Provincia (Nova Roma)
Nova Roma Republic has at the same time a central administration and a territorial organization.
The main level of this territorial organization is the province (Latin : provincia, -ae, fem.).
Size and national correspondence
The province cannot be, in the current state of Novaroman Law, smaller than one of the national countries currently existing all around the world. On the contrary, a province may contain several national countries or, besides one or several countries, parts of them, at the local or regional level, specially to respect linguistic or cultural considerations.
Role of the provinces
As every level of Nova Roma territorial organization, the provinces relay the action of the roman republic of Nova Roma.
It is the main level of this organization. This importance is materialized by the presence, at the head of the province, of a governor, whose exact title may differ (see below).
This governor has, at this provincial level and by delegation, most of the powers owned at the central level by Nova Roma main magistrates.
Creation of a province
According Nova Roma's constitution, a province may be created or deleted by the Senate of Nova Roma, through its ordinary decision form, a senatus consultum.
The senate is thus free to create and to delete every province in order to stick to what it considers as the interest of Nova Roma.
Currently, the creation of a province and its existence is still linked to the existence, in a concerned territory (national country, etc.) of at least one citizen of Nova Roma. But the Senate might adopt, with a full legitimacy, another principle.
The legal base concerning Nova Roma provinces is currently Nova Roma's constitution and lex Vedia provincialis.
A lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis deals with the creation and existence of two lower levels, contained in the provincial ones, of Nova Roma's territorial organization.
Internal provincial governance
There is currently no law defining the internal organization of the provinces.
It thus depends on the frame set by its governor, which is free organizing as (s)he wants "her/his province as long as (s)he respects the provisions of Novaroman law, specially of lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis. For example, a province may be divided, for an appropriate administrative management, in main divisions which are named regiones.
The structure of the provincial government varies greatly depending upon the existing conditions of the provincia. This creates a flexible framework for the varying realities of the provinciae.
Both the administrative office of the governor and the headquarter of the provincial administration are called the praetorium. The governor's staff personnel, the cohors praetoria, consist of various officials executing the orders of the governor and may include legates, prefects and scribes, more rarely a provincial quaestor or proquaestor, a procurator, sometimes a curator aranearius and a provincial sacerdos.
In some provinces, the governor shares his power with a provincial council, the consilium provinciae, sometimes mistakenly called curia, but in most of the provinces it is just an advisory body to assist the governor, and there are also provinces where there is no consilium provinciae at all.
Every citizen appointed by the Senate to the head of a province is legally a "governor".
Then, Nova Roma State makes, in its internal working, additional protocole differences, which have no legal consequences:
- the governor in charge of Italian territory, such as defined by the senatus consultum, is called, for the Senate considered that Italia may not be considered as a "province" like the others, praefectus, so praefectus Italiae.
- the other governors are called legatus pro praetore (plural legati)
- crossing both above sub-categories, every governor may be called, by respect, by her/his current or previous highest title. For example, the governor of fictive provincia Utopia might be called, if he had served previously as consul, "Proconsul Utopiae". But the most neutral title is, in our example, "X, leg. p.p. Utopiae, proconsul".
The governors may be replaced at any time, and specially every year when the Senate examines their annual action, by the Patres conscripti. A governor has thus no interest to challenge the legal and moral authority of the Senate.
This consideration let aside, the governors have a wide competency in their province, owning inside the imperium and the judicial competency for trials which involve two citizens of the province.
Though they depend directly of the Senate, governors are submitted to the rule of the higher imperium: their local imperium applies as long as it does not enter in conflict with the higher imperium of the praetors or of the consuls of Nova Roma. When the application of a duly legal, in the large meaning of the word, rule issued by the central government is at stake, a governor cannot avoid relaying and applying it. In case of doubt or hesitation, (s)he must obey any consular official request. A governor will be similarly obliged to obey a praetorian request when the praetors act in the place of the consuls or in the frame of their own special administrative or judicial competencies whose execution is necessary in the concerned province.
Similarly, the governor must apply every measure issued by a central magistrate, even if this magistrate has no imperium, but works in a field which results of the application of Nova Roma Law. For example, a governor will not be allowed to oppose to the possible consequences that the official Ludi (Public games) may have in her/his province or on the provincial official action or calendar.
Provinces of Nova Roma
The list of current Nova Roma provinces have been reviewed by the Senate in its session of January and March 2763 auc. Nova Roma provinciae are the following ones.
- America Austroccidentalis
- (American Southwest) http://amaust.romanrepublic.org/
- America Austrorientalis
- (American Southeast) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/austrorientalis
- America Boreoccidentalis
- (American Northwest)
- America Medioccidentalis Superior
- (America North/Central)
- (Argentina) http://argentina.novaroma.org
- Asia Citerior
- (Western Asia, formerly Asia Occidentalis)
- Asia Ulterior
- (Further Asia, formerly Asia Orientalis)
- (Great Britain)
- (California, Hawaii, Nevada) Nova Roma Provincia California Official List
- Canada Ulterior
- (Western Canada)
- Canada Citerior
- (Eastern Canada) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/canadaciteriornovaroma
- (Romania, Moldova) http://www.dacia-novaroma.org/
- (Belgium, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg) http://www.novaroma.org/nr/Provincia_Gallia_%28Nova_Roma%29
- Austria, Germany, Switzerland)
- (Ireland and Northern Ireland)
- (Portugal and Spain) http://perso.orange.es/mac856/ and http://www.geocities.com/nrhispania/
- (Italy) http://italia.novaroma.org
- Lacus Magni
- (American Great Lakes area) http://romanrepublic.org/lacusmagni
- (American East/Central)
- Nova Britannia
- (American Northeast) http://www.novabritannia.org
- (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia) http://www.nrpannonia.iweb.hu
- (Ukraine, Russia, Byelaruss) http://sarmatia.org
- (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) http://thule.novaroma.org