nation, Nova Roma shall be the temporal homeland and worldly focus for the Religio Romana. The primary function of Nova Roma shall be to promote the study and practice of pagan Roman civilization, defined as the period from the founding of the City of Rome in 753 BCE to the removal of the altar of Victory from the Senate in 394 CE and encompassing such fields as religion, culture, politics, art, literature, language, and philosophy.

As the spiritual heir to the ancient Roman Republic and Empire, Nova Roma shall endeavor to exist, in all manners practical and acceptable, as the modern restoration of the ancient Roman Republic. The culture, religion, and society of Nova Roma shall be patterned upon those of ancient Rome.

I. Constitutional Basis

A. This Constitution shall be the basic authority for all decision-making within Nova Roma and shall limit the authority of all magistrates and bodies, and all leges (laws) passed by the comitia, decreta (decrees) of the priestly collegia, magisterial edicta (edicts) and Senatus consulta shall be subject to it except as provided by the following two provisos:
1. The edicta (edicts) of a dictator appointed under this Constitution may override its provisions, insofar as he is empowered to do so by the Senatus consultum enabling his appointment;
2. This Constitution may be amended by a Lex passed by the comitia centuriata and approved by a vote of two-thirds of the Senate.
B. Legal precedence. This Constitution shall be the highest legal authority within Nova Roma, apart from edicts issued by a legally appointed dictator. It shall thereafter be followed in legal authority by edicta issued by consuls acting under the Senatus consulta ultima, laws properly voted and passed by one of the comitia, decreta passed by the collegium pontificum, decreta passed by the collegium augurum, Senatus consulta, and magisterial edicta (in order of descending authority as described in section IV of this Constitution), in that order. Should a lower authority conflict with a higher authority, the higher authority shall take precedence. Should a law passed by one of the comitia contradict one passed by another or the same comitia without explicitly superseding that law, the most recent law shall take precedence.
C. This Constitution shall serve as the bylaws for Nova Roma, a legally incorporated entity in the state of Maine, USA (hereafter referred to as "the corporation"). The conduct and procedures of the Board of Directors and the officers of the corporation shall be according to the guidelines and strictures set forth in this Constitution. The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be composed of the Senate of Nova Roma (as described in Section V of this Constitution), and the officers of the corporation shall be composed of the magistrates of Nova Roma (as described in Section IV of this Constitution), as follows:
1. The co-presidents of the corporation shall be the consuls of Nova Roma;
2. The co-vice-presidents of the corporation shall be the praetors of Nova Roma;
3. The co-treasurers of the corporation shall be the quaestors of Nova Roma;
4. The co-secretaries of the corporation shall be the censors of Nova Roma.
D. This Constitution may be altered by law passed by the comitia centuriata; such alterations to this Constitution must be ratified by a vote of two-thirds of the entire Senate before they shall take effect. The edicta of an appointed Dictator may also alter this Constitution, subject to ratification by the Senate.
E. The use of male pronouns and technical terms within this Constitution is done solely for clarity, and shall not be construed to imply any disparity between genders before the law.

II. Citizens and Gentes

A. Citizenship
1. Any person 18 years old or older may apply for Citizenship.
2. Citizens may apply for Citizenship on behalf of their children or legal wards (as defined by relevant macronational law) under the age of 18. Such Citizens shall be known as impuberes.
3. Citizenship is open to anyone regardless of ethnic heritage, gender, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation.
4. Citizenship may be involuntarily revoked by those means that shall be established by law, or may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
5. Impuberes may have their Citizenship relinquished on their behalf by their parent or legal guardian (as defined by relevant macronational law) by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
B. The following rights of the Citizens who have reached the age of 18 shall be guaranteed, but this enumeration shall not be taken to exclude other rights that citizens may possess:
1. Complete authority over their own personal and household rites, rituals, and beliefs, pagan or otherwise; except where this Constitution mandates participation in the rites of the Religio Romana, such as the case of magistrates and Senators;
2. The right and obligation to remain subject to the civil rights and laws of the countries in which they reside and/or hold citizenship, regardless of their status as dual citizens of Nova Roma;
3. The right to vote in elections as members of their various comitia on matters brought before the People in such manner as described in this Constitution;
4. The right to participate in all public fora and discussions, and the right to reasonably expect such fora to be supported by the State. Such communications, regardless of their content, may not be restricted by the State, except where they represent an imminent and clear danger to the Republic. Such officially sponsored fora may be expected to be reasonably moderated in the interests of maintaining order and civility;
5. The right of provocatio; to appeal a decision of a magistrate that has a direct negative impact upon that citizen to the comitia populi tributa;
6. The right to privacy; security in one's home, person, and property; and authority over one's home, person, and property. Homes may not be searched, persons may not be detained, and property may not be seized, except by judicial ruling or by a special provision of law;
7. The right to seek and receive assistance and advice from the State in matters of religious and social disputes occurring both within and outside the direct jurisdiction of Nova Roma; and,
8. The right to pursue business enterprises within Nova Roma through the institution of the ordo equester (equestrian order), and the right to receive reasonable encouragement to build a strong economy through Roman-oriented commerce; the only restrictions being those informational and other materials copyrighted by the State, which shall remain the property of the State.
C. The Orders. Even though members of the three orders are equal under the eyes of the law, the institution of the orders is significant enough that it is perpetuated in Nova Roma. There are three orders into which all Citizens fall:
1. Ordo Patricius (patrician order)
a. The Ordo Patricius shall consist of a minimum of 30 families.
b. Should there be fewer than 30 patrician families the Senate shall have the power to nominate a plebeian family to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status.
c. The Senate shall have the power to nominate additional families to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status if this elevation does not cause the Ordo Patricius to exceed 5% of the population of Nova Roma.
d. A patrician family may allow its members to form new patrician families.
2. Ordo equester (equestrian order). The equestrian order shall consist of citizens who are engaged in the conduct of commerce (preferably with a Roman theme) who request and are granted entry into the equestrian order by the censors. Such individuals are expected to contribute a portion of the revenue derived from Nova Roma back to the State, and receive reasonable encouragement in their enterprise in return. Day to day supervision of venues where the Ordo Equester is engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property will be under the jurisdiction of the Curule Aediles. For purposes of participating in the comitia, holding office, etc. members of the equestrian order shall be considered to be of the patrician or plebeian order, depending on their status prior to inclusion in the equestrian order.
3. Ordo plebeius (plebeian order). The plebeian order shall consist of individuals who do not belong to either the patrician or equestrian orders.
D. Gentes and Families. Families being the backbone of Roman society, the prerogatives and responsibilities of the family are of primary importance to Nova Roma. Except where specifically dealt with in this constitution and the law, each family shall have the right to determine its own course of action, and parents shall have the undisputed right and responsibility to see to the education and raising of their children.
1. Each gens shall be registered with the censors, who will maintain records of gens membership and other relevant information.
2. No two gentes may have the same nomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
3. Each gens shall consist of a minimum of one family.
4. No two families within a gens may have the same cognomen (surname) unless they are differentiated by an agnomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring that this rule is observed.
5. Each family shall, through whatever means it may determine appropriate, have a paterfamilias (fem. materfamilias) who shall act as the leader of the family and speak for it when necessary. The holder of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The paterfamilias or materfamilias may, at his or her discretion, expel members of their family, accept new members into it by adoption, or allow members who are not impuberes to form new families belonging to the same order as the pater or materfamilias.
a. The paterfamilias may, at his discretion, exercise the rights enumerated in paragraph II. B. of this Constitutionon behalf of impuberes in their gens, with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II. B. 3.) and the right to join the Ordo Equester (paragraph II. B. 8.).
b. No impuberes may become patres or matresfamiliarum.
E. Tribes and Centuries
1. There shall exist thirty-five tribes, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens. Thirty-one of these tribes shall be designated the Rural tribes, and shall be assigned by the censors as directed by law passed by the comitia populi tributa. Four of these tribes shall be designated the urban tribes, and shall be made up of those citizens who fail to vote in the annual magisterial elections. Should a member of an urban tribe subsequently vote in an annual magisterial election, he or she shall be reassigned to a rural tribe.
2. There shall exist a number of centuries, said number to be set by law enacted by the Comitia Centuriata and not to exceed one-hundred ninety-three, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens. Until such a law is passed, the number of centuries shall be one-hundred ninety-three. The exact composition of these centuries shall be determined by law passed by the comitia centuriata, but shall be weighted in favor of those citizens who have shown the greatest commitment to Nova Roma.

III. Comitia

A. The comitia curiata (Assembly of Curiae) shall be made up of thirty lictores curiati (lictors of the curia), appointed to their positions by the collegium pontificum (college of pontiffs). It shall be called to order by the Pontifex Maximus, and the collegium pontificum shall set the rules by which the comitia curiata shall operate internally. It shall have the following responsibilities:
1. To invest elected and appointed magistrates with Imperium (which is necessary to employ coercitio [the power to compel obedience to their edicts], interpret and execute law, and possess the honor of being preceded by lictors as a symbol of office), without right of refusal individually or as a body;
2. To witness the appointment of official priests and priestesses of the Religio Romana, adoptions, and the recording of wills.
3. To approve or reject the elevation of a plebeian family to the Ordo Patricius;
4. To approve or reject an adoption that elevates a plebeian to the Ordo Patricius or lowers a patrician to the Ordo Plebeius;
5. To approve or reject an application from a patrician who wishes to renounce his status and become a member of the plebeian order.
B. The Comitia Centuriata (Assembly of Centuries) shall be made up of all of the citizens, grouped into their respective centuries. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the comitia centuriata shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the consuls, praetors, and censors;
3. To try legal cases in which the defendant is subject to permanent removal of citizenship.
C. The Comitia Plebis Tributa (Assembly of the Plebeians) shall be made up of all non-patrician citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by a tribune of the plebs, only the comitia plebis tributa shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact plebiscites with the force of law, binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the plebeian aediles and tribunes of the plebs;
3. To try legal cases solely involving members of the plebeian order that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.
D. The Comitia Populi Tributa (Assembly of the People) shall be made up of all citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the comitia populi tributa shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the quaestors and curule aediles;
3. To try legal cases that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.

IV. Magistrates.

Magistrates are the elected and appointed officials responsible for the maintenance and conduct of the affairs of state. There are two categories of magistrates: ordinarii (those who are ordinarily elected) and extraordinarii (those who are only occasionally appointed or elected). Qualifications necessary to hold these positions may be enacted by law properly passed by one of the comitia.

A. Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place no later than December 15th, and newly-elected officials shall assume their offices on January 1st. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:
1. Censor. Two censors shall be elected by the comitia centuriata to serve a term lasting two years, to be elected in alternate years so as to have a one-year overlap of terms. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to carry out those tasks in which they are mandated by this Constitution and the law to engage (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
b. To maintain the album civium (list of citizens), including the tribe and century to which they are assigned as described by law, and other appropriate information regarding them;
c. To maintain the album gentium (list of gentes) and appropriate information regarding them;
d. To maintain the album senatorum (list of Senators), including the power to add and remove names on that list according to qualifications set by law;
e. To maintain the album equestrium (lists of members of the equestrian order), including the power to add and remove names on that list;
f. To safeguard the public morality and honor through the collegial administering of notae;
1. A nota against an ordinary individual is sufficient to deprive that individual of the right to vote until such time as it is removed;
2. A nota against a member of the Senate is sufficient to remove that individual from the Senate until such time as it is removed.
g. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
2. Consul. Two consuls shall be elected annually by the comitia centuriata to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by twelve lictors;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To call the Senate, the comitia centuriata, and the comitia populi tributa to order;
d. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against another consul or magistrate of lesser authority;
e. To appoint accensi (personal assistants) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
3. Praetor. Two praetors shall be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To call the Senate, the comitia centuriata, and the comitia populi tributa to order when the Consuls are unavailable;
d. To pronounce intercessio against another praetor or magistrate of lesser authority;
e. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
4. Aediles Curules (Curule Aediles). Two curule aediles shall be elected by the comitia populi tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To pronounce intercessio against another aedile (curule or plebeian) or magistrate of lesser authority;
d. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
e. To maintain the venues where the Ordo Equester is engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property. It is the responsibility of the Curule Aediles to report any changes of the Ordo Equester to the Censors.
5. Aediles plebis (Plebeian Aedile). Two plebeian aediles shall be elected by the comitia plebis tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They must both be of the plebeian order and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
b. To pronounce intercessio against another plebeian aedile or magistrate of lesser authority;
c. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
6. Quaestor. A number of quaestors shall be elected by the comitia populi tributa equal to the number of consuls, praetors, and aediles to serve a term lasting one year. One quaestor shall be assigned to each of these magistrates by mutual agreement or, if such cannot be made, by decision of the newly-elected consuls. They shall have the power and obligation to administer those funds that shall be allocated to them by the Senate in its annual budget under the supervision of that magistrate to whom they are assigned. Those quaestors assigned directly to the consuls shall supervise the whole of the aerarium (treasury), but no funds may be spent without the prior approval of the Senate.
7. Tribuni Plebis (Tribune of the Plebs). Five tribunes of the plebs shall be elected by the comitia plebis tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They must all be of the plebeian order, and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against the actions of any other magistrate (with the exception of the dictator and the interrex), Senatus consulta, magisterial edicta, religious decreta, and leges passed by the comitia when the spirit and / or letter of this Constitution or legally-enacted edicta or decreta, Senatus Consulta or leges are being violated thereby; once a pronouncement of intercessio has been made, the other Tribunes may, at their discretion, state either their support for or their disagreement with that intercessio.
1. Each Tribune may issue only one such declaration of support or disagreement, but may change their declaration from one to the other, should they wish to do so.
2. The initial pronouncement of intercessio by a Tribune shall count as that Tribune's declaration of agreement.
3. Should the number or the Tribunes who choose to disagree with an intercessio equal or exceed the number of Tribunes who choose to support it, the intercessio shall be revoked.
a Intercessio may not be imposed against statements of support for or disagreement with a use of intercessio that are issued pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
b The issuance and function of intercessio shall be defined according to procedures described by legislation passed by Comitia.
b. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against another Tribune using the same mechanism as described in paragraph IV. A. 7. a. above;
c. To be immune from intercessio pronounced by other magistrates, except as described in paragraphs IV. A. 7 .a. and IV. A. 7. b. above;
d. To be privy to the debates of the Senate, and keep the citizens informed as to the subjects and results thereof, in such manner and subject to such restrictions as may be defined by law;
1 To call the Senate to order;
2. To call the comitia plebis tributa to order, except when the Patrician order shall constitute more than ten percent (10%) of the total population, in which case the power shall be altered to calling the comitia populi tributa to order;
3. To administer the law;
4. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
8. Vigintisexviri (The Twenty-Six). Collectively, the Twenty-Six shall be minor magistrates elected to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia.
9. Apparitores (Attendants). Collectively, the apparitores shall not be considered magistrates, but rather shall be appointed into various decuriae (corporations) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia. They shall include the lictores, lictores curiati, scribae, and accensi.
B. The extraordinarii are as follows:
1. Dictator. In times of emergency, the Senate may appoint a dictator to serve a term not to exceed six months. At the time of such appointment, the Senate may prescribe a given task or boundaries within which the dictator is obliged to remain. The edicts of the dictator are absolute within his sphere of influence, and subject to neither intercessio or provocatio. The dictator shall hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by twenty-four lictors. At the end of his term the actions of the dictator shall be subject to final confirmation by the Senate.
2. Interrex. Should both consular positions be vacant at the same time, the Senate shall appoint an Interrex to serve a term lasting no more than five days. The Interrex must be a member of the patrician order, and shall have all the powers and responsibilities of a normally elected consul. The Interrex shall organize new elections in the comitia centuriata to elect two new consuls to serve out the remainder of the previous consuls' term of office.

V. The Senate

The supreme policy-making authority for Nova Roma shall be embodied in its Senate. The album Senatorum (list of Senators) shall be maintained by the censors according to qualifications set by law. The Senate shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:

A. As the repository of experience and wisdom in the affairs of State, the Senate shall have the authority to issue Senatus consulta (advice of the Senate) on those topics upon which it shall see fit to comment.
B. The Senate shall exercise control over the aerarium (treasury) and shall oversee the financial endeavors, health, and policy of the state.
1. No later than the last day of November of each year, the Senate shall prepare a budget for the following year. This budget shall deal with the disbursement of funds from the aerarium to the quaestors for various purposes. Even though the quaestors assigned to the consuls shall be responsible for the maintenance of the entire treasury, no funds from it may be disbursed without the prior approval of the Senate. The Senate may, as required by changing circumstances, pass supplemental Senatus consulta to modify the annual budget.
2. The Senate may, by Senatus consultum, impose taxes, fees, or other financial requirements on the citizens in order to maintain the financial welfare of the state.
C. The Senate may, by Senatus Consultum, create provinciae for administrative purposes and appoint provincial governors therefor, who shall bear such titles as the Senate may deem appropriate. The Senate may review each governor on a yearly basis and it remains in the discretion of the Senate whether or not to prorogue such governors, although this review shall not constitute a ban on the authority of the Senate to remove governors from office as its discretion. Governors shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
1. To hold imperium and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors solely within the jurisdiction of their respective provinciae;
2. To proclaim those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma, solely within the jurisdiction of their provinciae (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
3. To manage the day-to-day organization and administration of their provinciae;
4. To appoint officers to whom authority may be delegated, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate;
5. To remove officers whom they have appointed, or make changes to their titles and/or delegated authority, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate.
D. Should a magistrate's office become vacant during the course of his term, the Senate may appoint a replacement to serve out the remainder of the term should there be less than three months remaining therein.
E. The Senate shall have the power to issue the Senatus consultum ultimum (the ultimate decree of the Senate). When in effect, this decree will supersede all other governmental bodies and authorities (with the exception of the dictator) and allow the Senate to invest the consuls with absolute powers to deal with a specific situation, subject only to their collegial veto and review by the Senate. Even under the authority of the Senatus consultum ultimum, the consuls may only temporarily suspend this Constitution; they may not enact any permanent changes hereto.
F. The Senate may, by Senatus consultum, enact rules governing its own internal procedures (such Senatus consulta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia).

VI. Public Religious Institutions

A. The Religio Romana, the worship of the Gods and Goddesses of Rome, shall be the official religion of Nova Roma. All magistrates and Senators, as officers of the State, shall be required to publicly show respect for the Religio Romana and the Gods and Goddesses that made Rome great. Magistrates, Senators, and citizens need not be practitioners of the Religio Romana, but may not engage in any activity that intentionally blasphemes or defames the Gods, the Religio Romana, or its practitioners.
B. The priesthoods of the Gods of Rome shall be organized as closely as practical on the ancient Roman model. The institutions of the Religio Romana shall have authority over religious matters on the level of the state and nation only, maintaining the religious rites of the State and providing resources pertaining to the Religio Romana which Citizens may make use of if they choose. Nova Roma shall approach all other religions with a syncretistic outlook, offering friendship to all paths which acknowledge the right of those who practice and honor the Religio Romana to do so and respect the beliefs thereof. Only Citizens of Nova Roma may be members of the public institutions of the Religio Romana, which shall be organized, and have their responsibilities divided, as follows:
1. The collegium pontificum (college of pontiffs) shall be the highest of the priestly collegia. It shall consist of the Pontifex Maximus, fourteen Pontifices, twelve flamines, six Sacerdotes Vestales, and the Rex and Regina Sacrorum. The collegium pontificum shall appoint its own members. The collegium pontificum shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
a. To control the calendar, and determine when the festivals and dies fasti and dies nefasti shall occur, and what their effects shall be, within the boundaries of the example of ancient Rome;
b. To have ritual responsibilities within the Religio Romana; and general authority over the institutions, rites, rituals, and priesthoods of the public Religio Romana;
c. To issue decreta (decrees) on matters relevant to the Religio Romana and its own internal procedures (such decreta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia or Senatus consultum).
2. The Collegium Augurum (College of Augurs) shall be the second-highest ranked of the priestly Collegia. The eldest member of the Collegium shall be the Magister Collegii. The Collegium Augurum shall consist of nine Augurs, five from the Plebeian order and four from the Patrician order. They shall be appointed by the Collegium Pontificum, and shall hold their offices for life, excepting in cases of resignation of office, resignation of citizenship, or loss of Assiduus citizenship by process of law. Resignation of office or citizenship by an Augur must be made in writing to the Pontifex Maximus and the Magister Collegii; the Pontifex Maximus and Magister Collegii shall be informed in writing of any process of law by which such an Augur has lost citizenship. Augurs who have resigned their office, resigned their citizenship, or have lost their citizenship by process of law shall remain sacri in their persons but may exercise no augural powers or functions, nor shall they be accounted members of the Collegium Augurum.
a. The collegium augurum shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
1. To research, practice, and uphold the ars auguria (the art of interpreting divine signs and omens, solicited or otherwise);
2. To issue decreta (decrees) on matters of the ars auguria and its own internal procedures (such decreta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia or Senatus consultum).
b. Individual augurs shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
1. To define templum (sacred space) and celebrate auguria (the rites of augury);
2. To declare obnuntiatio (a declaration that unfavorable and unsolicited omens have been observed that justify a delay of a meeting of one of the comitia or the Senate).
3. Other institutions and priesthoods may be instituted, and the rules for such set, by the collegium pontificum, in accordance with the ancient models of the Religio Romana as practiced by our spiritual ancestors.

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CV: Lex Equitia de gentibus

I. ((Constitutional amendment))

Article II.D of the constitution is hereby amended to read:

D. Gentes, Domus, and Familiae. Familiae (households) being the backbone of Roman society, the prerogatives and responsibilities of the familia are of primary importance to Nova Roma. Except where specifically dealt with in this constitution and the law, each familia shall have the right to determine its own course of action and parents shall have the undisputed right and responsibility to see to the education and raising of their children.
1. Each gens (clan) shall be registered with the censors, who will maintain records of gens membership and other relevant information.
2. No two gentes may have the same nomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
3. Each gens shall consist of a minimum of one domus (lineage).
4. No two domus within a gens may have the same cognomen (surname). The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
5. Each familia shall have a paterfamilias and / or materfamilias who shall act as the leader(s) of the family and speak for it when necessary. The holder(s) of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may, at his, her, or their discretion, expel members of his, her, or their familia, accept new members into it by adoption, or allow members to form new familiae belonging to the same order.
a. The paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may, at his, her, or their discretion, exercise the rights enumerated in paragraph II.B of this Constitution on behalf of impuberes in his, her, or their familia, with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II. B. 3.) and the right to join the Ordo Equester (paragraph II. B. 8.).

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CVI: Lex Equitia Galeria de legibus ex post factis

Article I section A of the Constitution of Nova Roma is amended by adding a section A.3 a and b which shall read

3. a. No one shall suffer a penalty for an action which was not subject to a penalty when the action was performed. If an action was subject to a penalty when the action was performed but is no longer subject to any penalty, no penalty shall be applied for that action.
b. No one shall suffer a greater penalty for an action than the penalty which was applicable when the action was taken. If an action was subject to a penalty when the action was performed but is now subject to a lesser penalty, the lesser penalty shall be applicable for that action.

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CVII: Lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis

I. ((Purpose of the lex))

This lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis is hereby enacted to define the classifications of taxpayers and non-taxpayers, and put in place special conditions on those who are unable or unwilling to support the financial welfare of the Republic through payment of those taxes which may be enacted by the Senate.

II. ((Definition of assidui))

Citizens who pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the current legislation shall be considered assidui. No special conditions shall be placed on assidui in regards to their placement in centuries and tribes or their ability to run for or hold office.

III. ((Definition of capite censi))

Citizens who do not pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the Senate shall be considered capite censi. The following special conditions shall apply to capite censi:

A. ((Placement in centuries))

The Censors shall place all capite censi in the last century in Class V as defined in the lex Vedia centuriata and those leges which may amend it, and no other Citizens shall be enrolled therein.

B. ((Placement in tribes))

The Censors shall place all capite censi in the urban tribes as defined in the lex Vedia tributorum and those leges which may amend it.

C. ((Public office))

No member of the capite censi may run for or hold office as one of the ordinarii (including the apparitores), nor be appointed to or hold office as provincial governor, nor be titled as Senator or members of the Collegium Pontificium or priest or Sacerdos. Members of the capite censi may hold provincial or local offices at the discretion of the governor of the province in question.

D. ((Default of payment while in office))

Members of the Senate and Ordinarii sitting magistrates of the ordinarii and Senatores who become members of the Capite Censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Censors.

Members of the Collegium Pontificum and priests and sacerdotes who become members of the Capite Censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Pontifex Maximus.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CVIII: Lex Apula de magistro araneario

I. ((Magister aranearius))

The Magister Aranearius is the official webmaster of Nova Roma. This law provides the procedures for the his appointment and his official activities.

II. ((Appointment))

The Senatus will appoint the Magister Aranearius in Consultum following a review of his curriculum vitae and technical skills. The duration of the appointment is to discretion of the Senatus.

III. ((Duties))

The magister aranearius is responsible for the design, the database, the server and maintenance, and any alteration of the website www.novaroma.org and of all official web sites sponsored by the Nova Roma, except for the parts under the control of other magistrates.

IV. ((Cooperation with others))

The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates and institutions of Nova Roma regarding content for the web site.

V. ((Assistants))

The magister aranearius shall have the authority to appoint his own ASSISTANT, should he deem it necessary.

VI. ((Resignation))

Resignation from the Office must to be announced to the Senatus at least 30 days before it becomes effective.

VII. ((Amendment of lex Equitia de vigintisexviris))

Paragraph II of the lex Equitia de vigintisexviris is modified as follows:

"II. In accordance with the Constitution of Nova Roma, the following minor magistracies are defined within the category of Vigintisexviri:
A. Editor of Written News
The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
B. Rogatores. Magistratus ad consignandos suffragium ferentes
1.a. Until the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), four rogatores shall be responsible for the administration of elections and the recording of votes among the curiae.
1.b. Each rogator shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
1.c. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, four rogatores shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
1.d. The rogatores may divide their duties amongst themselves as they see fit and practical.
1.e. Since the rogatores are by definition privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as rogatores.
2.a. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), two rogatores shall be elected to act as subordinate magistrates to the censores, responsible for registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process.
2. b. During intervals when no censors are serving in office, the rogatores may carry out the routine maintenance of the Album Civium and the Album Gentium in concert with the magister aranearius.
2. c. Each rogator shall have the authority to appoint his own scribae, should he deem it necessary.
C. Diribitores--Suffragiorum computatores
1. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), up to four diribitores shall be responsible for the counting of votes among the curiae.
2. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, four diribitores shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
3. The diribitores may divide their duties among themselves as they see fit and practical with the approval of the custodes.
4. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.
5. Diribitores shall only count votes, and shall not engage in any tie-breaking.
D. Custodes. Iudices Electionum
1. Beginning on the Kalends of January MMDCCLVIII (1 January 2005), two custodes shall be responsible for certifying the tally of votes in elections as reported to them by the diribitores, breaking any ties among the centuries and tribes, and providing the results of elections to the magistrates presiding over the elections.
2. Since by definition the custodes are privy to the details of the election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as custodes.
3. The lack of a full complement of, or the active participation of, both custodes shall not in and of itself be sufficient to invalidate or postpone a particular election.
4. Custodes may, if they choose, assist the diribitores in the vote-counting process.
5. In the event that there are no diribitores, the custodes shall assume the duties of diribitores until sufficient diribitores have been elected."

VIII. ((Amendment of the lex Fabia centuriata))

Paragraph II.b.1 of the lex Fabia centuriata is modified as follows:

"Quaestor and Vigintisexvir and Magister Aranearius:
10 CP
5 CP (past service)"

"Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience."

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CIX: Lex Popillia senatoria

This lex follows the institutions of the kings in establishing a maximum size for the senate, and the lex Ovinia of c.318 in setting guidelines for the selection of new senatores.

I. ((Number of senatores))

After each census the censores shall declare a maximum number of senatores.

A. This number shall be 15% of the total number of assidui at the time, or the nearest whole number.
B. This number shall be the maximum number of senatores until the number is revised by the censores after the following census.
C. This number shall never be lower than the number of senatores who exist at the time of the declaration, regardless of the number of assidui.
D. This number shall never exceed 300, regardless of the number of assidui.
E. After they have declared the maximum number of senatores (and not before), the censores shall revise the list of senatores.

II. ((Removal of senatores))

The censores may remove senatores from the list.

A. They shall begin with the list drawn up by the previous censores.
B. They shall first strike from the list those who have died or lost their citizenship since the last list was drawn up.
C. They may also strike from the list any existing senatores whose past conduct they consider seriously harmful to the dignity of the senate. They shall make public explanation of their reason for doing so.
D. An existing senator may only be removed from the list with the agreement of both censores.

III. ((Sublection of senatores))

The censores shall add new senatores to the list.

A. After removing any senatores whom they wish to remove from the list, the censores shall sublect (add) new senatores to the list until the total number of senatores is equal to the maximum which they have set, or as near to the maximum as the censores consider reasonable.
B. They shall first sublect any dictatorii (citizens who have completed terms as dictator) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
C. They shall next sublect any censorii (citizens who have completed terms as censor) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
D. They shall next sublect any consulares (citizens who have completed terms as consul) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
E. They shall next sublect any praetorii (citizens who have completed terms as praetor) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
F. They shall next sublect citizens at their discretion, giving due weight to their past tenure of public office, to their seniority, and to their good character. These may include citizens who were passed over or removed from the senate by previous censores.
G. They may pass over for sublection any citizen qualified under III.B, C, D, or E whose past conduct they consider would be seriously harmful to the dignity of the senate. They shall make public explanation of their reason for doing so.
H. A new senator may only be added to the list with the agreement of both censores.

IV. ((Ius sententiae dicendae))

Higher magistrates and ex-magistrates shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate.

A. Any flamen Dialis, dictator, censor, consul, or praetor shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate and to vote therein; any tribunus plebis shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate but not to vote therein.
B. No flamen Dialis, dictator, censor, consul, praetor, or tribunus plebis shall be counted toward the total number of senatores.
C. Any dictatorius, censorius, consularis, or praetorius shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate and to vote therein, except one who has been deliberately passed over for sublection.
D. No dictatorius, censorius, consularis, or praetorius shall be counted toward the total number of senatores unless he or she has already been sublected by the censores.

V. ((Immunity))

A decision of the censores to remove an existing senator, or of either censor to pass over a citizen for sublection, is not subject to any appeal or provocatio and cannot be used as grounds to prosecute any current or former censor.

VI. ((Repeals))

The leges Vedia senatoria, Arminia senatoria, and Octavia de senatoribus are repealed.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CX: Lex Fabia de nominibus approbationibusque

PREAMBLE:

This lex provides a frame in the way prospective citizens can choose their roman name. It encompasses historical research in the form of attested lists of Republican names and takes into consideration the laws of Nova Roma that deal with citizenship approval and the scope of Pater / Mater Familias authority on this particular matter. Application to Nova Roman citizenship implies acceptance and agreement to the terms of the present lex and is subject to a probationary period as described by lex Equitia de tirocinio civium novorum. The Censores reserve the right to refuse any application that does not abide by the following articles.

For the purpose of this lex, and as per lex Labiena de gentibus is recognised as the basic unit of society in Nova Roma. Gentes are composed of many different familiae that share the same nomen. Pater / Materfamilias are head of these officially recognised familiae and not of the gentes. This lex spells out the procedures that the Censores will follow in dealing with the approval of prospective citizens to Nova Roma and the incidence those procedures will have on their names.

This lex hereby complements the lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus whose article II.E is repealed. Whenever a contradition arises between the lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus and the present lex de nominibus approbationibusque, the present lex shall have precedence.

BASIS OF AUTHORITY

This lex is based on lex Labiena de gentibus and lex Equitia familiaris and takes into consideration the fact that Familiae are now the basic social units of Nova Roma. As such Pater / Materfamilias are now head of Familiae (natural or adopted) and not Gentes as was previously the case.

DEFINITIONS

The definitions below are provided to help cives understand the context within which Nova Roman nomenclature applies.

  • A Familia (pl familiae) (household) constists of a pater or materfamilias and all who are in their potestas or manus OR two heads of household together in a free marriage and all who are in their shared potestas.
  • A Domus (pl domus) or Stirps (pl. Stirpes) is an informal group of people who all share the same "nomen-cognomen" combination. There are no recognised heads of Domus; The heads of the familiae whose pater / materfamilias belong to the domus may, however, act in concert to authorise any new citizen to use their "nomen-cognomen" combination.
  • A Gens (pl gentes) regroups all the people who share the same nomen. There are no recognised heads of Gentes in Nova Roma. As long as a new citizen does not choose an existing "nomen-cognomen" combination (see domus), he/she can choose to join any gens he / she likes.

I. Names in Nova Roma

I.A. Nomenclature

As per Roma Antiqua the nomenclature of free male citizens is that of the "tria nomina" (three names) formed as "praenomen-nomen-cognomen". The preferred choice for female nomenclature in Nova Roma is also the "tria nomina": This is to reflect the equal treatment of each prospective citizen, regardless of his / her gender, required by the constitution. The Censores, however, MAY recognise the Roman tradition in naming female citizens and may, in certain exceptional cases and after a personal application to the Censores, allow the following nomenclatures: "nomen only" or "nomen-cognomen".

I.A.1. Praenomen

Here is presented a list of Republican praenomina available to the prospective citizen. Each praenomen has been historically researched and attested. This list will be reviewed as and when new evidence comes to light: Please note that NO Praenomen that does not appear on this list will be accepted by the Censorial office without a special application. Please note that this list includes all the most common praenomina: They are accepted as standards by most scholars and will also be accepted by the censores without discussion. There are however a few other, far less common, praenomina available on request, look below.

Praenomina are very often abbreviated, and the abbreviations will be used in most official communications and records.

Common praenomina: the praenomina nearer to the beginning of the list are more frequent; those nearer to the end are less frequent.

Abbreviation Male Female
C. Gaius Gaia
L. Lucius Lucia
M. Marcus Marca
P. Publius Publia
Q. Quintus Quinta
T. Titus Tita
Ti. Tiberius Tiberia
Sex. Sextus Sexta
A. Aulus Aula
D. Decimus Decima
Cn. Gnaeus Gnaea
Sp. Spurius Spuria
M'. Manius Mania
Ser. Servius Servia
Ap. Appius Appia
N. Numerius Numeria
V. Vibius Vibia

Rare praenomina: a list of Republican rare praenomina available to the prospective citizen is presented on the Name page (Index Nominum) of the main Nova Roma Website. This list will be updated by the Censores as new evidence comes to the foreground. These praenomina are only available on request and such requests must be approved by the Censores.

I.A.2. Nomen

The Nomen or genticilium serves to identify which gens a prospective citizen will belong to. The list of Nomina (or gentes) available in Nova Roma can be found in the album gentium. A citizen wishing to join a familia within a gens must seek the approval of the Pater / materfamilias of the said familia. The choice of a gens is subject to the articles II.B.i. and II.B.ii. of the present lex.

Prospective citizens are authorised to petition the Censores if they wish to create a new Gens, thus introducing a new nomen in Nova Roma. If their claim is justified, historically valid and supported by adequate evidence, the censores may, exceptionally, consider such request and eventually decide to authorise the creation of a new gens.

I.A.3. Cognomen

The magistrates of Nova Roma understand the personal nature of cognomina and the fact that they reflect physical or behavioural characteristics. Therefore cognomina may be accepted even if they don't appear on the recommended list. The prospective citizen must be able to justify his / her choice on either historical or personal grounds and that must be subject to the expressed condition that the chosen cognomen be a Latin word. Please note the restriction applied to cognomina that are already attached to a family in a particular gens (see point II.B.i.a of the present lex). A list of recommended cognomina can be found in the Nova Roma web-pages for Roman names. This list will be updated by the Censores as and when new evidence comes to light.

Special Cognomina: this lex revokes article II.E of lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus whereby special cognomina were known under the word "agnomina".

Honorary cognomina including, but not limited to, Maximus, Magnus, Augustus are conferred upon a citizen by special dispensation. They can be awarded by a vote of the Senate in recognition of service to Nova Roma. They are not available to be chosen at the application stage.

Geographical honorary cognomina that refer to a provincia or regio (e.g. Germanicus, Britannicus) of Nova Roma and Roma Antiqua are subject to the same limitations as they were customarily bestowed upon a general after a successful campaign. Rare exceptions can be made by the censores in the case of citizen born in the provincia covering the territory of his/her macronation. In that latter case, the geographical cognomen will not be seen as honorary and can be requested at the application stage.

Cognomina that refer to the name of a deity will not currently be accepted unless the prospective citizen specifically expresses a desire to honour a god or goddess that he / she already worships and contact the Censores to present his / her case prior to sending his / her application.

I.B. Name change

I.B.1. Introduction

The choice of a Roman name being a very personal and intimate matter, the Censores and their staff must do their utmost to guide and help prospective citizens to choose the right name on the first instance. As such, no name change should be allowed after the original application has been approved to the satisfaction of all parties involved. However, on exceptional circumstances, the Censores reserve the right to authorise such name change if the citizen in question can effectively argue his / her case and only if this change affects the praenomen, cognomen or agnomen. The ruling of the Censores is final.

In case of a nomen change (i.e. change of gens), the only procedure authorised is that of adoption. Adoption takes the forms of adrogatio or adoptio according to the status, Sui Iuris or Alieni Iuris, of the adopted party. The procedures of Adoption are defined by the lex Equitia familiaris and the effect on name are described below: the citizen wishing to change his / her nomen must seek approval from the new Pater / Materfamilias whose domus he / she wishes to be part of. Upon approval, this prospective citizen will take the praenomen, nomen and eventual cognomen of his / her new Paterfamilias / Materfamilias.

Recent experiences, however, where the Censorial Cohors had to deal with multiple adoptions of several members of the same gens into one familia has shown that in these cases the only distinction between members of that familia would have been to add yet another cognomen (primus, secundus, tertius etc.) to distinguish one civis from the other. The censorial office judged that this solution was not satisfactory as it cannot ensure that each civis would easily be identifiable nor that his / her own individuality would truly be reflected in their new name. The following articles, I.B.ii and I.B.iii, reflect those experiences and propose a way of dealing with adoptions that is consistent with traditional Roman nomenclature and the spirit of flexibility and practicality that were qualities of our forefathers.

I.B.2. Adoption involving two cives belonging to two different gentes

I.B.2.a. The adopted party will take the Nomen AND Cognomen of his / her adopting parent.
I.B.2.b. The adopted party will add to his / her new name a second cognomen based on the root of his / her old Nomen to which will be added -ianus / -iana according to the gender.
I.B.2.c. The adopted party will be able to retain his / her praenomen should he / she wish to, so long as the adopting parent agrees.
I.B.2.d. Example: M. Anicius Brutus wishes to be adopted by the paterfamilias L. Lucretius Candidus. M. Anicius Brutus wishes to keep his Praenomen Marcus. His new name, after the adoption is completed, will be: M. Lucretius Candidus Anicianus.

I.B.3. Adoption involving two cives belonging to the same gens

I.B.3.a. The adopted party will take the Nomen AND Cognomen of his / her adopting parent.
I.B.3.b. The adopted party will retain his / her old Cognomen and use it as a second cognomen in his new name. This second cognomen will not be inherited by his / her filiifamilias.
I.B.3.c. The usual Cognomen resulting from adoption (ending in -ianus / -iana and based on the root of the nomen of the adopted party and as defined by the lex Equitia familiaris is dropped.
I.B.3.d. The adopted party will be able to retain his / her praenomen should he / she wish to, so long as the adopting parent agrees.
I.B.3.e. Example: M. Anicius Brutus wishes to be adopted by the paterfamilias L. Anicius Lepidus. M. Anicius Brutus wishes to keep his Praenomen Marcus. His new name, after the adoption is completed, will be: M. Anicius Lepidus Brutus. Please note the difference with point I.B.2.d above where the new name would have been: M. Anicius Lepidus Anicianus.

II. Approval procedures and names

II.A. Introduction

II.A.1. ((Joining gentes))

This lex applies the revocation by lex Labiena de gentibus of the right of former heads of Gentes (until now also known as Patres / Matresfamilias) to approve or reject the application of a prospective citizen to join a particular Gens.

II.A.2. ((Joining familiae))

This lex confirms the right of heads of Familiae known as Pater / Materfamilias to approve or reject the application of a prospective citizen to join a particular Familia.

II.B. Approval authority

II.B.1. Approval authority in a Familia and / or Domus

II.B.1.a. Familia
Each Familia duly registered with the censorial office will be headed by a Pater / Materfamilias chosen as per the recommendations found in lex Labiena de gentibus.
II.B.1.b. Domus
Each Domus duly registered with the censorial office will be confirmed in its position by the right of using a reserved and specific cognomen within a Gens to differentiate itself from other Domus in that Gens.
No prospective citizen of a particular Gens may choose the cognomen of a Domus already existing within that Gens, unless the prospective citizen has been approved by all the Patres / Matresfamilias of the familiae existing in the said Domus. In effect the new prospective citizen will become the pater / materfamilias of a new Familia within the Domus.
Existing citizens must go through the process of Adoption (either adoptio or adrogatio) to enter an existing Domus. See point I.B.iii.
II.B.1.c. Approval authority of the Pater / Materfamilias
The Pater / Materfamilias of a Familia duly registered with the censorial office will have the ultimate authority in accepting or rejecting the application of any prospective citizen wishing to join this Familia.
II.B.1.d. The duty of the Pater / Mater Familias in guiding prospective Citizens.
II.B.1.d.i As the person responsible to welcome new citizens into the Familia and guiding them in Nova Roma, the Pater / Materfamilias has the duty to help and support the prospective citizen in his / her choice of name, following the laws and edicta that guide such selection, before the familial approval reaches the censorial office.
II.B.1.d.ii. Should it come to the attention of the Censores that a Pater / Materfamilias repeatedly approves prospective citizens with names that do not compy with the present lex, a censorial investigation may be launched as to why that is. If no satisfactory explanation is provided, the Censores may issue a public reprimand against the said Pater / Materfamilias for non adherence to Nova Roman practice as defined by the laws, edicta and decreta of Nova Roma.

II.B.2. Approval authority in a Gens

II.B.2.a. The Gens in Nova Roma
II.B.2.a.i. A Gens in Nova Roma is composed of many different Familiae that share a common nomen.
II.B.2.a.ii. Although members of a particular Gens may wish to organise themselves as they see fit, for the purpose of this lex and in accordance with lex Labiena de gentibus the Censores do not recognise the authority of a head of a Gens as far as approving citizens is concerned.
II.B.2.a.iii. Building on the above point, closed Gentes are now abolished as prospective citizens are free to join any Gens they wish as opposed to officially recognised Familiae and Domus that are allowed to present possible restrictive entry conditions.
II.B.2.b. Approval authority to acceptance in a Gens
II.B.2.b.i. Any prospective citizen may choose the Gens of his choice providing he / she doesn't seek to belong to an already existing Domus. In the latter case approval authority falls within the rights and duties of the Pater / Materfamilias as stated in II.B.1.b.
II.B.2.b.ii. The Censores will hold the ultimate authority to approve or reject prospective citizens seeking admission in a Gens but not in a recognised Familia.

III. Sources

Roman Nomenclature:

Diana Bowder "Who Was Who In the Roman World", Cornell University Press, 1980

John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray "The Oxford History of the Roman World", Oxford University Press, 2001

T. Robert S. Broughton "Magistrates of the Roman Republic", Vol. 1 and 2, American Philological Association/Scholars Press, 1986

Mika Kajava "Roman Female Praenomina" Institutum Romanum Findlandiae Vol. XIV, Rome 1994: Senatorial Women's Praenomina in the Republican and Imperial Periods ( p. 136)

O. Salomies, "Die romischen Vornamen" (Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 82, 1987).

B. Salway, "What's In A Name? A Survey Of Roman Onomastic Practice From c.700 B.C. to A.D. 700"

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/List-of-Republican-Roman-Consuls

http://www.ualberta.ca/~csmackay/Consuls.List.html

http://www.hostkingdom.net/consuls.html

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CXI: Lex Moravia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

The lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum, AUC a.d. XV Kal. Dec. MMDCCLVI (17 November 2756), as amended by the lex Arminia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum, AUC a. d. IV Non. IUN. MMDCCLVII (2 Jun 2757), Section V: Timing the Vote, on the election of Plebian officials, is hereby amended, under the Constitution Part III, Section C, as follows:

Subsections V.A, V.B, AND V.C revoked by the lex Arminia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum are replaced as follow:

V.A. While the Comitia Plebis Tributa is convoked during the regular annual elections of Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis, plebiscita may not be considered for a vote.
V.B. Those candidates winning election shall be called Tribuni Plebis designati and Aediles Plebis designati, respectively. Upon announcement of the results of the election, any Tribunus Plebis may call for a contio and set dates for holding a consecratio of the Tribuni Plebis designati and Aediles Plebis designati. The consecratio shall be arranged as when voting on a plebiscitum, and other plebiscita may also be proposed before the Comitia at the same time.
V.C. A plebiscitum de consecratione will have the effect of conferring upon the Tribuni Plebis designati and Aediles Plebis designati the full powers of their respective offices. It will take effect on a.d. IV Id. Dec. (10 December) or, if that date has already passed by the time the passage of the plebiscitum de consecratione is announced, it will take effect immediately. The sitting Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis will leave office when the passage of the plebiscitum de consecratione of their successors is announced or on a.d. IV Id. Dec. (10 December), whichever date is later.

A consecratio is a formal recognition by the Comitia Plebis Tributa of the election results of Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis, and by its enactment the Comitia Plebis Tributa extends sanctitas, as defined under the lex Arminia Equita de sanctitate, AUC Id. Sex. MMDCCLVII (13 August 2757), to Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis.

This plebiscitum shall take effect immediately and apply to the regular annual elections of Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis to be held in AUC 2759. Any Tribunus Plebis or Aediles Plebis who shall have been elected to begin office on AUC Kal. Ian. MMDCCLVIX (1 January 2759), and shall hereby have his or her term of office curtailed by this plebiscitum, shall be regarded as having served a full year in office, AUC Kal. Ian. MMDCCLVIX to prid. Kal. Ian. MMDCCLVX (1 January 2759 to 31 December 2759).

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CXII: Lex Vipsania de consecratione

We the Plebians of Nova Roma recognize and accept the results of the election of Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa during the month of December 2758 A.U.C. as reported by the Office of the Custodes, and by this act of consecratio afford to the designati

  • Marcus Arminius Maior
  • Marcus Moravius Piscinus Horatianus
  • Gnaeus Salvius Astur
  • Quintus Suetonius Paulinus
  • Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa

the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, in our name, the Tribunicia Potestas as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum,

And afford to the designatae

  • Julilla Sempronia Magna
  • Marca Hortensia Maior

the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, in our name, the duties of Aediles Plebis as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

This Lex lapsed with the end of the mandate of the elected magistrates, in a.d. IV Id. Dec MMDCCLIX (10 dec 2006)

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CXIII: Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda

Citizenship in Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished or involuntarily revoked as per the Constitution of Nova Roma, paragraph II.A.4, or may be temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu, paragraph VI.

Further provision is made by this Lex Minucia Moravia de Civitate Eiuranda by which citizenship in Nova Roma may be involuntarily terminated at the discretion of the Censors when a Citizen fails to register in two consecutive censuses. Outlined in this lex are the procedures by which a Citizen may voluntarily relinquish his or her citizenship by a process of resignation from Nova Roma, guidelines for censorial termination of citizenship for non-compliance with the Lex Fabia de Censu, and procedures to be followed when a person returns into citizenship following suspension of citizenship or relinquishment of citizenship.

I. ((Supercedes))

The leges Cornelia et Maria de civitate eiuranda and Equitia de civitate eiuranda are hereby repealed.

II. Resignation of Citizenship

A: Citizenship from Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the Censors. Submission to the Censors of an intention to resign citizenship should be made in writing with the intention clearly stated, and may be transmitted in writing via any available means.

B. In keeping with Constitutional clause II.A.5, a parent or guardian may voluntarily rescind Nova Roma citizenship of Impuberes (minors) as provided for above.

III. ((Forfeiture of Offices))

If citizenship is resigned, any and all public offices held by the Citizen are immediately vacated at the time that the Censors receive a resignation. No public offices, elected or appointed, shall carry over into a new citizenship should a resigning citizen later reestablish citizenship.

IV. ((Socius))

A Citizen whose citizenship is temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu or by process of law is known as a Socius. A Citizen who voluntarily relinquishes citizenship by submitting a resignation from Nova Roma may also be treated as a Socius for the purposes of this lex. Under the lex Fabia de Censu, a Citizen becomes a Socius after failing to register with one census. Any Socius or former Citizen in a Socius status who fails to register with a census or who fails to otherwise reestablish citizenship may, at the discretion of the Censors, have his or her status terminated, and thus be removed from the censorial Album Civium.

B. A Socius or a former Citizen in a Socius status may request that he or she be removed from the Album Civium and thus all records of the former Citizen's or Socius' former membership in Nova Roma are to be deleted. The Censors must comply with such a request if no exceptions are provided for under the law.

V. ((Reapplication))

A former Citizen or Socius may reapply for citizenship to the Censors under prevailing legal procedures.

VI ((Reinstatement))

A. When a former Citizen applies for reinstatement of citizenship, a waiting period of ninety (90) days precedes reestablishment of citizenship. When citizenship is reestablished a Socius, or a former Citizen who was in a Socius status, shall have restored any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including century points) that he or she may have held at the time that citizenship was either suspended or resigned. A former Citizen whose Socius status was legally terminated, and whose records were thus lawfully removed from the Album Civium, is not entitled to a restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including century points).

B. Once citizenship is reestablished, a returning Citizen may apply to the Collegium Pontificum for reappointment to any religious offices that he or she may have previously held. Only the Collegium Pontificum, or an otherwise designated religious body, is authorized to reappoint a returning Citizen to a religious office.

C: Century points that are due to a returning Citizen for any and all public and/or religious offices that he or she may have previously held shall be restored at the time that citizenship is reestablished, provided that citizenship was reestablished while the former Citizen was in a Socius status, as per VI.A.

D. Senatorial status may be resumed by a returning Citizen at the discretion of the Censors collegially.

VII. ((Multiple Resignations))

If a Citizen resigns his or her citizenship, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a second time, the Censors may bar this former Citizen from reinstatement as a Citizen of Nova Roma. An exception to IV.B is hereby made such that the Censors may retain records in addition to the Album Civium on any person who has been barred from citizenship in Nova Roma for any reason.

VIII. ((Returnee Rights))

A: All rights and privileges of citizenship are restored in full to a returning Citizen at the time his or her citizenship is reestablished. This lex does not in itself restrict a returning Citizen in any way from lawfully pursuing any entitlements or official positions (via election or appointment) for which he or she would again become eligible.

B. At the discretion of the Senate, the normal waiting period of ninety (90) days may be waived.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.


Note from Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: The present lex was amended on several points by the Lex Cornelia de civitate eiuranda

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CXIV: Lex Minucia eiuratione magistratum

I. This Lex pursues the constitutional language of Section IV, headed 'Magistrates', which states that an office becomes vacant when a magistrate resigns or dies.
II. This lex clarifies the legal definition of magisterial resignation, consequences of resignation, and those procedures legally necessary to validate and remedy magisterial vacancy due to resignation of office.
III. The language of this lex is binding on resignation of magisterial offices elected in the Comitia Centuriata, in the Comitia Populi Tributa and in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.
IV. A tendered resignation from an elected office becomes legal and binding once receipt of same is acknowledged to the resigning Magistrate by an appropriate presiding official (defined below) of the comitia by which he or she was elected.
A.i. Resignation of an office elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa is tendered in writing to the Tribuni Plebii or tendered in writing in the presence of three or more Plebian citizens, who shall witness and communicate the resignation to the Tribunes. Once advised of a resignation, the Tribuni Plebii shall respond in writing to the resigning magistrate within 24 hours, in order to acknowledge the tendered resignation, and a vacancy of that office is legally established.
A.ii. Elections shall be held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate,according to prevailing legal procedure governing elections of this comitia.
A.iii. This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the Comitia Plebis Tributa to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation.
B.i. Resignations of offices elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa or the Comitia Centuriata are to be tendered in writing to the Consuls, or in the presence of three or more citizens,who shall acknowledge and communicate receipt of the resignation to the Consuls. Once advised of the resignation, the Consuls shall respond in writing within 24 hours to the resigning magistrate in order to acknowledge the tendered resignation, and a vacancy of that office is thereby legally established.
B.ii. Elections shall be held in the appropriate comitia within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate, according to the respective prevailing laws governing these comitia elections.
B.iii. This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the appropriate comitia to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation.
V. Consuls may not accept resignations of offices elected of the Comitia Plebis Tributa.
VI. The presiding comitia magistrate who lawfully acknowledges receipt of a resignation of office to the tendering magistrate as detailed in Ai and Bi, shall be responsible for communicating this information to the Censors, the Magister Aranearius and the citizenry via public fora within 48 hours.
VII. Accreditation of century points for partial service of a term of office shall not be affected by this lex.

Original text of lex as passed in comitia, maintained here for transparency and tracability:

This lex clarifies the legal definition of magisterial resignation, consequences of resignation, and those procedures legally necessary to validate and remedy magisterial vacancy due to a resignation of office, in accordance with the Constitution of Nova Roma, Section IV, on 'Magistrates', which states that an office becomes vacant when a magistrate resigns or dies while in office. The language of this lex is binding on resignation of magisterial offices elected in the in the Comitia Populi Tributa and in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.

I.A: An elected magistrate resigns from office by tendering his or her notification of a resignation to the presiding official (defined below) of the comitia in which the resigning magistrate was elected.

B: The Tribunes of the Plebs are the presiding officials of the Comitia Plebis Tributa. A resignation of an office that was elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa may be tendered in writing directly to one or more Tribunes of the Plebs, or else is tendered to the Tribunes of the Plebs by posting a notice of resignation via the official Comitia Plebis Tributa list, or a list that is supported by Nova Roma as a Public Forum.

C: The Consuls and Praetors are the presiding officials of the Comitia Populi Tributa. A resignation of an office that was elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa may be tendered in writing directly to one or both Consuls or Praetors, or else is tendered by posting a notice of resignation on a list that is supported by Nova Roma as a public Forum.

II.A: A vacancy of office is legally established when an appropriate presiding official acknowledges in writing the receipt of a tendered resignation to the resigning magistrate. A vacancy may also be legally established when the Censors inform the presiding magistrates that a magistrate is unreachable after an absence of 45 or more days.


B: Within twenty-four (24) hours of receiving notification of a resignation, the presiding official of the respective comitia – any one of the Consuls or Praetors, or any one of the Tribunes of the Plebs, as the case may be, shall acknowledge receipt in writing to the resigning magistrate.

C. Consuls shall not accept a resignation from office of a magistrate elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.

D. Tribunes of the Plebs may only accept the resignation from office of a magistrate elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa as in II A and B when none of the Consuls or Praetors is available to accept the resignation on behalf of this comitia.

III: Elections shall be held within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate in the legally appropriate comitia, according to prevailing legal procedures governing elections of that comitia.

IV: This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the Comitia Plebis Tributa or in the Comitia Populi Tributa to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation, and for which he or she is eligible to hold.

V: The presiding official of a comitia who lawfully acknowledges receipt of a resignation from office of any magistrate who was elected in either the Comitia Plebis Tributa or Comitia Populi Tributa, as outlined in this lex, shall be responsible for communicating this information to the Censors, the Magister Aranearius and to the citizenry via public fora within the following forty-eight (48) hours from the time that the resignation goes into effect.

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CXV: Lex Minucia de duobus legibus Arminis Equitiis abrogandis

Lex to Repeal Current Items of Legislation I don't have a proper Latin name for this measure yet, but comitia's approval of this item will officially repeal the following legislations:

Lex Arminia Equitia de Dignitate Curule http://www.novaroma.org/tabularium/leges/2004-06-30-ii.html

Lex Arminia Equitia de Sanctitate http://www.novaroma.org/tabularium/leges/2004-08-13-ii.html

The last lines of both these leges (above) nullify their respective legal and binding forces. Further, there is no corresponding constitutional language that I can see to clarify their legal purpose. Although they are remarkable from an academic standpoint, the language of these legislations has caused issues of controversy, which might (at least theoretically) be avoided in future if we repeal them officially.

This Lex did not have lasting effect, and lapsed after approval.

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CXVI: Lex Arminia de consecratione magistratuum plebis

We, the Plebians of Nova Roma, recognize and accept the results of the election of the Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa in 2759 a.u.c., as reported by the Custodes, and by the present consecratio, afford to candidati electi:

  • Gaius Arminius Reccanellus
  • Marcus Curiatius Complutensis
  • Marcus Pontius Sejanus
  • Quintus Servilius Priscus

the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, and in the name of the Plebs, the tribunicia potestas as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

We also afford to candidatus electus Caius Curius Saturninus the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, and in the name of the Plebs, the duties of Aedilis Plebis as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

This Lex lapsed with the end of the mandate of the elected magistrates, in a.d. IV Id. Dec MMDCCLX (10 dec 2007)

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CXVII: Lex Curiata de consecratione magistratuum plebis

We, the Plebians of Nova Roma, recognize and accept the results of the election of the Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa in 2759 a.u.c., as reported by the Custodes, and by the present consecratio, afford to candidatus electus Flavius Galerius Aurelianus the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, and in the name of the Plebs, the tribunicia potestas as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

This Lex lapsed with the end of the mandate of the elected magistrates, in a.d. IV Id. Dec MMDCCLX (10 dec 2007)

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CXVIII: Lex Curiata II de consecratione magistratuum plebis

We the Plebians of Nova Roma recognize and accept the results of the election of Tribunus Plebis held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa in 2760 A.U.C. as reported by the Office of the Custodes, and by this act of consecratio afford to the designatus:

  • Titus Flavius Aquila
  • Lucia Livia Plauta
  • Quintus Arrius Nauta
  • Quintus Valerius Callidus
  • Quintus Iulius Probus

the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, in our name, the Tribunicia Potestas as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

And afford to the designati:

  • Publius Constantinus Placidus
  • Flavius Galerius Aurelianus

the rights, responsibilities, and obligations to exercise on behalf of all Nova Romans, in our name, the duties of Aediles Plebiis as outlined in Nova Roma law and in accordance with the mos maiorum.

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CXIX: Lex Galeria de censu L. Arminio Ti. Galerio consulibus producendo

The time allotted to complete the Census 2760 A.U.C is hereby extended to pr. Kal. Ian.2760 (December 31, 2007).

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CXX: Lex Galeria de editore commentariorum

I. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate on the nomination of a consul.

II. The editor commentariorum shall serve for three years.

III A deputy editor commentariorum shall also be appointed by a vote of the senate on the nomination of a consul. The deputy will serve as the chief assistant to the editor commentariorum. If during the three year term a vacancy occurs the deputy editor commentariorum shall assume the duties for remainder of that term as editor commentariorum.

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CXXI: Lex Galeria de privatis rebus

I. The Lex Cornelia de privatis rebus is repealed.

II. The Lex Octavia de privatis rebus is repealed.

III. Confidential information consists of the following:

A. information given directly by a person for the purpose of applying for citizenship; and

B. information given directly by a person for the purpose of updating or correcting information referred to in III.A above; and

C. information obtained from the subscription list of the e-mail list that currently constitutes the Forum or main list of Nova Roma, other than information which is available to every member of that e-mail list; and

D. information obtained from the subscription lists from the publications of Nova Roma.

IV. Information is given directly when it is provided voluntarily by the person to whom it pertains.

V. Where confidential information is held in official records or by any magistrate, it shall be made available to any censor, consul, praetor, magister aranearius, or magistrate legally responsible for the handling of applications for citizenship, upon request by that person. It shall be made available to any provincial governor, upon request by that governor, if and only if it pertains to a person living in the province which he or she governs. It shall not be made available to any other person except as provided below.

VI. A censor may at his or her discretion give confidential information to a magistrate other than one entitled to received it under V above upon request by that magistrate.

VII. A magistrate who receives confidential information under V or VI above may at his or her discretion give that information to his or her lawfully appointed assistant.

VIII. A censor may at his or her discretion give confidential information on request to a municipal agent of law enforcement or other person entitled by municipal law to demand and be given the information. Where a censor receives such a request, he or she shall inform the person to whom the information pertains of the request, of all circumstances relevant to the request, and of the censor's actions in response to the request.

IX. Other than as set out above, no person shall give to any other person any confidential information about any third person without the permission of that third person.

X. Nothing in this lex shall be taken to prohibit any person from asking any other person for information about himself or herself. Nothing in this lex shall be taken to prohibit any person from giving information about himself to any other person.

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CXXII: Lex Livia de lege Arminia abroganda

We, the plebs, repeal the Lex Moravia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), approved by Comitia plebis tributa on a.d. VII Kal. Feb. C. Buteone Po. Minucia cos. MMDCCLIX a.u.c., thus reverting to the lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), AUC a.d. XV Kal. Dec. MMDCCLVI (17 November 2756, as amended by the lex Arminia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), AUC a. d. IV Non. IUN. MMDCCLVII (2 Jun 2757).

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CXXIII: Lex Livia de lege Moravia abroganda

We, the plebs, repeal the Lex Moravia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), approved by Comitia plebis tributa on a.d. VII Kal. Feb. C. Buteone Po. Minucia cos. MMDCCLIX a.u.c., thus reverting to the lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), AUC a.d. XV Kal. Dec. MMDCCLVI (17 November 2756, as amended by the lex Arminia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum (Nova Roma), AUC a. d. IV Non. IUN. MMDCCLVII (2 Jun 2757).

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CXXIV: Lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

By this Lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum is amended the Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum 5. B which reads:

In the case of a magisterial election, voting shall be sequential.

1. A century from the first class shall be selected by lot by the diribitores to vote first. No century containing only one member shall be selected for this purpose. For the first 48 hours of the voting period only members of that century shall be permitted to vote.

2. Twenty-four (24) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted so far according to the method set out in A.1 above, and shall announce the result no later than 48 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

3. Forty-eight (48) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the rest of the centuries in the first class shall be permitted to vote; members of the century selected under B.1 above who have not yet voted shall still be permitted to vote.

4. Ninety-six (96) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted so far according to the method set out in A.1 above, and shall announce the results no later than 120 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

5. One hundred twenty (120) hours after the beginning of the voting period, everyone who is eligible to vote but has not yet done so shall be permitted to vote. All voting shall cease no less than 216 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

The Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum 5.B is hereby amended as follows:

5.B: In the case of magisterial elections, the voting period shall last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days), with all centuries casting their votes concurrently. Reports of the voting results shall be announced sequentially.

1. The Diribitores shall select by lot one century from among the first class centuries to serve as the Centuria Praerogativa. No century containing only one member shall be selected for this purpose.

2.Within forty-eight (48) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the Diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have cast votes thus far in the Centuria Praerogativa, and shall announce those results no later than 48 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

3. Ninety-six (96) hours after the beginning of the voting period, the Diribitores shall tally the votes of all those who have voted thus far, and shall announce the results of only the first class centuries no later than 120 hours after the beginning of the voting period.

4. All voting shall cease after no less than 192 hours (8 days) have past and no more than 216 hours (9 days) have past after the beginning of the voting period. The Diribitores shall then tally all votes cast and within 48 hours later report the results solely to the presiding magistrate and to his or her colleague as per 3.F.


note of the praetura: Lex Curiata Iulia changes the previous proceedings. Now, every century may vote from the opening of the vote. The notion of prerogative century now just has consequences on first the tally and second the announce of the cast votes: first the prerogativa, second the first classes, third all the reminding ones.

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CXXV: Lex Curiatia Iulia de tributo virginum vestalium

The following new paragraph II.B is inserted in lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis:

" II.B: Those appointed as Vestal virgins by the Collegium Pontificum shall be exempt from paying the annual tax and shall retain their status as assidui so long as they remain Vestal virgins. No special conditions shall be placed on Vestal virgins with regard to their placement in centuries and tribes or upon their ability to run for or hold office."

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CXXVI: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Centuriata. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to function the Comitias under the existing procedures and thusly required the Senate to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Centuriata).

Pursuant to Section III B of the Constitution of Nova Roma, empowers the Comitia to establish procedures and rules for which it is allowed to operate. All previous legislation previously passed is hereby rescinded and repealed.


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

Laws effectively repealed include but are not limited to: Lex Fabia de Ratione Comitorium Centuriatorum and the Lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Centuriata

a. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Centuriata (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The Summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata
In the text of the message must include:
  • Candidates, date of citizenship, if they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and The office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and time when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates up to 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are two vacant offices for office of Praetor – at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward – leaving 1 vacancy. 24 hours after the Contio has started another citizen has stepped forward (and has met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include that individual in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late accepting magistrates does not give the presiding magistrate to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all the necessary constitutionally empowered positions and powers are all available. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each Century in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have to option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolve” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemn” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by centuries.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each century shall be calculated as follows. For each century the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the century. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex, each century shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of votes received by members of that century are in favor. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Centuriata, each century shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes is received from the members of that century are marked “condemno.” Ties within a century will result in that century voting to acquit. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All centuries are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by century.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
a. Each century will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that century. If there is a tie in deciding who won the century, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by breaking the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each century should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per century, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each century that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most centuries, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of a magisterial election, a majority is defined as one the candidate who receives the most centuries per vacancy (not counting those centuries that did not vote).
I. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of centuries casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of centuries casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Century is tied, the century will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A century in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
J. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the centuries must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Centuriata, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of centuries, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
a. Even those centuries in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a Century has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those centuries from consideration during the vote counting process – Only centuries with individuals may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
K. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
L. Only the aggregate voters of the centuries shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual centuries and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined between the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results, (Even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election.) Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censor’s may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and side with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXVII: Lex Cornelia de quaestoribus

Pursuant to Section IV.A.2.b and c of the constitution of Nova Roma and of IV.A.6 of the Constitution of Nova Roma

Introduction: In recent years Nova Roma has had ongoing vacancy issues specifically regarding the electoral officers, Diribitores and Custodes, Editor Commentariorum and Rogatores positions. This has an adverse affect on the people of Nova Roma being able to express their will because the Comitia's that represent the Peoples’ wishes have not been able to be summoned. This law intends to address the issue by giving expanding Consular authority to assign Quaestors to fill the vacant positions until those positions are filled by election or appointment.

A. The positions and offices under the scope of this lex are: Diribitores (also known as election officers) Rogatores. Custodes. Editor commentariorum


B: In the event of a magisterial or administrative vacancy on any of the positions mentioned in Section A The Consul may assign Quaestors to one of those vacant positions. These vacancies, most importantly, the election officers, are vital to the organization and must be filled even if it means that magistrates who are allowed the use of Quaestors go without.


C. Upon being assigned to an open office, a Quaestor will be listed as holding both the Quaestor position to which he or she was elected and as a Suffect from the position he or she was appointed to on the Nova Roma Magistrates page on the official website. Each Quaestor can only be assigned to one open position described in section A as Suffect at a time but may be assigned to more than one such suffect office in the course of a year provided only one such office is held at any time. Any Quaestor assigned to an open position described in A will earn the full century points for the Quaestor position and half of the Century points for holding a Suffect position he or she was appointed. If a Quaestor is assigned as a Suffect officer in those positions more than once in the course of a year, that Quaestor will receive full Century points for holding the office of Quaestor and half the Century points normally granted for the Suffect office with the highest Century point value that he or she held regardless of the length of time actually holding the office.

C. Election related issues: each Quaestor, upon accepting the position of a Diribitor or a Custos accepts the restrictions of not being able to run for office in the next calendar year. If the Quaestor wishes to be relieved of the position the Quaestor must petition the Consuls with at least 30 (thirty) days notice of the summons of the Comitia (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa or the Comitia Plebis Tributa). The Consul has the discretion to accept or deny the petition with notification given in writing to the Quaestor within seven (7) days of the request.

D. Any changes on any of the positions listed in A will be considered to be reflected in this lex. If a position ceases to be an independent office or ceases to exist then no Consul would be able to assign a Quaestor to that position. In other words, this lex will be valid unless specifically repealed by future legislation.

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CXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de vigintisexviris

Introduction - This lex serves the purpose of refining Nova Roma's offices to better serve the interests of the State. In recent years an insufficient number of qualified candidates stood for election to these positions, leaving them vacant.. This lex addresses the need for a more effective and easier alternative for filling these positions; and to give the Senate more direct oversight especially concerning the filling of the electoral magistracies which conduct, count and oversee the elections of officers in Nova Roma.

This Lex supersedes and repeals all previous leges and Senatus Consulta in this jurisdictional area. This includes but is not limited to the following:

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Equitia_de_vigintisexviris_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Galeria_de_editore_commentariorum_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Apula_de_magistro_araneario_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_iure_edicendi_vigintisexvirorum_(Nova_Roma)

Effective immediately the positions that were covered under the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris are no longer independent offices that are elected by the Comitia Populi Tributa; nor are the offices listed in this lex to be classified as Vigintisexviri positions.

Effective Immediately the Office of the Rogator, whose responsibility was focused on registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process reverts to the Censores office to be filled at the discretion of the Censors’. This position, if filled will have the same ranking and distinction as a scribe appointment with all the same rights, responsibilities and century point allocations therein. The independent office of Rogator is now extinct.

Effective immediately the offices of Custodes and Diribitors are combined.

  • A. A new office is created called Diribitores with four positions

available to be appointed by the Senate by proposal of the presiding magistrate. A minimum of two individuals must fill this position at all times.

  • B. The Diribitores will have the duty to count the votes and tie breaking

in the voting processes in the Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa and Comitia Plebis Tributa – in compliance and in accord with the leges governing the vote count and ties breading procedures governing each Comitia .

  • C. The Senate may appoint individuals for suffect (Partial term), full

year terms, or multiple years.

  • D. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the

election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.


Appointment of Diribitors: As Senatorial appointments the presiding magistrate (ie Consul, praetor or Tribune of the Plebs) may present individuals to the Senate for consideration. The Senate has the right and privilege to accept or reject candidates for the Diribitore Position(s).


In the event of an emergency*: An Emergency is described as having 20 days or less to an upcoming Comitia summons – the Presiding magistrate may issue an edicta appointing individual(s) pro-tempore to serve as a diribitore – for one election cycle only. To be specific it means only one summons of one Comita ONLY (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa, and Comitia Plebis Tributa). No individual can be named Pro Tempore Diribitore for more than one time in a calendar year. However that individual may be considered by the Senate for a suffect appointment.

Editor commentariorum and *magister aranearius (webmaster) are the two remaining positions.

The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year terms or multiple years . The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.


The magister aranearius shall be responsible for the design, maintenance, and any alteration of the official web site(s) sponsored by the State. The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates and institutions of Nova Roma regarding content for the web site*. The Magister aranearius may be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year term or multiple years. The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.

The Century points for the positions of the Diribitore, Editor Commentariorum and Magister Aranearius shall receive the same number of points as the Office of Quaestor.

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CXXIX: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to effectively summon the Comitias under the existing procedures and thus the Senate was required to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Populi Tributa).


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

The Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum is hereby repealed.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Populi Tributa

A. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa
The text of the summons must include:
  • Candidates’s names, date of citizenship, a statement that they have met the constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, and the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates as long as there are at least 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are eight vacant offices for office of Quaestor - at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward - leaving 7 vacancies. 24 hours after the Contio has started other citizen(s) step forward (and have met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those individual(s) in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late candidates does not give the presiding magistrate discretionary authority to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days)
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have the option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolvo” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemno” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each tribe shall be calculated as follows. For each tribe the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the tribe. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex (or leges), each tribe shall vote in favor of the leges if a majority of votes received by members of that tribe are in favor. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Populi Tributa, each tribe shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from the members of that tribe are marked “condemno.” Ties within a tribe will result in that tribe voting to acquit. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by tribe.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
i. Each tribe will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
I. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Populi Tributa, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
i. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process – Only tribes with individuals, enrolled in said tribe may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
J. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
K. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual tribes and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined by the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results (even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election). Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censors may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and agree with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXX: Lex Pompeia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

Resolved, in order to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa and avoid the need for emergency decrees (Senatus consulta ultima - SCUs) by the Senate to effectively summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:


I. Status of Previous Leges Governing the Comitia Plebis Tributa

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Plebis Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

A. The Lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum is hereby repealed.
B. The Lex Arminia de suffragiis in comitiis tributis is hereby repealed.
C. The Lex Grylla de magistratibus plebis creandis is hereby repealed.

II. Calling to Order the Comitia Plebis Tributa

A. A Tribunus Plebis may, as described by the Constitution, call the Comitia to order to hold a vote on one or more of the following:
1. an election for office;
2. a Lex (law); or,
3. an appropriate legal proceeding.
B. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
C. The Summons must contain the following information:
1. The subject heading shall be: “Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa”
2. The text of the summons must include:
a) If the summons is to conduct an election then the full Roman name of the candidates, dates of citizenship, an indication of whether or not they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the name of office they are seeking.
b) If the summons is to vote on a lex or leges then the full text of the lex or leges or links to web pages containing the full text of the lex or leges which are being voted on; however, a draft version of the full text is acceptable at this point.
c) If the summons is to convene a trial or other legal proceeding then the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to: the full Roman name of the petitioner; the full Roman name of the defendant; and, the charges or nature of the proceeding.
d) The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end dates and times of the voting period.
3. Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.

III. The Timing of the Vote

A. The Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the website with the corresponding designation.
B. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 72 hours (3 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
C. In the event that, in an effort to fill a Plebian office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates during the first 48 hours in the Contio. In other words, if there are five vacant offices for office of Tribuni Plebis and if, at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia, only one candidate has stepped forward leaving 4 vacancies and 24 hours after the Contio has started two other citizens step forward (and have met the Constitutional requirements for the office of Tribunus Plebis) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those two additional individuals in the Comitia summons and add them to the ballot so a new election or a delay in the Contio does not need to take place. When accepting additional candidates during this 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio, the presiding magistrate must not disregard any Constitutional requirements for the office which is the subject of the election. Candidates who put their names forward during the 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio must meet the Constitutional requirements for the office they seek. Any votes cast for a candidate who does not meet the Constitutional requirements for the office that is the subject of the election will be considered null and will not be counted.
D. A final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
E. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
F. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of the then current Comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
G. In voting for a Lex, the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
H. In a legal proceeding the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
I. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
J. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censores (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
K. The Censores have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censores certify the vote the Censores or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.

IV. Voting Procedures

A. Each plebeian citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens’ vote. Only plebeian citizens will be permitted to vote in the Comitia. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censores, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a Cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep a record of each ballot cast including the ballot number and and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Procedures for Elections
1. The ballot shall include:
a) The name of the office.
b) The number of vacancies.
c) A listing of the candidates for office listed in alphabetical order based on the candidates' nomina, praenomina, and, where applicable, cognomina and agnomina. The list shall be placed on the ballot in a single column.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “uti rogas” (or Yes) or leave the candidate unmarked. Each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” Thus, beside the name of each candidate the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the candidate.
3. A voter may vote for the number of candidates equal to the number of vacant positions. A voter shall not be required to cast votes for all vacancies. A voter may choose to vote for only some of the candidates or none of the candidates.
4. There shall be an area on the ballot for a write-in candidate should the voter wish to cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot.
5. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive their right to cast any votes for a given magistracy.
D. Procedures for Legislation
1. The full text, or a link to the full text on the Nova Roma website, of each proposed law or plebiscite shall appear on the ballot. Links are permitted only if they resolve to locations in the Nova Roma Wiki or website.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each proposal “uti rogas” (or Yes), “antiquo” (or No), or “abstineo” (or Abstain). Thus, for each proposed law the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the plebiscite.
E. Procedures for Trials
1. The ballot shall include the name of the accused, the name of the accuser or party bringing the charges, and the charges and specifications brought against the accused.
2. There shall be an area on the ballot where each voter shall have the option to vote "absolvo" (or Innocent), "condemno" (or Guilty), or “abstineo” (or Abstain - should the voter wish to waive his or her right to vote on the accused's guilt or innocence). Thus, beside the name of the accused, the voter shall be able to mark his or her determination of innocence or guilt.
F. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in counting the vote and any subsequent ballots registered with the same voter identification code shall be considered null and void.

V. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
C. If the Comitia was summoned to vote in an election, the results are calculated as follows:
1. Each tribe will rank the candidates based on the voting results of that tribe with the candidate receiving the highest number of votes ranked first and other candidates ranked similarly based on the number of votes received in the tribe from highest to lowest.
2. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe.
3. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, a winner will be determined using the procedure established in Paragraph VI (Breaking of Ties) of this Lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc until all vacancies are filled.
4. This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
D. If the Comitia was summoned to approve a Lex or Leges, a simple majority of those tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the Lex to be adopted. A simple majority is defined for this purpose as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, with any fractions being rounded down. If a tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a ‘No’ vote and there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes is declared vacant and shall not be counted or used to determine the outcome of the vote.
E. If the Comitia was summoned to conduct a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Plebis Tributa, a majority is defined as one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process. Thus, only tribes with at least one citizen enrolled shall be counted to determine the outcome of a legal proceeding – any tribe without at least one enrolled citizen (vacant tribes) shall not be counted.
F. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.
G. Results shall be tabulated by tribe.
H. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

VI. Breaking of Ties

The following are the only methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be exactly, and only, in the order shown - in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by Tie Breaker #1 then Tie Breaker #2 will be used, and if a clear winner is not determined by Tie Breaker #2 then Tie Breaker #3 will be used to determine a winner. If there is still no clear winner then Tie Breaker #4 will be used. The tie breaking method outlined here will be utilized to resolve ties within individual tribes as well as in the sum total of the Comitia.

A. Tie Breaker #1: If a tie between candidates occurs, the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest, as determined by the Censores based on the date of citizenship recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
B. Tie Breaker #2: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of time as citizens of Nova Roma then the candidate with the largest number of Century Points, as determined by the Censores based on the Century Point totals recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
C. Tie Breaker #3: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of citizenship and the same number of Century Points recorded in the Album Civium then the oldest candidate, as determined by the Censores based date of birth, shall be prevail.
D. Tie Breaker #4: In the highly unlikely event that the candidates have the same length of citizenship, same number of Century Points and the same date of birth then the tie shall be resolved by the Censores using a random lot to determine the winner. In this final method to break a tie, a random lot will be drawn until the tie is resolved and a clear winner is determined. The Censores of Nova Roma shall determine which types of random lots are appropriate for use in tie breaking. The casting of a random lot must be witnessed by at least three Senators and one Pontifex. Neither of the Censores may act as witnesses. The casting of random lot may be conducted and witnessed online using appropriate video conferencing technology.

VII. Certification of the Vote

A. The Censores have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the voting in the Comitia at any time during the voting period and up to 24 hours after the presiding magistrate has announced the close of the voting period.
B. If the Censores need additional time, one or both Censores may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not.
C. The Censores formally certify the election by sending a written notification to the presiding magistrate that they, “Approve and certify the Comitia results.”
D. If the Censores fail to approve and certify the Comitia results:
1. The Censores are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate.
2. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation.
a) If the Senate decides to override the decision of the Censores, the Censores can either (1) certify the election or (2) refuse to sign. If the Censores choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censores.
b) If the Senate determines that the Censores issues are valid and agree with the Censores the results of the Comitia are null and void.
3. The presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.
E. If the Censores fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censores are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXXI: Lex Cornelia de lege Labiena abroganda

Repeal - Lex Labiena de custodia perpetua fori -

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_custodia_perpetua_fori_(Nova_Roma)

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CXXXII: Lex Cornelia de punctis censualibus

Introduction:

Nova Roma’s primary means of compensating its citizens for service and citizenship has been through the utilization of Census Points (hereinafter referred to as CPs). The accumulation of CPs must be carefully monitored to insure that all citizens receive neither more nor less than the appropriate credit for their service. There are also areas in Nova Roma life that have been ignored and hopefully this comprehensive law will address some of those areas.

In accordance with Section II. E. 2 of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Cornelia de Punctis Censualibus is hereby enacted.


I.

With the passage of this law all previous conflicting legislation is hereby repealed. This includes but is not limited to: Lex Vedia Centuriata (http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Vedia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma) ) and the Lex Fabia Centuriata: http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Fabia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma)



II.

Points will be awarded for all relevant events in each citizen’s record based on the values established in this Lex. For elected positions, citizens are awarded points for each term served. For example, if one was Consul three times then that individual earns three times the CPs – reflecting each term served.



III.

It is the responsibility of each citizen to review their CPs details and ensure that all of their previous service is represented. The Censors, strive to be as accurate as they can be, but it is only with the active cooperation and involvement of citizens that we can ensure the records are as close to perfection as possible. Upon the enactment of this lex, all CPs accumulated so far will be totaled and carried over into the new census points as a direct conversion. There will be no conversion and/or recalculation of century points to census points.


A. Magistrates:

Censor: 30 CP

Consul: 30 CP

Praetor: 25 CP

Tribune of the Plebs: 25 CP

Curule Aedile: 20 CP

Plebian Aedile: 20 CP

Quaestor: 15 CP

Dictator: 30 CP

Interrex: 10 CP

Magistrates Appointed by the Senate (Diribitors, Magister Aranearius, Editor Commentariorum, etc): 7 CP


B. Apparitores: Citizens may hold more than one position in a magistrate’s staff but only get awarded points for one position within that staff. A citizen may not receive census points for more than three such simultaneously-held positions.

Apparitor: 5 pts


C. Provincial Positions: Citizens may hold more than one position within a province – but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. If individuals are governor of more than 1 province they only get points awarded for one province as they are stake-holders for the Senate.

Governor 25 CP

Apparitor: 5 pts

Provincial Sacerdos/Priest: 5 CP


D. Sacerdotes: Citizens may hold more than one position listed in this subparagraph but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. Citizens who serve Nova Roma in one of the positions listed below but also serve in a provincial sacerdos role may receive the points for Provincial Sacerdos/Priest as stated in subparagraph C above in addition to the points awarded for service in a position listed in this subparagraph.


Rex Sacrorum 20

Regina Sacrorum 20

Flamen Maior 20

Pontifex Maximus 20

Pontifex 20

Flamen Minor 15

Augur 15

Vestal 15

Other Sacerdos/Priest 5

For Provincial Sacerdotes see sub-paragraph C above.


E. Other Positions:

Senator: 20 CP

Pater Patriae: 10 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator)

Princeps Senatus: 15 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator – Consistent to the previously adopted Senatus Consulta)

The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.


F. Sodalitates (officially sanctioned sodalitates only): Citizens may hold more than one sodalitas position, but get points for the highest one only. The positions and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each Head. A report must be filed to the Censores to determine the validity of issuing CPs ensuring that the charter approved by the Senate is being properly maintained and elections are held in timely manner. It is the responsibility of the Head of the Sodalitas to provide this information.


Head of a Sodalitas 10 CP

Person of High Authority: 6 CP

Person of Minor Authority: 3 CP

Member of Sodalitas: 1 CP


G. Orders, Citizenship and Candidates:

The Orders:

Patrician: 10 pts

Plebeian: 7 pts

Ordo Equester - 10 CP

Length of citizenship:

Less than 6 months: 5 CP

Between 6 and 12 months: 10 CP

Between 1 year and 5 years: 20 CP

Between 5 years and 10 years: 40 CP

Between 10 years and 20 years: 75 CP

The disbursement of points are not added together. If one has been a member of NR for 13 years they only get 75 CPs because of the bracket that they are in.

Unsuccessfully run for office: 2 CP (Maximum of 1 award per calendar year)


H. Public Events: In an effort to recognize the time, effort, costs of putting on public events the following is stipulated: A public event is one that is identified as a gathering of more than 4 citizens (minors not counted) for the purposes of facilitating an event in which Nova Roma plays an important part this includes but not limited to: Religious rituals occurring, discussion of Nova Roma events, Legionnaire reenactments, dining and camaraderie. After Action reports (hereinafter referred to as AAR) are required to be posted at the public fora as well as a copy is to be given to the Censors. In the AAR, there needs to be the following: The organizer of the event, participants, overview of the event. Some photographic evidence and/or video documentation is to be provided to ensure that those who participated are awarded the points. Each year a citizen may earn points in this category for no more than 3 events.

Organizer of the Event: 5 CP

Participant: 2 CP


I. Reenactors – Of Officially Sponsored Legions.

Liaison between Sponsored Legion and Nova Roma: 3 CPs

Member of Sponsored Legion: 1 CP



IV.

It is now also official policy in Nova Roma that we recognize the need to raise additional revenue. In order to accomplish this Nova Roma establishes the ability of citizens to purchase their way to increase the power of the Vote. Citizens who pay the established fee, which will be confirmed by the CFO of Nova Roma will be able to move up a class of centuries to the next class level. In other words, if a citizen is currently in a Class V level of centuries by paying the fee they will move to the 4th class. This is available to all the classes except for citizens already enrolled in the 1st and 2nd classes. This fee is a yearly recurring fee.

A. The fee for the remainder of the year for 2013 will be $10.00 US

B. The fee for the full year for 2014 will be: $30.00 US

C. The fee for every year after that will be set by the Senate via Senatus Consultum.

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CXXXIII: Lex Cornelia de cursu honorum

As a means of consolidating the laws regarding the eligibility of individuals to serve in magisterial positions (Section IV of the Constitution), this law seeks to make it easier for citizens to know the requirements to run and hold office as well as aid magistrates in cross checking the eligibility of candidates who wish to run for office.

This lex repeals the following:

I

1. To run for and assume the office of Censor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor or Consul for at least 6 months OR held the position of Senator of Nova Roma for a year.

2. To run for and assume the office of Consul one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor, or Tribune of the Plebs for at least 6 months; or have served as a Provincial Governor for at least 3 years; or Senator for a year.

3. To run for and assume the office of Praetor (NOT Provincial Praetor) one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or Senator for 6 months.

3a. To be appointed Provincial Governor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or a Senator for 6 months. An applicant may substitute service in an apparitor position for at least one year for the previous requirements.

EXEMPTION: In the case of this position only, the senate may waive the previously held exemption if and only if no other candidate steps forward to serve as Governor/Provincial Praetor of a province.

4. To run for and assume the office of Curule Aedile one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 25 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Plebeian Aedile, Provincial Governor, Quaestor or a Senator for at least 6 months.

5. To run for and assume the office of Quaestor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 21 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least a year.
  • Must have previously have held the position of an Apparitor for at least 6 months of service.

6. To be appointed as an election official, minor magistrate, or Apparitor of Nova Roma as defined by IV.A.8 or IV.A.9 of the Constitution of Nova Roma one must meet all of these requirements *:

  • Must be at least 18 years of age.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must be a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 6 months.

* Serving in the positions that fall under the umbrella that are classified under item 6 are generally described to be our entry level positions within Nova Roma and we encourage any and all citizens to being their process of learning about Nova Roma and volunteering their time in one of the many apparitore positions that are available both within one’s province and within the positions that serve Nova Roma in its entirety (consul, censor, praetor.).

II

Age Exemption Procedure

An age Exemption can be granted to a person by the approval of both Censors and receiving an age dispensation via Senatus Consultum from the Senate of Nova Roma via 2/3s approval of the Senate of Nova Roma

Citizens who wish to run for office must present the Consuls with their petition for exemption to the age restriction.

In the case of the annual December magisterial elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls no later than the 15th of October.

In the case of mid-year elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls as soon as possible, but the presentation of such petitions shall not be regarded as sufficient reason to postpone replacement elections more than thirty days as required by the Constitution, and the right of underage cives to run for office shall not override the Constitutional requirement to fill vacant magistracies in a timely manner.

The petition will include the following information: a. Full Roman name b. Length of Citizenship c. Prior experience within Nova Roma d. The office for which the applicant intends to run

The Consuls shall present the petition to the Senate for a vote in such manner as to allow due consideration of the petition.

III

There shall be no exemption for citizens who are not in the Assiduus/Assidua status or any other magisterial requirement unless directly specified in this lex.

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CXXXIV: Lex Cornelia de apparitoribus

Introduction:

In order to prevent abuse of the Century/Census Point (hereinafter referred to as CPs) system, to protect the electoral integrity of the Comitia Centuriata and promote the proper exercise of the voice of the People of Nova Roma, to insure that only an appropriate number of apparitores be appointed by magistrates, to discourage duplicative and inefficient bureaucracy, and to treat CPs as bona fide compensation for services rendered, this lex places reasonable limits on the number of apparitores, including scribae and accensi, that may be appointed.

DEFINITION: Apparitores (Attendants). Collectively, the apparitores shall not be considered magistrates but rather shall be appointed into various decuriae (corporations/cohors/Staffs) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia. They shall include lictores, lictores curiati, scribae and accensi. (Taken from the Constitution of Nova Roma IV.A.9)

Pursuant to Section IV. A. 9. Upon passage of this lex it is the policy of Nova Roma to impose limits on magistrates who employ apparitores, to keep the amount of apparitores consistent with the size of the organization.

I.

Apparitores perform important functions in Nova Roma. This lex recommends that all citizens, especially new citizens, gain necessary experience concerning the inner workings of Nova Roma. It is equally important that individuals who volunteer their time and effort in Nova Roma are best utilized for the organization; creating bureaucratic nepotism is highly discouraged.

II.

This lex limits the number of apparitores that magistrates may utilize in the scope of their duties:

a. Each Censor: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

b. Each Consul: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

c. Each Praetor/Governors: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

d. Each Curule Aedile: May employ a total of 12 individuals who will earn CPs.

e. Each Plebian Aedile May employ a total of 4 individuals who will earn CPs.

f. Each Tribune of the Plebs: May employ a total of 2 individuals who will earn CPs


III.

It is the policy of Nova Roma that magistrates who are elected and are bound by their oath of office should do the preponderance of their work and not delegate all or most of their tasks to subordinates and assistants (who are not bound by the Oath of office).

IV.

If Magistrates choose to exceed the number of Apparitores in excess of section II of this lex those apparitories in excess will not receive payment for services in the form of CPs. This will be determined by Section V of this lex.

V.

Magistrates must disclose in the form of an appropriately published edict, the names of those apparitor who will receive CPs by June 1st. If the Magistrate is a suffectus magistrate that magistrate must disclose, in the form of an appropriately published edict the names of those apparitories who will receive CPs within 60 days of assuming office.

VI.

If a magistrate does not publish the edict no apparitor will receive CPs for that position. They will, for all intent and purposes have volunteered their time and effort for no payment. This is also applicable for those apparitores who continue service for a magistrate and do not receive CPs.

VII.

A Citizen may serve in as many apparitor positions to as many magistrates as he or she wishes; however, the citizen will receive CPs for service in no more than 3 cohortes (staff) during 1 (one) calendar year.

VIII.

When Nova Roma reaches an Assidui tax base of more than 300 Assidui citizens the presiding magistrate may petition the senate of Nova Roma to adjust the staff sizes of magistrates. The Senate may at that time raise the staff members of individual magistrates or the entire spectrum based on their discretion. However, the Senate must take into consideration the overall number of tax paying citizens as their primary factor.

IX.

If a Magistrate is serving without a colleague that magistrate is entitled to employ double the legal staff limit specified in Section II of this lex. However, if a suffectus magistrate is elected, appointed or assumes the position the Magistrate must reduce his staff within 30 days or publish an edict confirming which apparitores will be given compensation of CPs.

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CXXXV: Lex Cornelia de rebus ordinis equestris

Constitutional Change of the Ordo Equaestor Section of the Constitution Section II.C.2.


Ordo Equester (Equestrian Order) the Equestrian Order shall consist of high standing citizens who excel in their service to the Res Publica. Equestrians shall be enrolled into the Ordo Equester as specified by laws approved by the Comitia.

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CXXXVI: Lex Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua Latina corrigenda

Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: With the approval of the present lex the Arminia de fovenda lingua latina reads as follows:


This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

4. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

5. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies.

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CXXXVII: Lex Pompeia de cursu honorum

Resolved, in order to establish the minimum eligibility requirements to serve in those offices specified in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution that are elected by the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:

I. Tribunus Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Tribunus Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 25 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least 18 months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Tribunus Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Tribunus Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in I.A-I.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as a Tribunus Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified I.A, I.B, I.C or I.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for I.A, I.B, I.C and I.D but fails to meet I.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


II. Aedilis Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Aedilis Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 18 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least six months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Aedilis Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Aedilis Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in II.A-II.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as an Aedilis Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified II.A, II.B, II.C or II.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for II.A, II.B, II.C and II.D but fails to meet II.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


III. Plebeian status

If at any time during his or her candidacy for the office of Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis a candidate is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order the presiding magistrate of the Comitia Plebis Tributa must immediately terminate such candidacy. Similarly, if a Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis who is serving in office is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order during his or her term of office then he or she shall be required to step down immediately and the Censores shall ensure an appropriate entry is made in the citizen’s official record. Any other Tribunus Plebis serving in office at the time of such a resignation may call for suffectus candidates and summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa to conduct an election to fill the vacancy left by the departing tribune or aedile.

IV. Implementation

This law shall go into effect immediately upon approval by a simple majority of the tribes voting in the Comitia Plebis Tributa. However, any citizen holding one of the aforementioned positions at the time of the passage of this law or listed as an official candidate in a election for one of the aforementioned positions at the time this law goes into force shall be exempt from the eligibility requirements stated in paragraphs I and II for the remainder of his or her term. All candidates and all elected Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis, regardless of when their candidacy or term of office started, must maintain plebeian status as stated in paragraph III as there shall be no relief, remedy, exemption or grandfathering for the provisions of paragraph III of this law.

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CXXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de classibus et ordine equestri

Introduction: The purpose of this lex is to bring Nova Roma closer to the ancients by implementing and bringing to life an important segment of the ancient Roman community, The Ordo Equester. This will spell out clearly, transparently the requirements and privliedges of being a member of this esteemed order. In creating this segment of society into Nova Roma it also requires some readjusting of the Comitia Centuriata in accomplishing this every aspect of each citizen’s alignment within the Comitia is transparently laid out from the Census points each citizen earns, to their Class membership and the actual evolution of centuries as Nova Roma’s tax base increases.

I. The lex Octavia altera de comitiis centuratis is hereby repealed.

II. The preconditions for admittance to the Ordo are:

a. That the person be an Assiduus classified citizen of Nova Roma

b. Admission to the Ordo Equester is voluntary and occurs only if the citizen accepts the honor.

c. That the citizen applying must have:

i. A total of at least 220 census points, in which case membership is permanent subject to the citizen maintaining a balance of census points that totals at least 220. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

ii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for business contributions for Ordo membership by any citizen operating a business within Nova Roma, or legally utilising any assets of Nova Roma. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for donative contributions for Ordo membership. Membership is permanent and no further donative contribution shall be required for the citizen to maintain membership of the Ordo. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iv. Be chosen by one censor for outstanding service to Nova Roma. A Censor may only choose one citizen during his/her two year term as censor. Membership of the Ordo through this means shall not result in advance for the citizen in the centuries and/or classes, though advancement may occur by accruing more census points through the normal public service criteria. A Suffect Censor can not choose any citizen. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

III. The requirements for continued membership in the Ordo Equester are:

a. For those citizens admitted under I.b.i permanent, but subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

b. For those citizens admitted under I.b.ii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the business contribution amount for the year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the business contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further business contributions shall be required. A person operating a business within Nova Roma is not eligible to apply for membership of the ordo by virtue of donative contributions as at II.c below.

c. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the donative contribution amount for that year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the donative contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further donative contributions shall be required.

d. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iv permanent, subject to that citizen not resigning or being banished and also subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

IV. The process for admittance to the Ordo:

a. Is automatic for I.b.i and not requiring Censorial approval, collegiate or otherwise.

b. Is subject to the Censors acting in a collegiate manner to admit a citizen for I.b.ii to I.b.iv inclusive.

c. Does not require any public reason to be published to support the decision to admit a person.

d. Requires that the Censors set the amount of census points for the citizens initially admitted under I.b.ii to I.b.iii inclusive at 220 should they be less than 220.

V. The process for rejection of an application to be admitted to the Ordo does not require the Censors to publish a reason for rejection, nor for the censors to provide the person applying with the reasons for rejection. The Censors shall however inform a citizen whose application has been rejected of the fact of rejection, but there is no requirement placed upon the Censors to supply that citizen with the reasons for rejection.

VI. The number of centuries shall be determined based on the number of Assidui citizens in Nova Roma. The Comitia Centuriata will have 31 Centuries that will be divided into 5 classes. The addition of new centuries to the Comitia Centuriata will be structured to coincide to benchmarks of Assidui citizens.

a. 300 and fewer Assidui citizens will result in 31 Centuries

b. 301-600 Assidui citizens will result in 61 Centuries

c. 601 -1200 Assidui Citizens will result in 91 Centuries

d. 1201-1800 Assidui Citizens will result in 121 Centuries

e. 1801-2400 Assidui Citizens will result in 151 Centuries

f. 2401 and above Assidui Citizens will result in 193 Centuries.

VII. The Censores may no longer alter the makeup of the centuries by class. The Censores are tasked to ensure that each class is properly filled with the appropriate citizens in compliance to existing legislation. If there are centuries assigned to classes that do not have the citizens to fill those centuries then the Censores cannot fill those centuries.

a. The Number of Census points will determine what class citizens are allocated in the Comitia Centuriata.

i. If Citizens hold 220 or more Census Points and have accepted enrollment into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to that Class and appropriate Century.

ii. If Citizens hold between 140-219 Census points OR have not accepted membership into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to the First Class of Centuries.

iii. If Citizens census points fall within the 100 – 139 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Second class.

iv. If Citizens census points fall within the 50-99 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Third class.

v. If Citizens census points fall within the 35-49 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fourth class.

vi. If Citizens census points fall within 17-34 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fifth class.

vii. If Citizens census points do not meet the minimum threshold of 16 Census points they will be allocated to the Capite Censi Century.

VIII. The relative sizes of each class shall be set as follows:

a. Class I: 49% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century in this class shall be composed of all those members of the Ordo Equester who have accepted membership into the Ordo Equester. This will be referred to as Century 1.

ii. The Century set aside for the members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 2 Centuries when Nova Roma reaches 91 Centuries as defined under section VI.C. These two centuries will be designated as Century 1 and Century 2.

iii. The Centuries set aside for members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 3 Centuries when Nova Roma achieves the full complement of 193 centuries as described under VI.f. These 3 centuries will be designated as Century 1, Century 2 and Century 3.

b. Class II: 10% of the total number of Centuries

c. Class III: 10% of the total number of Centuries

d. Class IV: 10% of the total number of Centuries

e. Class V: 15% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century within class V is reserved for the Capite Censi Only.

f. Within each class, the number of citizens is to be spread as equitable as possible. With the exception of those individual centuries that have extra requirements (Section VIII,a,i and Section VIII,e,i). The Censors are instructed to ensure each class is properly and equitable represented.

IX. Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXXXIX: Lex Cornelia poenalis

Introduction: Nova Roma must have a method to administer and adjudicate conflicts between citizens. This has been an area of ongoing concern since Nova Roma was created. The most recent attempt, the Leges Salicia, have not been successful. There are multiple problems with the Leges Salicia. The recent unpleasantness with the trials that Nova Roma have gone through have proven beyond a doubt that Nova Roma needed to rethink how we balance the need for conflict resolution while taking steps to ensure the protection of the Organization. This law achieves that balance.

I. The lex Salicia iudiciaria and the lex Salicia poenalis are repealed.

II. Any attempt to introduce or change the current judicial system or administratively alter the procedures within and for Nova Roma, other than those processes outlined in this lex, shall be illegal.

III. The judicial system of Nova Roma shall be based solely on the Code of Conduct as defined in this lex.

IV. Only the praetors, consuls, censors and Senate shall enforce and administer the Code of Conduct.

V. The Code of Conduct shall be applicable and have legal force within:

a. All official fora under the control of the praetors

b. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Senate

c. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the provincial governors.

d. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of official Nova Roman sodalities, as defined by the Senate.

e. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Collegium Pontificum or the Collegium Augurum as defined by the collegium concerned and such definition being ratified by the Senate.

f. Official Nova Roman in-person meetings, authorised and/or sponsored by a magistrate of Nova Roma, the Senate, the Collegium Pontificum, the Collegium Augurum or a provincial magistrate.

VI. The Code of Conduct shall be as follows:

a. A person who advocates or otherwise promotes or publicises a prohibited course of action in any area as defined at section V above, or commits an act in support of such a course of action, whether such act is successful in its execution or not, shall be deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

b. The following are courses of action that are, for the purposes of section II.B.4 of the Nova Roman Constitution, deemed to represent and imminent and clear danger to the Republic and are thus prohibited for the purposes of section VI.a above together with the relevant penalty schedule (as defined below) that shall apply :

i. The overthrow and/or replacement of a magistrate(s), official (elected or appointed) and/or Senate of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule I)

ii. Threats of violence, intimidation or harm to person(s) or threats to damage property (schedule I)

iii. The theft of, or destruction or damage to corporate assets (schedule I)

iv. The provision of data or information from any Nova Roman record or database to an unauthorised person or organization. Exceptions are for the purpose of complying with a legal demand by macronational authorities, and in order to protect and/or preserve the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. (schedule I)

v. The dissolution of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vi. The removal of the religio publica as the official religion of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vii. The surrender or sabotage of the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

viii. Public displays of hatred towards any person, or group of persons, based on colour, race, religion, ethnic origin, gender or sexual orientation (schedule III)

ix. Extolling the benefits and/or values of an organization deemed by the Senate to be a competing organization (schedule III)

x. Resigning from any magistracy or office at a time critical to the security and/or well-being of Nova Roma, where such resignation would likely pose an imminent and clear danger to the continued survival, or orderly functioning of, Nova Roma, and where no other magistrate or official of equal or greater authority currently holds office, or where such other magistrate or official is unavailable (schedule IV)

xi. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication during a comitia summons, with the intended result of disrupting and/or terminating any vote within that comitia that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule IV)

xii. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication that violates the Terms of Service (ToS) of any communication venue owned by a third party service or company, and which Nova Roma utilizes, thereby imperilling, impeding or preventing Nova Roma’s right to use that communication venue. (schedule IV)

c. Any citizen of Nova Roma may present a praetor with a complaint alleging a breach of the Code of Conduct. Upon receipt of such information the praetor must within 7 calendar days of such receipt review the evidence presented as well as any other evidence which the praetor subsequently discovers upon investigation of the allegation. If the praetor upon review of such evidence concludes there is no breach of the Code of Conduct no further action shall be taken. If the praetor considers that there is reasonable suspicion that a breach of the Code of Conduct has occurred, then:

i. The praetor must then contact the person at section VI.a and request an explanation for the alleged breach of the Code of Conduct and require an answer within 14 calendar days.

ii. Should no answer be received by the praetor within 14 calendar days then the person at section VI.a shall be automatically deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

iii. Should an answer be received within 14 calendar days the praetor shall review it and determine if:

1. A response can be made from the individual accused and/or by a representative on behalf of the accused.

2. There is no clear and convincing evidence of the accused having violated the Code of Conduct. If that is the case, no further action shall be taken.

3. There is evidence a breach has occurred but mitigating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such then the praetor has the discretionary power to issue a warning and not impose a penalty, or should the praetor not wish to exercise that discretion a level (a) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed. Should a person who has been warned previously commit further similar or greater, as defined by the praetor, breaches of the Code of Conduct then this discretionary power shall not be exercised and a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed.

4. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and no aggravating circumstances. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (b) penalty under the relevant schedule.

5. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and aggravating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule.

6. If If there is a guilty decision on any item covered under section v.b.i – v.b.xiii, then the praetor shall transfer authority over the matter to the princeps senatus, who shall issue a call to convene the Senate into a formal meeting of the Senate in session, as defined by the SENATUS CONSULTUM DE RATIONE SENATUS MMDCCLXV. The princeps senatus shall present the Senate with such evidence and the matter shall be debated by the Senate. The princeps senatus shall present a draft senatus consultum to the Senate that asks it to decide whether the alleged breach has occurred and to approve the sentencing of the infraction according to the schedule listed in this lex.

a. The princeps senatus shall have the administrative discretion to judicially review the administrative process conducted by the Praetor, can conduct necessary discovery, and recommend alternative sentences. The only limitation is that the princeps senatus cannot impose any sentence in excess of the schedule listed in this lex.

7. In assessment of evidence, or mitigating circumstances or aggravating circumstances, the praetor shall determine those by use of his/her own judgement.

8. If any punishment is so warranted by any empowered magistrate or empowered individual covered in section iii before said punishment may be applied it must be reviewed by the Senate of Nova Roma. If the Senate of Nova Roma does not approve by consent of the voting members of the senate (simple majority of all senators present) then the punishment is voided and not applied. Only after the consent of the Senate may any punishment be applied.

iv. The following define Schedule I to Schedule IV penalties:

1. Schedule I (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 10 years to 19 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 5 years from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 20 years to 29 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 7 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 30 years to 99 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: perpetual loss of the right to stand for any public office.

2. Schedule II (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 4 years to 5 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 1 year from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 6 years to 7 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 2 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 8 years to 9 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 4 years from the date of return.

3. Schedule III (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 1 year.

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 2 years.

c. Aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 3 years.

4. Schedule IV (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 6 months to 1 year

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 1 year to 5 years

c. Aggravating circumstances:  : Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma for 5 year to 10 years

v. Where a range of years in the form of a penalty exists, the praetor shall, at his or her own discretion, choose the exact amount of years from within that range, excluding section VI.c.III.5 where the vote of the Senate imposes the penalty and level.

vi. The right of appeal upon imposition of a penalty under this lex shall be defined as the exercise of the right of provocatio, as per section II.B.5 of the Nova Roman Constitution.

vii. The mechanism for imposing the penalty shall be by means of a praetorial edict issued by the presiding praetor. The censors must upon publication of the praetorial edict record the details of the penalty in the Album civium entry for the person at VI.a.

d. The praetor shall use his/her own judgement in determining the facts of a matter, and/or evaluating evidence in respect of that matter, concerning an alleged breach of the Code of Conduct. This also applies to the Senate with regard to judicial review of any guilty verdict.

e. In cases where there is a difference between the decision of the Praetor and a decision reached by the Senate of Nova Roma the decision by the Senate of Nova Roma is the decision of final resort.

f. There shall be a limitation on the period of time for each breach during which the actions described in this lex can be utilized and after that time no action shall be taken, dated from the time and date offense or action. The limitations according to the associated schedule number for the breach concerned are:

i. Schedule I: 10 years

ii. Schedule II 5 years

iii. Schedule III: 3 years

iv. Schedule IV: 1 year

VII. Rights of all citizens under this lex.

a. Citizens have the right to know who their accuser is.

b. Citizens have a right to a defense and may seek representation. Citizens also have a right to know the accusations and evidence presented against them.

c. Any punishment determined by the praetor is suspended and shall not take effect until the Senate ratifies that punishment by vote.

VIII Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXL: Lex Cornelia de civitate eiuranda

I. For the purpose of section V of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda, the “prevailing legal procedures” shall be defined as those procedures contained within a Senatus consultum, which at the time of the enactment of this lex is the “Senatus consultum on the reapplication process for citizenship”, passed 2765 A.U.C. A senatus consultum issued after the enactment of this lex may amend, or enhance, the “prevailing legal procedures”.

II. Section II.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Citizenship from Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished by either:

1. Notification of the Censors. Submission to the Censors by the citizen intending to resign of an intention to resign citizenship should be made in writing with the intention clearly stated, and may be transmitted in writing via any available means.

2. A statement of intent to resign citizenship made in writing by the citizen intending to resign in a public communications forum, list, board or venue, electronic or otherwise, whether that forum is owned or controlled by Nova Roma or not, to which the censors or another magistrate (as described in section IV.A or section IV.B of the Nova Roman Constitution) or a provincial governor of Nova Roma has access. Such intent may also be made by email to a magistrate or provincial governor. The magistrate or governor shall forward verbatim the text of the resignation and provide any electronic hyperlink to such a statement or a forwarded copy of the email concerned. The censors shall exercise collegiate judgment in whether to accept any such communication at section II.A.2 as intent to resign citizenship.”

III. Section IV.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“A Citizen whose citizenship is temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu is known as an exsilius. A Citizen who voluntarily relinquishes citizenship by submitting a resignation from Nova Roma may also be treated as a exsilius for the purposes of this lex. Under the lex Fabia de Censu, a Citizen becomes a excensus after failing to register with one census. Any excensus or former Citizen in a excensus status who fails to register with a census or who fails to otherwise reestablish citizenship may, at the discretion of the Censors, have his or her status terminated, and thus be removed from the censorial Album Civium.”

IV. Section IV of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a subsection C to read:

“A citizen subject to banishment imposed under the terms of any lex shall not be treated as exsilius and upon imposition of the banishment shall be treated as a former citizen, devoid of any and all legal rights within Nova Roma.”

V. Section VI.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“When a former Citizen applies for reinstatement of citizenship, a waiting period of ninety (90) days must precede the reestablishment of citizenship. A former Citizen whose citizenship was removed by the process of banishment is not entitled to a restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including census points). In the case of any other Citizen who was exsilius or excensus the restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (excluding census points) shall be at the discretion of, the censors acting in a collegiate manner. The restoration of census points for a person who was exsilius or excensus shall be determined by the process in section XXXX of this lex.”

VI. Section VI.C of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Any census points that are due under the terms of this lex to a returning Citizen must be restored at the time that citizenship is legally re-established by the censors.”

VII. Section VIII.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“All rights and privileges of citizenship are restored to a Citizen at the time his or her citizenship is re-established, subject to any legal prohibitions, cancellations, or any other such restriction, that may exist at the time of re-establishment of citizenship.”

VIII. The Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a section IX. ((Census Point loss)) which shall have the following sub-sections:

“A. Voluntary resignations shall be classified as follows:

1. Personal: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation of a non-Nova Roman nature

2. NR dispute: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation where a conflict, conducted in public or private, has occurred over matters that relate to Nova Roman matters, between the Citizen resigning Citizenship and another Citizen(s), or a former Citizen(s) or another person(s)

3. No reason: No reason is provided in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately

4. No warning: The Citizen resigning, while holding office, whether elected or appointed, gave no prior notice of an intent to resign, thus preventing alternative solutions to resignation being discussed

5. 2nd resignation: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship twice.

6. 3rd plus resignations: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship three or more times.

B. A Citizen who has voluntarily resigned shall be classed as either “citizen” (not holding elected or appointed office at the time of resignation), “minor official” (holding an office at the time of resignation, whether that office was elected or by appointment, that was not censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor) or “major official” (held office at the time of resignation as censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor).

C. Upon restoration of Citizenship, except in cases where the returning Citizen is returning from a period of legal banishment that has now expired, the amount of Citizen Points (CP) that must be returned to the Citizen is based on the table below “at VIII.D”, Where the amount of loss is listed as a percentage, that percentage must be deducted from the CP held by the Citizen at the time of his/her resignation, or the fixed amount of actual CP that must be deducted. After calculation of a percentage loss, the result of CP if less than a whole number shall be rounded down. If after deduction of a fixed amount of CP this results in a negative number, that shall be recorded in the Citizen’s Album Civium. The censors shall administer the application of the CP deductions in the table below.

D. Census Point loss table

Personal NR Dispute No reason No warning 2nd resignation 3rd resignation
Citizen 20% loss 35% loss 50% loss N/A 100% loss Set CP to -100
Minor official 30% loss 60% loss 80% loss +20% loss 2x % loss Set CP to -250
Major official 50% loss 80% loss 100% loss 2x % loss 3x % loss Set CP to -500

Notes:

1) 2nd resignation of a person deemed at the time of resignation does not require that he/she was also an official on 1st resignation. 2) Results of CP loss may place the resigned citizen in negative balance, which he/she will have to work off balance before CP can be earned. 3) Tax rates will be addressed through Senatus consultum (tax is the prerogative of the Senate) but persons who have resigned and returned will be required to pay the Nova Roman tax for the class they were in prior to CP loss.

4) CP loss will be calculated at the time of resignation, not upon returning, and amount of loss noted on citizen's Album page together with the class and century they were in at time of resignation.

5) The table is read left to right, so the censors shall first determine which applies; Personal, NR dispute or No reason. Then they shall determine if warning was not given and apply the enhanced penalties indicated, and finally evaluate if the citizen has resigned two, or three (or more) times and apply those penalty enhancers.

6) +20% means that this 20% is added to either, 30%, 60% or 80% depending on which applies to the Citizen.

7) 2x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of two; 3x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of three.


Note from Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: The present lex changes several points of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda

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CXLI: Lex Cornelia de constitutione corrigenda secunda

CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE.

The change will affection Section IV A of the Constitution of Nova Roma, if passed by the People and ratified by the Senate of Nova Roma.

The current reading is this:

Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of theordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place no later than December 15th, and newly-elected officials shall assume their offices on January 1st. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:

The new change will be as follows:

Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place every civil year no later than November 20th for the plebeian offices and no later than December 15th for the curule magistracies and other elected officials. Newly elected Quaestores will assume office on December 5th, the tribuni plebis and aediles plebis shall enter their offices on December 10, all other officials shall enter their offices on the following Kalends of January. Anyone currently serving in an elected or appointed office may complete their term and enter their newly elected office on or after January 1. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:

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CXLII: Lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda

Preamble

Whereas the Senate and People of Nova Roma and the Republic of the Nova Roman People has been dragged into crisis and turmoil by Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix and their faction,

and whereas the faction that caused this chaos by a meditated coup and still controls the infrastructure of Nova Roma, refuses to return these assets of Nova Roma to the Nova Roman people,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix instilled fear in the citizenry by the expulsion of the elected magistrates and the tribunes of the plebs for life, by the oppression of the citizens’ rights and free speech, by destroying the citizenship and Nova Roman identity of citizens who expressed disagreement with their tyrannical actions, and thus they made free speech dangerous, and honest public discussion in the official forum of Nova Roma controlled by the coup-makers impossible,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, who maintain control of the voting tools of Nova Roma, withhold the election of new magistrates, causing Nova Roma to be without official government,

we, the citizens of Nova Roma assembled for the purpose of saving Nova Roma from this crisis, do hereby resolve to restore Nova Roma to proper function under proper political process, and to organize our Roman community life until the res publica is restored to said function; to which end we do take affirmative and restorative action by proclaiming the following unofficial and non-corporate private citizens’ initiative in the form of a lex, to be enacted as temporary measures, not to be held as binding under the corporate constitution of Nova Roma or the regulations of the State of Maine:


I. The election of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

I.A. In order to provide a temporary substitution during the forced absence of a fully functioning Nova Roman government, the corporate management and state magistracies, with respect to the extraordinary circumstances when the People of Nova Roma is not in possession of the infrastructure of Nova Roma, and in order to provide the traditional reckoning of years required by Roman custom, four tribuni militum consulari potestate (an alternative title is “tribuni militares consulari potestate”, the English title is “military tribunes with consular power” or “consular tribunes” for short) shall be elected by a non-corporate session of the comitia centuriata, according to the laws in force that regulate consular elections, with the procedural exceptions granted to the current consules by the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis.
I.B. A candidate to the office of tribunus militum consulari potestate shall be at least 21 years of age and shall have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years. The magistrate presiding at the election may make an exception from under the requirement of length of citizenship, and may accept or refuse all kinds of candidates based on their merits to Nova Roma.


II. The role of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the consules, in that they shall provide the citizenry with guidance in their Nova Roman community life, by serving as a center offering cohesion and coordination to the citizens, their activities and initiatives as long as the individuals in control of the infrastructure and assets of Nova Roma are not filling this role. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the praetores and censores as well, likewise to their ancient Roman counterpart, inasmuch as the circumstances necessitate acting in the capacity of a censor or praetor. In addition, the Nova Roman tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the four aediles as well, unless aediles are elected or other officers entrusted with the aedilician duties.

II.A. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall take care of the same tasks and shall have the same powers and rights that the consules, praetores, censores and aediles would have, excepting such as would require the holding of position as an officer of Nova Roma, Inc.. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall not be considered officers of Nova Roma Inc., or any part of the corporate structure and organization, but shall exist only within the symbolic framework of the res publica, and shall serve as civic representatives of the people that gave a mandate to them; the purpose of the office being to organize community life and the res publica, without having the power to issue any decision of binding force upon the corporation.
II.B. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall represent the law respecting senatores and citizens of Nova Roma; and thus they shall work, as their primary goal, on the restoration of the res publica out of the turmoil.
II.C. Decisions and actions of the tribuni can be made individually, jointly or collegially. Individual decisions or actions are the ones taken by only one tribunus. Sessions of the senate and the comitia can only be called to order and presided individually. Any decision or action of a consular tribune can be vetoed by one or more of his colleagues: the veto procedure and its time frames shall be the same as described by the lex Labiena de intercessione. If some of the tribuni aren’t involved in the making of a decision or action, it shall not be considered to be made collegially, but only a joint decision or action taken by some tribuni and not by the entire college of the tribuni. Collegial decisions and actions require the participation (agreement, disagreement, abstention, with the agreements plus abstentions exceeding the number of disagreements) of all tribuni in the action or decision-making. Unanimous collegial decisions require the agreement or conscious abstention of all tribuni.
II.D. A consular tribune is regarded as involved in an action or decision-making if he was demonstrably informed that he was invited to make a decision or action. If such a consular tribune is unresponsive 72 hours after having been contacted and fully informed, his absence shall be counted as conscious abstention.
II.E. The tribuni shall appoint, by unanimous collegial decision, a praefectus officio tribunicio praetorio who, while not being a tribunus but a subordinate first officer, shall be responsible for the coordination and organization of the administrative work and all activities of the joint office of the college of the consular tribunate.
II.F. The consulship and this consular tribunate shall be considered to be the same magistracy, identical by all intents and purposes: all legal documents of Nova Roma referring to the consulship shall be taken also as a reference to the consular tribunate.


III. Term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

III.A. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall commence on January 1.
III.B. If the crisis is still unresolved as of September 1st, the tribuni shall pass a senatus consultum ultimum with the decision whether the tribunal form of government is to be continued for the next year or the res publica should revert to the consular government. After the decision, a period of interregnum shall follow, for ceremonial and religious reasons, and for the holding of next year’s elections, whether it be for a consular or tribunal government.
III.C. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall end on the day before the Ides of October, in the Sacred 20th Anniversary Year of the Founding of Nova Roma, when they shall transfer the government to a series of Interreges.
III.D. The first interrex shall complete the ritual founding of Nova Roma by reissuing the Declaration of Nova Roma and conducting those proper Latin religious rituals and ceremonies on the Ides of October, day of the October Horse, a most propitious day to ceremonially close the founding years of Nova Roma, that were missing or not perfectly performed at the founding of Nova Roma 20 years ago. This “Completion of the Founding of Nova Roma” Ceremony shall be performed and the ritual prayers and vows worded in a manner that ensure that Nova Roma as the spiritually legitimate heir to the ancient Roman Empire, and as state and nation of Nova Romans is fully acknowledged by the Penates, Lares and Manes of the Roman People, the Gods of Rome. These rituals shall be supervised by at least one pontifex and one augur who are proficient in Latin and highly respected experts of the sacra publica and cultus deorum. The first interrex in the series of interreges shall be the person who has already served as the first ever interrex of Nova Roma, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander. His appointment shall be formally made by a senatus consultum ultimum, enacted no later than the last day of September, and the same senatus consultum ultimum shall define the specific order and sequence of interreges until December 31.
III.E. After the founding rituals are completed, the elections for the next year shall be conducted by the interreges, in a manner described by the senatus consultum ultimum that specifies the order and sequence of the interreges, and the new government shall enter office on the next Kalends of January. If the new government remains to be led by tribuni militum consulari potestate, their term of office, from this year on in each subsequent year, shall be one year from January 1 to December 31.
III.F. The office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall be filled until the declaration of the recognition of the new legal corporate government, whereas the office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate will automatically expire. There shall be an alternative mechanism to disband the entire college of the tribuni militum consulari potestate: if two of the tribuni jointly declare that they step down from office with the intention of dissolving the college of the tribuni by this action, the term of office of the entire college of the tribuni expires immediately.


IV. The election, assignment and function of quaestores

IV.A. Eight non-corporate quaestores shall be elected according to the laws of Nova Roma, by a non-corporate session of the comitia populi tributa, to assist the tribuni militum consulari potestate and all other higher officers in any task assigned to them by the higher officers as described in the laws of Nova Roma. The status of non-corporate quaestores and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the tribuni militum consulari potestate as described under II.A..
IV.B. Each tribunus militum consulari potestate shall assign one individual quaestor to his own government office. Other quaestores may be assigned to other officers by the tribuni.
IV.C. Candidates for the quaestorship shall be at least 21 years of age and there is no other requirement.


V. Other non-corporate magistrates and officers

V.A. Other ordinary magistrates such as the diribitores, magister aranearius, vigintisexviri, aediles, tribuni plebis, praetores and censores may be elected if their election is authorized previously by a senatus consultum. Consules shall not be elected for the next calendar year (MMDCCLXX AUC). Non-corporate apparitores and all types of elected or appointed officers may be elected or appointed by the public institutions or the higher officers normally authorized to do so. The status of all non-corporate magistrates and officers and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..
V.B. If the illegal coup senate or the comitia called to order by the illegal magistrates of the coup faction, or any illegal separatist corporate authority of Nova Roma manages to elect or appoint corporate magistrates, promagistrates, governors or other officers (henceforth “officers”) for Nova Roma, the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall pass a decree of the lawful senate to decide whether to recognize any of the illegal corporate officers as real magistrates, promagistrates, governors or officers of the res publica, except in the case of corporate quaestores and aediles, where recognition is automatic. Such recognized corporate officers shall be considered as (supernumerary) colleagues of the non-corporate officers, but may only be integrated to the lawful government on an individual basis decided by the tribuni militum consulari potestate, with specification as to what powers and rights they are entitled to exercise.
V.B.1. If corporate aediles are elected, and there are non-corporate aediles already in office, the corporate aediles are automatically recognized as junior colleagues to the non-corporate aediles and will be recorded with the title “aediles corporativi”. If there are no non-corporate aediles in office, the recognition of corporate aediles is automatic.
V.B.2. There shall not exist lawfully recognized corporate and non-corporate consules, censores and governors (within an identical province) at the same time. If the lawful senate recognizes the corporate consules, censores or governors, the non-corporate counterparts are immediately dismissed. Such recognition of corporate consules is the valid way of terminating the non-corporate crisis government, as described under III.F.


VI. The non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges

The status of all non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..

VI.A. If the corporate coup senate enacts a senatus consultum, or if the comitia called to order by illegal magistrates of the coup faction enacts a lex, it can be considered lawful and valid within the Free Nova Roma if, and only if, the non-corporate senate approves it as well, however in the case of a lex, by this approval it is automatically reclassified as a senatus consultum ultimum.
VI.B. Since the corporate infrastructure, including all communication channels and the voting tools of Nova Roma are under control of the coup faction, who refuse to defer to lawfully established procedure, disallow any exercise of electoral process and willfully impede the election of magistrates, the tribuni militum consulari potestate are authorized to issue alternative session rules and voting procedures for all comitia (and also for the senate) which shall differ from the procedure described by the laws of Nova Roma only in those points where it is necessitated by the circumstances of the crisis.
VI.C. Presiding magistrates are hereby authorized, if approved by at least one augur, to take auspices for the senate or comitia sessions over which they preside, or to delegate this authorization to a pontifex who shall take the auspices in their name. A magistrate presiding over an election is further authorized, if approved by at least one pontifex, to convene the comitia curiata jointly with the authorizing pontifex to invest the elected magistrates with imperium
VI.D. If a corporate priestly college enacts a decretum, it shall be considered lawful and valid automatically within the Free Nova Roma unless its non-corporate priestly college counterpart invalidates it. The non-corporate priestly colleges consist of those members of the priestly colleges who are loyal citizens of Nova Roma and, if the head of a particular college isn’t loyal to the res publica, the interim president of that college shall be the member with the highest rank, or if it isn’t viable, the member with the greatest length of membership within that college, and he shall be titled as “extraordinary secretary” (ab officiis extraordinariis).


VII. Legal force

This lex is enacted, operating, and to be interpreted under the authority of the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis, and thus has all the force of a senatus consultum ultimum to override temporarily the existing laws of Nova Roma for the benefit of the recovering citizenry. Should any danger to the continued existence of the Free Nova Roma emerge the management of which is not covered by this lex or other laws, the committee of the liberatores are lawfully empowered to defend the freedom of the res publica.


VIII. Subsequent confirmation

This non-corporate lex shall not have any legal meaning or official status either under the laws of the State of Maine or within the context of Nova Roma, Inc. as a corporation chartered in the State of Maine, USA; however, it shall become an official lex of the Nova Roman Republic upon subsequent confirmation by the lawful, legal state and corporate authorities of Nova Roma after order is restored to the Republic. The non-corporate senate shall have the power to declare, by a senatus consultum ultimum, the recognition of the new corporate government as lawful and legal under the laws of the Republic, but such a declaration of recognition can only take force if the corporate government has already confirmed all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions made until the day of the declaration of recognition. This subsequent confirmation by the corporate authorities is obligatory and it is a prerequisite, inasmuch as the validity of the recognition of the corporate government as lawful under the laws of the Republic depends on the corporate government’s full confirmation of all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions without any exception. If such a declaration of recognition by a non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum is made, and if all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions are confirmed by the corporate authorities, all non-corporate institutions and offices immediately merge with the corporate institutions, in a manner described by the same senatus consultum ultimum.

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CXLIII: Lex Aurelia de legionibus

Preamble

Whereas in the Declaration of Nova Roma, the New Roman People renounced, “eternally and without exception”, the use of force in the pursuit of the restoration of the Roman republic, in order to exist “as a lawful, peaceful and benign nation, in accord with the principles acknowledged and shared by the world community”, the Army of the New Roman People (Exercitus Populi Novi Romani) may only exist as a ceremonial honor guard and martial arts corps promoting the history of the Roman army and spreading Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the military reenactment groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated by permanent legislation, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

The entirety of all the military units of Nova Roma is the Exercitus (Reconstructivus/Ritualis) Populi Novi Romani Quiritium (the Reenactment Armed Forces of the New Roman People of the Quirites), and, as a consequence of their imperium, its ceremonial supreme commanders and commanders-in-chief are the consules of the year, its vice-supreme commanders are the praetores, the territorial commanders-in-chief are governors of the provinces, but other, specially appointed commanders may exist, as well.

II.:

The Exercitus Populi Novi Romani Quiritium is composed of independent, autonomous, self-governing reenactment units which all have their own rules of operation, determined by themselves. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the unit, the more support shall be given to the reenactment unit from the organization.

III.

The highest units of the Reenactment Armed Forces of Nova Roma are the autonomous, self-governing military units, three types of which can exist: the Autonomous Reenactment Legio, the Autonomous Reenactment Cohors, and the Autonomous Reenactment Exercitus, which is an independent and self-governing reenactment organization composed of more than one Legiones. Each Autonomous Reenactment Unit in Nova Roma is completely self-governing and operates according to their own rules and practices. The difference between the Autonomous Reenactment Legio and Cohors is in name only, and it is determined only by the reenactors’ intention of what type of ancient Roman unit they want to represent, therefore these all can be colloquially referred to in a simplified form as “legion (Legio, Cohors) or joint legions (Exercitus) of Nova Roma”, but in order to avoid confusion, all three categories will be referred to as “Automonous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma” henceforward if all of them are indicated at the same time.

IV.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma can be established only by an official act of levy of a magistrate or governor with imperium. If a Roman military reenactment group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the levy of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman military reenactment unit. A reenactment group can be declared as a Nova Roman unit only if it requires by rule that all of its soldiers (not including tirones) have to be Nova Roman citizens. The Chief Commanding Officer (CO, simply “commander” hereafter) of the Nova Roman reenactment unit shall be ceremonially appointed by a magistrate or governor with imperium, but the actual method of selecting the commander shall be done according to the internal rules of the unit. The appointment by the Nova Roman authorities is purely a formal and ceremonial action, and the magistrate or governor with imperium must appoint any citizen as commander whom the leadership of the unit requests.

V.

The internal structure of these autonomous units, whether they are composed of more divisions, regiments, battalions, companies or squads (legiones, cohortes, manipuli, centuriae, contubernia), is left to the internal decision of that reenactment unit. Nova Roma will keep direct contact only with the autonomous top unit (which encompasses all subdivisions and represents the totality of the reenactment organization), and the responsible contact person and representative for Nova Roma will be the Chief Commanding Officer of the Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

VI.

The Chief Commanding Officer of an autonomous reenactment unit of Nova Roma must hold the military rank of Tribunus, or the title of Praefectus Cohortis or Praefectus Legionis, which are not military ranks proper, but political military offices. If the commander’s military rank is not Tribunus, he can hold any other military rank (Tesserarius, Optio, Centurio etc…), but he must immediately be promoted to, and must concurrently hold, the political army rank of Praefectus as well. The rank of Praefectus is automatically granted by Nova Roma to a commander of any autonomous Nova Roman reenactment unit, but formally they shall receive their appointment from the governor of the province where the group resides or from the consuls or from other magistrates with imperium, and the appointing governor or magistrate shall be the immediate ceremonial superior of the appointed commander. This appointment is a requirement to the establishment or recognition of a new Nova Roman unit, and each autonomous unit leader is entitled to it. The duty of the autonomous unit commander is to serve as the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit.

VII.

A commander of an autonomous Legio, or a commander of an autonomous Exercitus, composed of more than one legions, shall wear the political rank of Legatus or Legatus Legionis. This rank is not granted automatically, however, but it is granted at the discretion of the Senate or of a governor or magistrate with imperium. The rank of Legatus is not permanent, it is not a military rank proper, but a political office within the military, and it expires after the term of office is over. In case it has expired, the commander can ask for a renewal of his appointment. If he doesn’t get immediately re-appointed, he can still continue as the actual commander of his reenactment group (but now as Praefectus or Tribunus) without any interruption.

VIII.

Besides fully Nova Roman reenactment units, Nova Roma accepts allied military reenactment units as its partner groups. If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be an allied unit of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a military reenactment unit allied to Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as an allied unit of Nova Roma only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its soldiers who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit. There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

IX.

A Roman-era military reenactment organization representing any ancient Roman-era culture or ethnicity can apply for the status of recommended or sponsored military unit of Nova Roma with the title “friend of Nova Roma” (amicus populi Novi Romani). If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be a friend of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a friend of Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as a friend of Nova Roma only if it makes a reference to its friendship with Nova Roma on its main internet location (website or social media page). There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit. A unit that is a friend of Nova Roma shall have the right to have its own page on the Nova Roma website where it can introduce and promote itself, and shall have a limited number of promotional opportunities on the fora or social media pages and groups of Nova Roma.

X.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

X.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

X.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit.

X.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

X.D.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman units or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

X.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the unit must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

XI.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit or any subdivision unit of an autonomous military reenactment organization of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being conscripted as a Nova Roman legion or other unit type:

XI.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall possess, use, respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

XI.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XI.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XI.D.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman reenactment unit shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the unit, and the unit can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

XI.E.

Reenactor soldiers of a military unit of Nova Roma shall swear an oath of loyalty to the Nova Roman Republic in which they pledge to promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor soldiers of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

XII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

XII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma.

XII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

XIII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied unit of Nova Roma:

XIII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma.

XIII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XIII.C.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an allied autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XIII.D.

An allied reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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CXLIV: Lex Aurelia de familiis gladiatoriis et ludis gladiatoriis

Preamble

Nova Roma is committed against any use of real violence with harmful intention, however, the ancient Roman martial arts of the gladiators encompasses, besides the negative aspects of violence, a historical value and a deeper meaning of noble ideas of fate, human virtues, honor, life and death, mythological motives and religious devotion. With the non-violent, playful, educational but serious reconstruction of the ancient Roman gladiatorial games, Nova Roma aims to invoke that nobler spirit and spiritual aspect in the martial arts of the gladiators, and strives to educate about their historical and cultural significance in order to promote the history of the Roman army and to spread Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the gladiatorial groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

A gladiatorial reenactment group is officially termed as a familia gladiatoria or ludus gladiatorius; the designation is chosen at the discretion of the group, but the term “ludus” is recommended for those groups where education of children or training of gladiators is in the focus, while the term familia is recommended for a less school-like, veteran gladiatorial group where training is not in the focus but public performances fill most of the time of the group.

II.

Nova Roma recognizes its own gladiatorial groups and allied gladiatorial groups as an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma or as Allied Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Groups. Each type works as an independent, autonomous, self-governing gladiatorial reenactment group with its own rules of operation, determined by the group. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the gladiatorial group, the more support shall be given to the reenactment group from the organization.

III.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma can be established only by registration at the aedilician office, and the aediles (either central Nova Roman aediles or municipal, township level aediles) will grant this status if the applicant group meets the requirements. If a gladiatorial group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new gladiatorial reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the aediles, who then shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. A gladiatorial group can be declared as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group only if its lanista is a Nova Roman citizen; the position of the lanista is selected and regulated by internal group rules. The gladiators of the group do not necessarily have to be Nova Roman citizens, but when a decision between groups about granting support, favor or privilege is made, the proportion of Nova Roman citizens in the group shall be taken into the weighing of the selection of the group to be favored.

IV.

An Allied Gladiatorial Group can be established by the same registration method as a fully Nova Roman gladiatorial group, and the aediles shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as an allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma. A gladiatorial group can be declared as an allied gladiatorial group only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its members who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the group and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his group.

V.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

V.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

V.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group.

V.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

V.D.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman groups or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

V.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the groups can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the group must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

VI.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being registered as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group:

VI.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall possess, use, respect and honor a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

VI.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VI.C.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman gladiatorial group shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the group, and the group can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

VI.E.

It is ethical requirement from the gladiator reenactors of a gladiatorial group of Nova Roma that they shall promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor gladiators of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

VII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

VII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups.

VII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the group can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

VIII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied group of Nova Roma:

VIII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the flag of Nova Roma.

VIII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VIII.C.

An allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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