Leges Novae Romanae In Force

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This is a consolidated page of all leges currently In Force, for Nova Roma. The pages is a useful means to search efficiently through all the leges for a particular element or subject of interest.

V: Lex Vedia apparitoria

Lex Vedia apparitoria has put the bases of two categories of apparitors: the lictors, who are ceremonial ones, and the other ones whose missions are administrative ones. This last category contains the scribes and the consular assistants (accensi). Lex Arminia de ministris tribunorum has completed this building by the introduction of a special sub-class of scribes, the viatores, who are assigned to the only tribunes of the plebs.


In accordance with paragraph IV.A.8. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Apparitoria is hereby enacted to create the following decuriae of apparitores and delineate their functions.

I. Decuria Lictoria

The decuria lictoria shall consist of lictores (lictors), who shall undertake those ceremonial functions as shall be assigned to them by the Senate, including, but not limited to, preceding those magistrates with Imperium at public functions and accompanying traveling Senators. Members of the decuria lictoria shall be appointed by magistrates holding Imperium.

II. Decuria Lictoria Curiata

The decuria lictoria curiata shall consist of the thirty lictores curiati (lictors of the comitia curiata) who shall make up the comitia curiata, and who shall undertake those ceremonial functions as shall be assigned to them by the collegium pontificum. Members of the decuria lictoria curiata shall be appointed by the collegium pontificum.

III. Decuria Scribarum

The decuria scribarum shall consist of scribae (clerks), who shall undertake those administrative and other functions as shall be assigned to them by the magistrate or provincial governor they are assisting. Members of the decuria scribarum shall be appointed by those magistrates with the Constitutional authority to appoint scribae.

IV. Decuria Accensorum

The decuria accensorum shall consist of accensi (personal assistants), who shall undertake those administrative and other functions as shall be assigned to them by the consul whom they assist. Members of the decuria accensorum shall be appointed by the consuls.

V. Viatores tribunorum

(introduced by lex Arminia de ministris tribunorum [1])

V.1. All apparitores nominated by a tribunus plebis for his assistance shall therefore be called "viatores."
V.2. A viator shall be nominated by an edictum, and must be a plebeian citizen.
V.3. The viator is only an apparitor [assistant], and does not share any of the special powers of a tribune, as specified in other legislation, nor may the tribune delegate these powers to these assistants. However, the viator may be delegated to execute the orders of a tribune within his tribunicia potestas.

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VIII: Lex Vedia tributaria

Enacted by Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus's edictum, a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII (30 July 1999),
and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7x1 (12 Aug. 1999)
.

In accordance with paragraph II.E.1. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Vedia Tributaria is hereby enacted to instruct the censors in the matter of the division of the voting citizenry of Nova Roma into their respective tribes.

I. The censors shall apportion individuals among the rural tribes as evenly as possible by the assigning of newly enrolled citizens into those tribes that are numerically deficient.

II. The censors may, if possible, assign members to tribes based on geography, but such considerations shall be secondary to the goal of maintaining equal membership in the tribes.

III. No citizen shall be removed from one tribe to be included in another, save those who are transferred to the urban tribes by their failure to vote in the annual magisterial elections.

IV. Members of the urban tribes who subsequently vote in the annual magisterial elections and therefore have the right to be returned to one of the rural tribes, shall be assigned to such a tribe based on section I of this law, and will not necessarily be returned to their original tribe.

V. Membership in the tribes shall be a matter of public record, and shall be published by the censors annually no later than the last day of November.


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X: Lex Vedia de ratione edictorum


The Lex Vedia de Ratione Edictorum is hereby enacted to provide guidelines for the issuance of magisterial edicta, as provided for in the Constitution.

I. As described in the Constitution, the activities of magistrates in the furtherance of their official activities shall, in large part, take place through the issuance of edicta (edicts). While edicta may be issued and acted upon under the authority of the issuing magistrate, edicta shall be published in at least one of the following public fora within 72 hours of their issuance: the officially sponsored email list or the officially sponsored Internet message board. Such edicta shall be posted in the aerarium Saturni by the magister aranearius as soon as practical.

II. Edicta are subject to intercessio (veto) by those legally empowered to do so by the constitution. Such intercessio may be issued as soon as the edictum has been issued, but no longer than 72 hours after its publication as described in section I, above.



Enacted by Dictator Flavius Vedius Germanicus's edictum, a.d. III Kal. Sext. MMDCCLII
(30 July 1999), and duly validated by senatus consultum, pridie Idus MMDCCLII, by 7x1
(12 Aug. 1999)
.


Notes

In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris, the title 'curator araneum' has been replaced by 'magister aranearius.'

A. Tullia Scholastica, Latinista, Scriba praetoris et magistri aranei, 2758.

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XIII: Lex Iunia de jusiurando

This lex is hereby enacted to put in place an oath of office for any citizen assuming any magistracy of Nova Roma, whether elected or appointed. The following oath must be taken publicly in the major public fora of Nova Roma before someone elected or appointed to any magistracy can assume his or her office. It must be taken on the day, or as soon as possible afterwards, that the office is to be assumed. The office shall be considered vacant until the following oath is taken (lex Cassia de iusiurando 13 Nov. 2754):

"I, [enter the legal and Roman names here] do hereby solemnly swear to uphold the honor of Nova Roma, and to act always in the best interests of the people and the Senate of Nova Roma.

As a magistrate of Nova Roma, I, [enter the legal and Roman names here] swear to honor the Gods and Goddesses of Rome in my public dealings, and to pursue the Roman Virtues in my public and private life.

I, [enter the legal and Roman names here] swear to uphold and defend the Religio Romana as the State Religion of Nova Roma and swear never to act in a way that would threaten its status as the State Religion.

I, [enter the legal and Roman names here] swear to protect and defend the Constitution of Nova Roma.

I, [enter the legal and Roman names here] further swear to fulfill the obligations and responsibilities of the office of [enter the title of the office here] to the best of my abilities.

On my honor as a Citizen of Nova Roma, and in the presence of the Gods and Goddesses of the Roman people and by their will and favor, do I accept the position of [enter the title of the office here] and all the rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities attendant thereto."

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XV: Lex Cornelia de tempore publico constituendo

This law is enacted in order to provide Nova Roma with a standard time that all of its citizens may refer to, regardless of location in the world.

"For all purposes, the time in Rome shall be regarded as the official time of Nova Roma: official purposes that require the use of this standard time include but are not limited to, the time at which voting in one of the comitia begins and ends, the time at which a newly appointed magistrate officially acquires his/her office, and the time at which a magisterial edict takes effect. Magistrates are advised to use official Nova Roman time in all official announcements."

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XXVI: Lex Vedia de civitatis petitionibus per suffragia

I. No applications for Citizenship are to be processed or approved while one or more of the Comitia is in the process of undertaking a vote and/or election. Such applications may be accepted and held until the end of the election and/or vote in question, whereupon they are to be processed with all due diligence and speed, subject to all other laws which may otherwise apply to the process.

II. During the time when applications for citizenship are not processed as described under this law, the magister aranearius shall post an announcement where individuals completing the application for citizenship may reasonably be expected to see it, explaining the situation and giving a reasonable estimate of when the prospective citizens may expect to have their applications processed.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris of 2757 and praetorian edictum, the title "curator araneum" has been replaced by the more correct "magister aranearius." A. Tullia Scholastica, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes: 31; No: 1; Tied: 1

03 February MMDCCLIV

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XXVII: Lex Vedia altera de ratione edictorum

The last sentence of paragraph I. of the Lex Vedia de Ratione Edictium is hereby amended to read as follows:

Such edicta shall be posted in the Tabularium by the Curator Araneum as soon as practical.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes: 31; No: 1; Abstain: 1

03 February MMDCCLIV

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XXXIII: Lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus

I. Introduction

A. This law is set forth to define the procedures by which a citizen may apply to add, alter, or substitute any portion of his or her Roman name, and to state the guidelines by which such an application may be judged. This is done in order to attain a measure of conformity with ancient Roman naming conventions and tradition. Note that this law, and its procedures and guidelines, apply to changes sought by citizens after the publication of this law, and do not apply to citizens' existing names, although the information herein will certainly be of use to new citizens choosing a Roman name.

B. This law has no impact on chatroom handles, signatures to private or casual e-mail messages, or any other alias that any citizen may choose to use. Rather, 'Roman name' for the purposes of this law refers to the name used by the citizen in public oaths, applications to sodalitates and in other official contexts; this Roman name is the one recorded in the censorial album civium.

C. Note that the use of the male gender throughout this document is done solely for clarity, and is not meant to imply any disparity between the sexes before the law.

D. Also note that this document uses the word sex to describe the physical sex of a person and the word gender to refer to linguistic gender only.

E. It is not the intent of this law to discriminate against or to make any judgment about homosexuality, transgenderedness, or any other sexual identity. No such discrimination should be inferred from any part of this document, nor should it be used as a precedent for any law, magisterial act, edictum, or other action that interferes with the rights of any citizen on the basis of that citizen's sexual identity.

F. The Edictum Censorium de Mutandis Nominibus is hereby rescinded in favor of this lex.

II. Definition of a Roman Name

A. A Roman name consists of a praenomen, nomen, (optionally) cognomen, and (possibly) an agnomen, and, in rare cases, several agnomina.

B. The praenomen is a citizen's given name, and is used to distinguish between members of a particular gens. Since there are very few historical praenomina, and since the role of the praenomen is almost entirely secondary, a citizen is rarely referred to by praenomen alone.

C. The nomen identifies a citizen's gens. Since a change in the stem of a citizen's nomen would necessitate a change in gens -- a case of either adoptio or the founding of a new gens -- it is beyond the scope of this law.

D. The cognomen was originally a nickname. It is used to further identify members within a gens, who could easily be identically named due to the paucity of praenomina. Over time, the cognomen became inherited, and was used to identify specific family lines within a single gens. Changes to adopt certain names as cognomina are restricted, as set forth in paragraphs E and F below. Note that these restrictions do not apply in any way to cognomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

E. An agnomen is an additional form of nickname that is commonly bestowed upon a citizen by others, often to commemorate significant accomplishments or important events in the citizen's life. While it is possible for a citizen to add a new agnomen or change an existing one by request, agnomina of distinction must be awarded by a senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of service to Nova Roma. Official recognition of such awarded agnomina of distinction is completed by the censors' entering the agnomina in the album civium. Following each such entry by the censores, the latter will provide the magister aranearius with the full Roman name of the distinguished citizen and an explanation of the circumstances and reasons surrounding the award of the agnomen, that the magister aranearius may publish this information to the Nova Roma website as he sees fit.

F. Agnomina of distinction include, but are not limited to, the following: Augur, Augustus, Felix, Invictus, Magnus, Maximus, Optimus, Pius, Superbus, Victor. Note that these restrictions do not apply in any way to agnomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

G. EXAMPLE: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos would be Quintus of the Metellus branch of gens Caecilia. His family would be referred to as the Caecilii Metelli, in order to distinguish them from the other families within gens Caecilia. His agnomen, Nepos, distinguishes him from any other Quintus of the Caecilii Metelli. As nepos means grandson, it also most likely distinguishes him as the third in a line of like-named people.

III. Procedures

A. A citizen wishing to change his name shall first contact his paterfamilias and present his reasons for desiring a name change, as well as the desired name. The paterfamilias will in turn contact the censores should he approve of the name change, or should he find that he requires help in determining whether or not to approve the change.

B. Patresfamiliarum are instructed to work cooperatively with members of their gens who desire to change their names in order to help them conform to the letter and spirit of this document.

C. Should a paterfamilias disapprove of a citizen's desired name change, refusing to present it to the censores, said citizen may appeal to the censores within ninety (90) days of the refusal.

D. A paterfamilias who wishes to change his name shall apply to the censores directly.

E. Should an applicant fail to obtain a name change from the censores, he may, within ninety (90) days of the refusal, appeal to a consul or praetor to bring the matter before the people through a vote in the Comitia Populi Tributa.

1. Note that such an action requires the citizen who desires the change to temporarily waive his rights of confidentiality as defined in Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus, in order that evidence for and against the application may be presented to the populace.

2. Also note that the decision to convene the Comitia Populi Tributa, along with the schedule for doing so, is the purview of the consules and praetores, and is therefore beyond the scope of this edict.

IV. Guidelines

A. An application for a name change is confidential. The requested name, along with any and all evidence presented with it, is considered confidential information as covered by the Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus. Censores, patresfamiliarum, and anyone called to provide testimony by any party in the procedure are not to divulge any information applicable to the name change to anyone without the applicant's written permission, except as directed by this law. Such exceptions include the following:

1. A paterfamilias providing relevant information upon referring a request for a new name to the censores.

2. A paterfamilias or other citizen providing relevant information upon a censor, consul, or praetor's request, as in the case of an appeal of a denied application.

3. A citizen presenting evidence before the Comitia Populi Tributa in the case of an appeal to those comitia.

B. The guiding principle in considering name changes is to be conformity with ancient Roman tradition.

1. New praenomina should be historically attested ones.

2. As previously stated, agnomina of distinction (Maximus, Felix, et cetera) are not to be granted to citizens on request, but can be awarded to any citizen by any senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of any special service to the Republic. It is up to the patresfamiliarum and censores to determine what is and is not an agnomen of distinction on a case-by-case basis.

3. Cognomina and agnomina can be new coinages, but must be conducive to Latin declension, and must have a clear meaning -- both semantically and in specific relation to the citizen requesting the added or changed name.

4. The gender of the name is to be consistent. Each part is to agree with all others in gender, and with the sex of the citizen requesting the name change. (1)

C. A citizen who wishes to change the gender of his name counter to that dictated by his sex must present, in support of his application, proof of acceptance of the contrary sex by an authority of a macronation state, or municipality. In other words, if the applicant is physically a man and has a form of macronational or municipal identification listing his sex as female, or is officially recognized as a woman in his country of macronational citizenship, then he may use a feminine name in Nova Roma.

1. An exception to this rule is allowed in the case of transsexual citizens who are discussing surgical sex alteration with a health care provider or undergoing other medical and psychological treatment in preparation for such an operation. In these instances, documentation pertaining to health care provider(s) may be required of the applicant.

2. Post-operative transsexual citizens shall be named according to their current sex.

3. Hermaphrodites shall be named according to the sex in which they are recognized by their country of macronational citizenship.


Notes


(1). The end of paragraph IV, and specially IV.4., has been changed by lex Labiena de nominibus mutandis (24 Sept. 2756 auc).

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XXXIV: Lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis

Lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis defines the two major categories of citizens: the ones who pay their annual tax to Nova Roma budget (even the law below does not set the principle of the annuality), and the others. The first ones are called assidui (sing. assiduus, fem. assidua), and the second ones capite censi (sing. capite census, fem. capite censa). This last expression meaning "recorded as a head (body, person)", the word capite does not vary, for it means "as a head".

The first modification of lex Vedia has been brought by a lex Cornelia which has specified how a cives could have her/his status change from capite census/-a to assiduus/-a.

The second train of modifications has been brought by lex Apula, which has first put in the field of the "legislation" what was before in the Senate's competency: the amount and the proceedings to pay the taxes. Second, lex Apula has authorized the possible removal from office and seat of senators and ordinarii, on one hand, and on the other of "members of the Collegium Pontificum, priests and sacerdotes", who would, having not paid their tax(-es), would become de facto capite censi. The difference between both sub-categories concerns the authority who may takes the removal decision: one of both censors for the first one, the pontifex maximus for the second one.

The last modification of lex Vedia has been brought indirectly via an amendment to lex Apula: Vedia-Cornelia-Apula de assiduis etc. has been added in May 2762 auc a new § II.B, which grants the status of assiduae to every Vestal virgins and exempts them from tax paying.


I. Lex Vedia modified by Apula de assiduis et capite censis is hereby enacted to define the classifications of taxpayers and non-taxpayers, and put in place special conditions on those who are unable or unwilling to support the financial welfare of the Republic through payment of those taxes which may be enacted by the Senate.

II.

A. Citizens who pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the current legislation [(in italics: mod. by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758. The Vedia text said "by the Senate")] shall be considered assidui. No special conditions shall be placed on assidui in regards to their placement in centuries and tribes or their ability to run for or hold office.

B. [paragraph added by Curiatia Iulia de tributo virginum vestalium May xx, 2762, appr. by SC Jul. 18, 2762.:] Those appointed as Vestal virgins by the Collegium Pontificum shall be exempt from paying the annual tax and shall retain their status as assidui so long as they remain Vestal virgins. No special conditions shall be placed on Vestal virgins with regard to their placement in centuries and tribes or upon their ability to run for or hold office."


III. Citizens who do not pay taxes in such amount and in such manner as may be defined by the Senate shall be considered capite censi. The following special conditions shall apply to capite censi:

  • A. The Censors shall place all Capite censi in the last century in Class V as defined by lex Vedia centuriata and those leges which may amend it, and no other Citizens shall be enrolled therein.
  • B. The Censors shall place all Capite censi in the urban tribes as defined by lex Vedia tributaria and those leges which may amend it.
  • C. No Capite census may run for or hold office as one of the ordinarii (including the apparitores), nor be appointed to or hold office as provincial governor nor be titled as senator or member of the Collegium Pontificium or priest or sacerdos [(in italics: added by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758)]. Capite censi may hold provincial or local offices at the discretion of the governor of the province in question.
  • D. (added by lex Cornelia Octavia de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 10, 2755, appr. by SC Dec. 24, 2755 :)
    • 1. All persons obtaining citizenship after this lex takes effect will have Capite census status until and unless payment is made.
    • 2. Any Capite census may become assiduus by paying the appropriate amount, as defined by senatus consultum. If payment is made during a contio or election, the change in status will take place after the election concludes.
    • 3. Upon receipt of tax payment in full, the applicant is considered to assume the rights and privileges of assiduus as defined by lex Vedia de assiduis et capite censis and the applicant will be allocated to a rural tribe and appropriate century allocation.

IV. (added by lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis Dec. 09, 2758, appr. by SC Dec. 31, 2758 :) Senatores and ordinarii sitting magistrates, who become Capite censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Censors. Members of the Collegium Pontificum, priests and sacerdotes who become Capite censi due to non-payment of taxes may be removed from office by the Pontifex Maximus.

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XXXVIII: Lex Cassia de creatione sodalitatum

I. A group or association, cultural, social, historical or political, created by or involving Nova Romans shall be considered officially a part of Nova Roma only by official recognition/approval by the Republic. Any such group that wishes official recognition or status within Nova Roma must make a formal application for inclusion. Until such an application is placed and granted by the Senate or through vote in any one of the Comitia, all such groups are considered completely separate from Nova Roma.

II. The above clause is also binding to all Religious groups, organizations and associations involving Nova Roma Citizens, with the exception that they may only apply to and be approved by the Collegium Pontificum. This is in accord with section IV of the Nova Roma constitution which places all religious associations under the authority of the Collegium Pontificum.

III. Organizations applying for recognition by Nova Roma must present a formal charter and outline of intent before the Senate or to one of the Comitia (or if a religious group to the Collegium Pontificum.) The charter for any group, organization or association applying for recognition within Nova Roma must include:

A. A statement of intent (what the organization is about, and what it is trying to achieve.)

B. An action plan outlining how it intends to achieve its goals.

C. An outline of its internal organization, hierarchy and offices.

IV. A group, organization or association approved for official inclusion into the infrastructure of Nova Roma must adhere to the Constitution and Laws of Nova Roma. An application for official recognition is therefore considered a binding statement of intent to be governed by Nova Roma's laws, constitution and legal government.

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XLVI: Lex Labiena de intercessione

I. Pursuant to fulfill what is ruled in Paragraph IV.A.7.a.3 of the Constitution, this lex is enacted to define the process by which tribuni plebis may use their power of intercessio.

II. A tribunus plebis may use intercessio by making an official announcement to at least one of Nova Roma’s main communications fora (as defined by the Constitution) within 72 hours of the announcement of the item or action to be vetoed. The items and actions which tribuni plebis may use intercessio against are defined in paragraph IV.A.7.a.1 of the Constitution.

III. The issuance of intercessio shall place the item or action on hold, preventing it from being in any way effective, for 72 hours from the time at which the intercessio is announced.

IV. During this 72 hour period, other tribuni plebis may officially announce their agreement or disagreement with the particular use of intercessio.

IV.A. Such announcements shall be made to at least one of Nova Roma’s main communications fora, and shall be made to the forum in which the original announcement of intercessio occurred.
IV.B. A tribunus plebis who chooses not to state his agreement or disagreement with the use of intercessio shall be assumed to have abstained, and his abstention shall be counted neither for nor against the use of intercessio.
IV.C. The initial use of intercessio shall be assumed to be a statement of agreement with itself. Therefore, the tribunus plebis who initially issued the intercessio in question need not state his agreement with his own action.

V. Should more tribuni plebis agree than disagree with the use of intercessio in question, it shall stand, and the action which was vetoed shall be void. Otherwise, the action which was vetoed shall be allowed to take effect starting immediately at the end of the period allotted for tribuni plebis to state their agreement or disagreement.

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XLVII: Lex Cornelia de tabulis gentium novaromanarum agendis

Pursuant to the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.D.1 and II.D.3) The Comitia Populi Tributa of the People of Nova Roma hereby enact this lex concerning the registration of Gentes, Patresfamiliarum, and Matresfamiliarum with the Office of the Censors. (For the purpose of this lex, the use of the word paterfamilias will include both Paterfamilias and Materfamilias).

I. Each Gens shall be registered with the office of the Censors every year.

II. Registration of Gentes must be completed by the last day of June.

III. The censors must announce the opening of the registration period at least eight (8) weeks before the deadline on the official Nova Roma e-mail list.

IV. Patresfamiliarum are responsible for contacting the Censores using any of these methods:

A. Send an e-mail to the Censors via the official e-mail address of the Office of the Censors, which is censors@novaroma.org at the time of the passage of this lex.

B. Mail a written statement to the Nova Roma post office box.

C. Complete a form on the Nova Roma web site, the address of which shall be specified by the Censores at the beginning of the registration period.

V. The current official address of all Nova Roma Mail correspondence is:

Nova Roma P.O. Box 1897, Wells, ME 04090

At the time of the passage of this lex, the above address is the official address. If the official address changes in the future, the new mailing address should be utilized.

VI. When the deadline is reached, the Censors must publish a list of Gentes that have failed to register with the Office of the Censors. This list must be published on the official Nova Roma email lists, are currently located at novaroma@yahoogroups.com and novaromaannounce@yahoogroups.com.

VII. A Gens that has failed to register with the office of Censors is considered to have NO Paterfamilias. If there are other members of that gens the Censors must work with the Gens to select a new Paterfamilias.

VIII. A Gens that has failed to register with the office of the Censors, and which has no member other than its paterfamilias, shall be removed from the Album Gentium. Its former members shall be considered to belong to no Gens, and shall be given the nomen "Nemo". The nomen formerly used by that Gens will be considered unused and available for future applicants.

IX. Patresfamiliarum who are unable to communicate with the office of Censors may appoint a designate within the Gens to act as Paterfamilias. However, notification must be on file in the office of the Censor(es).

X. During the period of time when there is no paterfamilias in the Gens, the Gens will remain static. No new admissions may take place.

XI. While a Gens is still trying to pick a new paterfamilias, that gens will be listed as closed for new citizens' recruitment. The new paterfamilias must notify the Censors upon receipt of the position of Paterfamilias if he/she wants to reopen the gens for new members.

XII. The following are procedures that must be followed before individual(s) of a gens may be allowed to change gens affiliations due to Patresfamiliarum who are shown to be inactive and non-responsive as a result of the registration process.

A. Once a Pater has failed to respond, the Censores contact the other members of the gens and see if there is any of them willing to be a paterfamilias. The deadline for this process to begin is two weeks from the end of the registration period.

B. If there is just one responsive candidate, he is appointed as the new Paterfamilias, and the gens is then registered.

C. If there is more than one responsive candidate, a decision must be taken as to who the new Pater would be. The exact process for this would be left up to the gens to decide. If member of the gens report to the Censors that they are at an impasse the following two factors may be used to break the impasse:

1. If there is a tie between two members who would become the new Paterfamilias the Century point totals of the candidates would be used as the tie breaker.

2. If there is a tie in century points then the length of citizenship would be utilized to break that tie.

D. After the two-week period has expired, and no responsive candidate has come forward, those remaining gens members will be given the Nomen "Nemo." Each Gens member will be asked to either create a new Gens or join an existing gens. The nomen formerly used by that Gens will be considered unused and available for future applicants.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-28; No-6; Abstain-0

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XLVIII: Lex Cornelia de linguis publicis

I. Due to the increasingly inter macronational nature of the Citizenship of Nova Roma, it has become necessary for the official language policy of the Republic to be defined, in such a way that acknowledges our historical antecedents, practical concerns, and the sensibilities of all of our Citizens. To that end, this Lex Cornelia de Linguis Publicis is adopted.

II. Latin is hereby adopted as the official ceremonial language of Nova Roma. As such, it shall be used in rites conducted by the curule magistrates and appointed priests of Nova Roma on behalf of the entire nation, as well as other circumstances where it may be deemed appropriate.

III. English is hereby adopted as the business language of Nova Roma's central government. As such, it shall be used in official communications from and day-to-day business conducted by the central government (defined for purposes of this proviso as the Senate and non-provincial magistrates). Other languages may be used in such communications where deemed appropriate, but an English translation must accompany such communications.

IV. In order to accommodate the Needs of Citizens who do not speak English, or who speak English as a Second Language, and in accordance with section IV 9 of the Constitution, the Decuria Interpretum is established.

A. The Decuria Interpretum shall consist of ten Interpretes who shall be responsible for making official translations of all proposed Leges and Plebiscita, and all Edicta and official announcements made by the magistrates of Nova Roma, along with all Senatus Consulta. The Interpretes shall also be responsible for providing official translations of all Leges, Plebiscita, Senatus Consulta, Priestly Decreta, and Magisterial Edicta in force at the time this lex is passed. Each of the Interpretes shall have authority to appoint his own scribae. Should the position be vacant, and suitable and willing candidates are available, the Senate shall have the authority to appoint interpretes.

B. Each of the Interpretes shall be responsible for one language.

C. The Position of Interpres Latinitatis is established. The Interpres Latinitatis shall serve as the Caput/Magister of the Decuria Interpretum and shall provide aid to magistrates in complying with section II of this lex in addition to the duties of all members of the Decuria Interpretum.

D. Interpretes for the five non-English and Latin Languages most widely spoken in Nova Roma are hereby established. Until such time as the Senate determines which languages are most widely spoken, The Interpretes will provide translations of the French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish Languages.

E. The Language that the remaining four Interpretes shall provide shall be chosen by the Senate of Nova Roma.

V. In the event of linguistic differences between texts, the language that will be considered official in terms of interpretation shall be English.

VI. This lex does not effect in any way languages used in official or unofficial provincial fora, fora maintained by official Sodalitates, or private fora (including but not limited to email lists organized by private Citizens).

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa, Yes-18; No-16; Abstain-0

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XLIX: Lex Cornelia Iunia de definitione intervallorum magistratuum

This law shall regulate the amount of times a person may hold certain elected magistracies during a specified time period.

1. No person shall hold the office of censor consecutively or more than twice in a five-year period. This exception to this provision shall be any censor suffectus who has served 6 months or less of his predecessor's term of office.
2. No person shall hold the office of consul for two years consecutively, or hold the office of consul more than twice in any five-year period.
3. No person shall hold the office of praetor or aedile consecutively, or hold any of the aforementioned offices more than twice in any five-year period. The exception to this shall be any praetor suffectus or aedile suffectus who has served 3 months or less of his predecessor's term of office.

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa yes: 30; No: 4

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LII: Lex Octavia de sermone

I. Definitions

A. A "public forum" is defined as any system of communications where contributions from persons other than its maintainer are distributed or made available to other subscribers, including, but not limited to, mailing lists, real-time chat systems, and web-based bulletin boards.

B. "Moderation" refers to the exercise of powers provided by the software used to implement public fora to approve, reject, pre-screen, or delete messages, approve or reject pending subscribers, and perform other administrative duties.

C. A "moderator" is a person with moderation authority with regard to a particular public forum.

II.

The office of Curator Sermonis (also called Curator Sermonum) is hereby abolished.

III.

The Praetores are hereby given the powers and duties of moderators for all public fora sponsored or owned by the central government of Nova Roma, save for those exceptions listed below. They are empowered to use all moderation features provided, subject to Constitutional free speech guarantees, Tribunician intercessio, and any leges explicitly setting list policies. They may delegate such authority to their appointed scribae.

The Praetores are empowered to create and enforce policies of acceptable behavior in the public fora.

IV. Scope

A. Public fora under the jurisdiction of the Praetores shall include the general discussion mailing list (currently "novaroma@yahoogroups.com"), the announcements mailing list (currently "novaroma-announce@yahoogroups.com"), the web-based message board linked to from www.novaroma.org, any chat system in use on www.novaroma.org, and any other means of communications designated as "public fora" by the Senate, except as detailed below.

B. The web site www.novaroma.org and all sites maintained by elected or appointed magistrates as part of their duties are not considered public fora, except for any features of the site where users other than the maintainers of those sites may submit content for public consumption, such as "message boards".

C. The newsletter, including any part thereof where contributions are accepted from the public, is exempt and shall remain under the control of the Editor Commentariorum.

D. The communications channels of the sodalitates and provinciae are under the jurisdiction of those organizations and therefore exempt.

E. Fora administered by the Tribunes for the purpose of Plebeian discussion are exempt.

[In accordance with the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris and praetorian edictum, the title "curator differum" in Section IV. C. above has been changed to the current and more correct "editor commentariorum."

A. Tullia Scholastica, interpres linguae Latinae, scriba praetoris et magistri araneari, 2758].

Passed by Comitia Populi Tributa in 05 June 2755, Yes: 25; No: 4

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LIX: Lex Salicia de prorogatione et cumulatione

Preamble. Pursuant to fulfilling the precepts set forth in the Preamble of the Constitution of Nova Roma and accordingly bringing our Res Publica as close as reasonable and possible to the political system of Ancient Rome, this lex seeks to reestablish the ancient prohibitions of prorogatio, continuatio and cumulatio.

I. This lex covers the presentation of candidacies for the different magistracies of the Res Publica. Only elected magistrates fall under the scope of this lex; appointed officials do not have to follow what is indicated below.

II. The election of new magistrates for the following year shall be announced by the consules for the Comitia Centuriata and the Comitia Populi Tributa, and by the Tribuni Plebis for the Comitia Plebis Tributa, before the Ides of November. Candidacies for these offices will have to be made public as established by the law before the Kalends of December.

III. In this first round of candidacy presentation, no current holder of a magistracy shall present his or her candidacy for that very same position (prorogatio). No individual shall present his or her candidacy to more than one magistracy (cumulatio).

IV. If, after the Kalends of December, a certain magistracy has a number of legal candidates that is lower than the number of offices to be filled, the period of presentation of candidacies shall be extended by an additional nundinum for that magistracy only. During this extended period, the provisions indicated in paragraph III of this lex shall be considered temporarily withdrawn for candidacies to that magistracy.

V. The consules shall ensure the application of this lex.

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LXII: Lex Salicia de convocatione tribunicia comitiorum

Preamble.

In order to fulfill the article VI.7. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, this lex seeks to establish the procedures by which the Tribuni Plebis shall call the Comitia Plebis Tributa and the Comitia Populi Tributa to order.

I. The Tribuni Plebis shall always be allowed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order when the issues at hand concern the internal operation of the Comitia Plebis Tributa themselves, or to elect the plebeian magistrates.

II. In any other occasion, a Tribunus Plebis that wishes to present his proposals to the People shall first announce his intention on the public fora established by the Laws of Nova Roma for magisterial announcements and edicta. This announcement shall include a call for the Censores to publicly disclose the following information:

a. Current total number of ciizens of Nova Roma. b. Current number of members of the Ordo Patricius (Patrician Order). c. Current ratio between the two figures above (nº of Patrician citizens/total nº of citizens).

The censores shall have three days (72 hours) to present the required information. Should the censores fail to do so, and should the information not be easily available at the Nova Roma main web site (if it is available, the Tribunus Plebis shall use that information as if it had been provided by the Censores), the Tribunus Plebis shall consider that the numbers of the last summoning of the Comitia are still valid.

III. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing over a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Populi Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

IV. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens *not* exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing under a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

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LXIII: Lex Arminia de ratione edictorum

The purpose of this law is to determine the validity of the edicts of Novaroman magistrates.

I. This lex is valid only for those magistrates defined in the Article IV.A. of the Constitution, that is, the magistratus ordinarii.

II. An edict of a magistrate is valid only until the end of the year when that edict was issued. This includes the term of office of a scribe or assistant, which ends with to the term of office of the same magistrate.

III. An edict can be revalidated in the year following by a successor magistrate by means of another edict announcing which of the edicts will stand.

IV. When the names of the new magistrates are known after the annual elections, the Praetores will have four nundina (25 days) to present the valid edicts issued by the magistrates to the new magistrates.

V. After these four nundina, and with the new magistrates in office, the edicts not endorsed will be revoked.

VI. This law will be valid only after the next year, that is, 2756 AUC or 2003 CE.

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LXV: Lex Salicia de convocatione tribunicia comitiorum

Preamble.

In order to fulfill the article VI.7. of the Constitution of Nova Roma, this lex seeks to establish the procedures by which the Tribuni Plebis shall call the Comitia Plebis Tributa and the Comitia Populi Tributa to order.

I. The Tribuni Plebis shall always be allowed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa to order when the issues at hand concern the internal operation of the Comitia Plebis Tributa themselves, or to elect the plebeian magistrates.

II. In any other occasion, a Tribunus Plebis that wishes to present his proposals to the People shall first announce his intention on the public fora established by the Laws of Nova Roma for magisterial announcements and edicta. This announcement shall include a call for the Censores to publicly disclose the following information:

a. Current total number of ciizens of Nova Roma. b. Current number of members of the Ordo Patricius (Patrician Order). c. Current ratio between the two figures above (nº of Patrician citizens/total nº of citizens).

The censores shall have three days (72 hours) to present the required information. Should the censores fail to do so, and should the information not be easily available at the Nova Roma main web site (if it is available, the Tribunus Plebis shall use that information as if it had been provided by the Censores), the Tribunus Plebis shall consider that the numbers of the last summoning of the Comitia are still valid.

III. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing over a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Populi Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

IV. Should the ratio between the number of Patricians and the total number of citizens *not* exceed 0.1 (the Patricians thus representing under a 10% of the total population of Nova Roma), the Tribunus Plebis shall then proceed to call the Comitia Plebis Tributa within fifteen (15) days from the first tribunician announcement mentioned in paragraph II of this lex.

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LXVII: Lex Fabia de censu

The Lex Cornelia de censu is hereby superseded by this Lex Fabia de Censu.

Pursuant to the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.A. 4 and IV.A.1.b) the following law is hereby enacted to determine accurately the number of citizens who make up Nova Roma.

I. A Census of all citizens of Nova Roma should be done every two (2) years. This will be the responsibility of the Censors.

II. The Nova Roma Census will last for a period of sixteen (16) weeks, and must be completed by Pridie Kal. Novembres (the 31st of October). The start and end of the Census period will be announced by the Censors on the NR website, official lists, and in the major fora. The official lists are currently located at nova-roma@yahoogroups.com and NovaRoma-Announce@yahoo.com. Notification must also be published on the Nova Roma Message board. The Censors shall also ask the Governors to announce the Census period on the provincial level.

III. The Census will consist of the following:

A.Those who meet any of the following criteria will still be considered citizens:

1. Those who voted in the main election (in November and/or December).

2. Those who have paid taxes for the current calendar year.

3. Patresfamiliarum who have successfully responded to the yearly registration of the Lex Cornelia de Tabulis Gentium Novaromanarum Agendis.

4. Persons who became citizens during the current calendar year.

5. Persons who have been successfully contacted as described in section IV.

B. Inactive citizens are those citizens who fail to meet at least one of the conditions in IV A.

1.The following will establish some of the procedures for contacting inactive citizens. Inactive citizens are those who will have to be contacted by the National Census.

2. The following methods will be used to contact inactive citizens:

a. Bulk E-mail. At least two attempts should be done to contact citizens by this means.

b. Surface mail. "Inactive" citizens who are unreachable by e-mail shall receive a mailing.

1)This shall be done on the provincial level by Governors and legati under the supervision of the Censors.

2) In those Provinciae where there is no Governor and in those areas not yet included in a Provincia, the Censors shall ask a Governor of the nearest possible Provincia to the residence of that inactive citizen to do this.

3) If this is not possible, it shall be done by the Censors.

4) Surface mail information should be forwarded to whatever official Nova Roman address that is specified by the Censors. Surface mail information must reach the Censors before Pridie Kal. Novembres (the 31st of October). The Current Official address of all Nova Roman Mail correspondence is:

Nova Roma P.O. Box 1897 Wells, ME 04090


At the time of the passage of this lex, the above address is the official address; if the official address changes in the future, the new address should be utilized.

c. Phone calls. If a Citizen is unreachable by e-mail or surface mail, he/she shall be contacted by telephone. This shall be done on the provincial level by Governors and legati under the supervision of the Censors. In those Provinciae where there is no Governor and in those areas not yet included in a Provincia, this shall be optional, and it can be done by the Governor of the nearest possible Provincia to the residence of the "inactive" citizen upon request of the Censors, or by a Censor himself.

d. A temporary banner and link will be put on the main Nova Roma website for the duration of the Census where individual citizens may input their information to comply with the Census. Further, the Censors shall recommend such a banner and link to be put on any other Nova Roman website (Provinces, Magistrates, Sodalitates).

IV. All communicated information pertaining to the Census shall be noted in a database on the Nova Roma Website, the address of which will be specified by the Censores at the beginning of the Registration Period. Citizen information may be entered into this database by the Censores, their appointed assistants, or by the individual citizens.

V. By Pridie Kal. Octobres (the 30th of September), the Censors should post a list to the official e-mail lists of Nova Roma displaying the names of those citizens who have failed to respond.

VI. If a citizen fails to respond to the contact attempts, that person will be considered a "Socius" (Ally), but not a citizen. If he/she is a Pater/Materfamilias, he/she shall lose this position immediately and the Censors will abide by the Constitution, any laws, and any Censorial edict if the appointment of a Paterfamilias is necessary. However, the Censors have the discretion to waive this clause if both Censors feel there are legitimate reasons for the citizen to remain incommunicado.

VII. If a citizen knows of an extended period of unavailability that will coincide with the census, he may contact the Censors up to three (3) months before the census is to begin to inform them of his active status and his desire to be counted in the census. Such contact will be considered by the Censors as having fulfilled the citizen's duty to reply during the census period. Proxies are not permitted during the National Census effort.

VIII. At any time, a Socius may contact the Censores and ask to regain his/her Citizenship, which will then be granted unless there are compelling reasons otherwise.

IX. In the Album Civium it shall be clearly indicated whether an individual is a Civis (citizen) or a Socius.

X. At the end of the National Census, postage or telephone expenses incurred by the magistrate will be reimbursed by either a monetary payment or a tax credit. All such payments or credits shall be disbursed in exchange for receipts, receipt copies and bills (if it is not possible to obtain receipts) and must be approved by the Senate.

It will be up to the Censors to choose which of these two methods to follow to compensate the other involved magistrates in the most economical fashion. Furthermore, it will be up to the Senate to authorize payout.

It shall be up to the Senate to choose which of these two methods to follow to compensate the Censors in the most economical fashion.

XI. A budget shall be allocated by the Senate to meet expenses to compensate magistrates involved in the Census.

XII. The First Census will take place during the Consulship of Caeso Fabius Quintilianus and Titus Labienus Fortunatus (2756 AUC).

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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LXX: Lex Labiena de praetoribus agendis in loco parentium

1. Any citizen who is 18 years of age or older and unable to contact a paterfamilias or materfamilias (hereinafter referred to as the paterfamilias) may present a petition to a praetor.

2. Upon receiving such a petition, the praetor may either dismiss the petition or summon the paterfamilias to answer the petition. The summons shall be delivered to the last known e-mail address of the paterfamilias and published on Nova Roma's official mailing list. The praetor is free to pursue other courses of action in an effort to contact the paterfamilias as the praetor sees fit.

3. If the paterfamilias responds to the summons within 45 days, the petition shall be dismissed.

4. If the paterfamilias fails to respond to the summons within 45 days, the praetor shall have the authority to act in loco parentis and approve or deny the petition.

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LXXII: Lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis

1. Membership:

  • 1. The citizens of Nova Roma have the right to form local communities. These local communities shall have internal autonomy to the extent stated in this law.
  • 2. Every citizen of Nova Roma living within the geographical limits of a certain local community (as defined by its "foedus" (charter)) shall have the right to be a member of that local community. No one who does not live within those geographical limits shall be a member of that local community.
  • 3. Every member of a local community shall have the right to relinquish his or her membership in that local community without losing any of his or her rights as a citizen of Nova Roma.
  • 4. Loss of Nova Roman citizenship shall involve loss of membership in a local community.
  • 5. Subject to the above requirements, every local community has the right to determine its own membership.

2. Features of local communities:

  • 1. In order to receive official approval by Nova Roma a local community must have the following features:
    • 1. An "Album Civium" (roll of citizens) that lists the names of the citizens of Nova Roma who are also members of the local group.
    • 2. Local "comitia" (an assembly) of citizens.
    • 3. A "tabularium" (law repository) to keep the local laws approved by the local comitia and the edicta issued by local magistrates.
    • 4. A certain number of local magistrates.
  • 2. According to their size, there shall be two kinds of local groups:
    • 1. An "oppidum" shall be a local group of at least five members.
    • 2. A "municipium" shall be a local group of at least thirty-five members.

3. Approval of local communities:

  • 1. Approval of an oppidum:
    • 1. In order to gain official approval as an oppidum, a group of five or more citizens of Nova Roma shall present a "foedus" (charter) to the provincial governor. If the requirements in III.a.2 are met, the governor may approve the foedus by edictum.
    • 2. The foedus shall clearly define the following: the official name of the oppidum; its geographical limits; the existence of comitia oppidana; the titles, duties and rights of its magistrates; the procedures for the election of its magistrates; the procedures for the maintenance of its album civium.
    • 3. Once he has approved the foedus of the oppidum, the governor shall appoint two provisional "aediles" to handle the election of the oppidum's first magistrates from among the citizens of the oppidum. Those provisional aediles shall arrange and conduct a legal election within sixty days from their appointment. Their office shall expire on election of regular aediles.
    • 4. The governor must be informed of any change to the oppidum's foedus, and shall then, after any appropriate discussions with the oppidum, issue an edictum either endorsing the change or withdrawing official approval from the oppidum.
    • 5. The provincial governor may at any time rescind the approval of an oppidum.
    • 6. The provincial governor is answerable to the Senate for his actions concerning the matters in III.a.
    • 7. In countries sine provinciis, the Senate may appoint a representative to act in a governor's stead.
    • 8. Acting as the Board of Directors, the Senate may recognise oppida as local chapters of Nova Roma in order to allow them to benefit from Nova Roma's status as a non-profit-organisation.
  • 2. Approval of a municipium:
    • 1. In order to gain official approval as a municipium, a group of thirty-five or more citizens of Nova Roma shall present a "foedus" (charter) to the provincial governor. The governor shall forward the foedus unchanged to the consules, who shall present it to the Senate. The governor may add a recommendation which shall be presented to the Senate along the foedus.
    • 2. The foedus shall clearly define the following: the official name of the municipium; its geographical limits; the existence of comitia municipalia; the titles, duties and rights of its magistrates; the procedures for the election of its magistrates; the procedures for the maintenance of its album civium.
    • 3. Once the foedus has been approved by the Senate, it shall have the legal precedence of a senatus consultum for purposes of legal precedence under article I.B. of the constitution.
    • 4. Once the foedus has been approved by the Senate, the governor shall appoint provisional "duumviri" to handle the election of the municipium's first magistrates from among the citizens of the municipium. Those provisional duumviri shall arrange and conduct a legal election within sixty days from their appointment. Their office shall expire on election of regular duumviri.
    • 5. The foedus shall then be presented to the comitia municipalia for ratification as a lex municipalis.
    • 6. The Senate must be informed of any change to the municipium's foedus, and shall then, after any appropriate discussions with the municipium, issue a senatus consultum either endorsing the change or withdrawing official approval from the municipium.
    • 7. The Senate may at any time rescind the approval of a municipium.
    • 8. Acting as the Board of Directors, the Senate may recognise municipia as local chapters of Nova Roma in order to allow them to benefit from Nova Roma's status as a non-profit-organisation.
    • 9. In countries sine provinciis, the foedus may be presented directly to the consules.

4. Comitia:

  • 1. In order to meet the requirements of II.a.2 a local community must have local comitia (an assembly of its members) as described in this paragraph. In the case of an oppidum, these local comitia shall be called "comitia oppidana", in the case of a municipium, they shall be called "comitia municipalia".
  • 2. Voting in a "comitia oppidana" or "comitia municipalia" shall require physical presence of the voter in the place where the "comitia oppidana" or "comitia municipalia" are being held.
  • 3. The local comitia shall elect all local magistrates and enact leges (called "leges oppidanae" or "leges municipales" as appropriate) binding upon the members of the local community.
  • 4. The local comitia shall be called to order by the highest ranking magistrate of the local community (as defined in the foedus) through an edictum.
  • 5. All the members of a local community shall have the right to speak and vote in its comitia.
  • 6. The local comitia shall be called to order at least once every three months for informational sessions.

5. Legal precedence:

  • 1. Leges approved by the comitia of a local community shall have precedence over edicta of local magistrates of that community.
  • 2. Leges approved by the comitia of a local community and edicta issued by local magistrates shall take a lower precedence than the constitution and laws of Nova Roma, the senatus consulta of the Senate of Nova Roma, the edicta of magistrates of Nova Roma (including the provincial governor), and the decreta of the pontifical and augural colleges of Nova Roma.
  • 3. The actions of local comitia and magistrates shall be subject to intercessio by the provincial governor and by the tribuni plebis and curule magistrates of Nova Roma in accordance with the constitution and the laws of Nova Roma.
  • 4. Local magistrates shall be considered under the authority of their provincial governor in terms of authority conflict.

6. Local Magistrates:

  • 1. In order to meet the requirements of II.a.4 a local community must have at least two magistrates as described in this paragraph.
  • 2. The highest ranking magistrates of an oppidum shall use the title "aediles", those of a municipium shall use the title "duumviri". These offices shall be collegial magistracies composed of two members of equal power.
  • 3. In the case of a municipium, the foedus may also define a "decuria municipalis" (local senate).
  • 4. The local magistrates defined by the foedus may have the following rights and duties:
    • 1. To issue those edicta necessary to carry out those tasks which they are mandated by the law to engage in (such edicta being binding upon themselves as well as the other members of the local community);
    • 2. To call the local comitia to order;
    • 3. To pronounce intercessio against another local magistrate of equal or lesser authority;
    • 4. To maintain the local album civium and the tabularium;
    • 5. To appoint scribae to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
  • 5. The foedus may define different levels of power and authority for the local magistrates within the limits established in VI.a and VI.c.
  • 6. Local magistrates will be elected by the comitia of the local community annually.

7. A local group based in the city of Rome, Italy, shall use the title "urbs" in order to recognize Rome's glorious past.

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LXXIII: Lex Didia Gemina de potestate tribunicia

I. IVS SENATVS CONVOCANDI (The Right of Convoking the Senate).

Any Tribunus Plebis may call the Senate to order as set forth in the Constitutio, article IV. VII. D. I, and therefore follows the rules governing internal procedures of the Senatus as article V. F of the Constitution states.

II. IVS AUXILI FERENDI (The Right of Bringing Assistance)

A. Since the Ius Auxili Ferendi is a fundamental prerogative of a Tribunus Plebis as set forth in IV. 7. A of our Constitutio, in order for an act of intercessio to be valid the following procedure must be followed whether it is requested by a citizen or performed in his official capacity.

1. When a Tribunus Plebis issues an intercessio, it must include the following elements in a reasoned exposition in which the Tribunus shall note whether the auxilium was requested or ex-officio:
  • a. The official name(s) of the citizen(s) who has requested the Tribunus Plebis to issue the intercessio, or the official name(s) of the citizen(s) on whose behalf the Tribunus has provided auxilium ex officio.
  • b. The official name and office of the magistrate(s) against whose act or acts the intercessio or auxilium has been interposed.
  • c. The article(s) of the Constitution or the leges violated by the magistrate's act(s).
2. If the intercessio of a Tribunus Plebis does not include these three elements, the intercessio shall be invalid. The time constraints of the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall continue to hold such that, if a new intercessio is not issued before the seventy-two hour limit, counted from the act(s) which occasioned the original intercessio, the Tribunus Plebis shall issue no new intercessio pertaining to that act or those acts.
3. When a Tribunus Plebis issues an intercessio against the act(s) of another Tribunus Plebis, it must include the following elements:
  • a. The official name and office of the Tribunus Plebis against whose act(s) that intercessio is interposed.
  • b. The article(s) of the Constitution or the leges violated by the Tribunus Plebis' act(s).
4. If the intercessio of a Tribunus Plebis does not include these two elements, the intercessio shall be invalid. The time constraints of the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall continue to hold such that, if a new intercessio is not issued before the seventy-two hour limit, counted from the act(s) which occasioned the original intercessio, the Tribunus Plebis shall issue no new intercessio pertaining to that act or those acts.
5. When a Tribunus Plebis shall issue an intercessio or provide auxilium, the procedures for ratification or voiding by the other Tribuni Plebis specified in the Lex Labiena de Intercessione shall be followed. There shall be no requirement that a Tribunus Plebis issue any statement on the matter at hand except agreement or disagreement with the original intercessio/auxilium.

B. When administering the law in accordance with Article IV. A. 7. d. iii of the Constitution, a Tribunus Plebis must adjudicate in accordance with current law and the iurisprudentia established by the Praetor and serve the interests of the Plebs and the citizens of Nova Roma.

C. Resolving Disputes Among the Plebs.

A Tribunus Plebis shall arbitrate disputes between plebeian citizens if the parties involved so agree. If any party shall refuse to agree to such arbitration, the Tribunus Plebis shall refer the matter to the Praetor for adjudication under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. If the parties agree to arbitration by a Tribunus Plebis, they shall accept the decision of the Tribunus and may not seek further relief under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The Tribunus Plebis who shall arbitrate the dispute will be chosen by an agreement of the parties. If there is no agreement, the oldest Tribunus Plebis will arbitrate the dispute.

III. TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS (Tribunician Power).

The office of Tribunus Plebis is Sacred in the Republic and endowed on this account with the following powers:

A. Summa Coercendi Potestas.

Any citizen or magistrate who interferes with the official action(s) of a Tribunus Plebis shall be fined by that Tribunus with a multa pecuniaria of no more than thirty U.S. dollars ($30.00), paid to the treasury of Nova Roma and devoted to Ceres. Such a penalty cannot be suspended or revoked except by intercessio of another Tribunus Plebis, or a Praetorian appraisal which should permit the fined citizen further recourse at law under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The right of provocatio will be respected as Article II. B. 5 of the constitution states.

B. Potestas Sacrosancta.

Any citizen or magistrate who shall do violence to a Tribunus Plebis in the course of his official duties or refuse to abide by a legal exercise of intercessio shall be brought before the Praetores and judged in accordance with the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria. The severity of the poena shall be determined in the Praetor's formula in accordance with the severity of the offence. The trial for this offence should be completed within sixty days of submission of the petitio actionis to the Praetor by the Tribunus Plebis, respecting Praetor's use of his discretion on dates. Completion of the term of office of the actor Tribunus Plebis shall not affect trial for an offence for which a petitio actionis has been filed prior to the completion of that Tribunus Plebis' term.

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LXXV: Lex Moravia de renuntiatione senatus actorum

I. Procedures for Reporting the Senate's Call to Order.

A. The reporting Tribune shall publish the agenda of the Senate's meeting in the Forum romanum and the Comitia Plebis Tributa forum/-a (1) within 72 hours of the presiding magistrate's call to order of the Senate.

B. Within this announcement to the people, the Tribune shall include:

1. The date that the Senate has been called to order as well as the date when voting shall begin and the date when voting shall end.
2. A summary of the items on the Senate's agenda which shall be discussed and voted on.
3. Any additional comments that the reporting Tribune feels are necessary for the people's better understanding of the agenda.
4. If the Senate will be voting on an item which is of a confidential nature (for example, the dismissal of a citizen) for the protection of the citizen(s) in question, the reporting Tribune should confer with the Senate as to what details of the vote should be reported to the citizens.

II. Procedures for Reporting the Results of the Senate's Meetings

A. The reporting Tribune shall report the results of the Senate meeting in the Forum romanum and the Comitia Plebis Tributa forum/-a (1) within 168 hours (7 days) of the close of voting of the Senate.

B. Within the report to the people, the Tribune shall include:

1. The date that the Senate was called to order as well as the date that voting began and the date that voting ended.
2. A list of the full names and initials of all Senators who voted.
3. The full name of the Senators who were empowered by fellow Senators to present his/her vote by proxy.
4. The full name of the Senators who did not vote.
5. The number of yes ('uti rogas') votes necessary in order for an agenda item to be passed.
6. For each agenda item, the reporting Tribune shall include:
  • a. The full text of the agenda item.
  • b. Whether or not the agenda item was passed.
  • c. The initials of all voting Senators accompanied by their vote and comments (if any).
  • d. Any additional comments that the reporting Tribune feels are necessary for the people's better understanding of the report.
  • e. If the Senate has voted on an item which is of a confidential nature (for example the dismissal of a citizen) for the protection of the citizen(s) in question the reporting Tribune should confer with the Senate as to what details of the discussion/comments/voting should be reported to the citizens.



(1) : the original text is "in the Nova Roma and the Comitia Plebis Tributa fora". This writing let the reader think that the Comitia Plebis Tributa (CPT) fora is not in Nova Roma. Here, what was meant is referring to the Forum romanum aka "the main list". The word "fora", applied to the Comitia Plebis, has then been corrected in "forum/-a", to let the future open, though, currently, there is but one CPT forum.

Correction made by application of lex Equitia de corrigendum legum erratis and of legal principle "Qui potest majus potest et minus".

P. Memmius Albucius, praetor 2762 auc.

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LXXVIII: Lex Labiena de nominibus mutandis

I. Section IV.4 of Lex Cornelia et Maria de Mutandis Nominibus is hereby amended to read:

The gender of the name is to be consistent; each part is to agree with all others in gender.

II. All subsections under section IV.4 of Lex Cornelia et Maria de Mutandis Nominibus are hereby repealed.

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LXXXIII: Lex Equitia de corrigendum legum erratis

Paragraph IV. A. 8. of the Constitution of Nova Roma mandates that the webmaster and other vigintisexviri 'fulfill such necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law.'

It is both prudent and desirable to rectify the many minor errors in our laws which alter neither their spirit nor intent, but which mar them nonetheless.

I. The webmaster is hereby assigned the duty of correcting typographical, orthographic, grammatical, and similar errors existing in past, present, and future legislation, insofar as these alter neither the spirit nor the intent of the law.

A. The webmaster shall undertake this with the assistance of a competent Latin translator.
B. The praetors shall be informed of any and all changes made under the authority of the webmaster, and shall verify that none alters the spirit or the intent of the law.

II. Magistrates are hereby required to have all proposed laws reviewed by a competent Latin translator to ensure that any errors which may occur in proposed laws are corrected before the webmaster may include them in a cista for voting. [A 'cista' is what we call a web page containing the names of candidates and the text of proposed laws so that voters may see them before voting].

III. The webmaster, or a competent proofreader designated by this magistrate, shall also review all proposed laws for errors named in Paragraph I above, and correct them as necessary before including them in a cista for voting.

IV. This law shall take effect immediately upon ratification by the Comitia Populi Tributa.

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LXXXIV: Lex Arminia de officiis aedilium plebis

I. This law is intended to bring Nova Roma closer to the Ancient Way, and to contribute to the growth of the Res Publica through greater organization of its Plebeian Class.

II. This law brings the duties of the Plebeian Aediles into the scope of the Plebeian Class. These are not the sole duties of the plebeian aediles, since the Nova Roman Constitution or any law voted by the Comitia on this subject may give the plebeian aediles duties affecting the entire Res Publica.

A. Among these are keeping and managing any funds, equipment, buildings, or properties of the Plebs, or funds received by donation or fund raising, in the same way as any funds, equipment, buildings, or properties assigned to the care of the Plebs by the Nova Roma government are the responsibility of their aediles

B. The plebeian aediles will answer to the Tribunes for the properties of the Plebs.

C. Organizing and moderating the Comitia Plebis Tributa Forum.

D.

1. Keeping the archives of the Plebs, all tribunician legislation, edicts of magistrates of the plebs (Tribunes, Plebeian Aediles).
2.Working together with other magistrates to keep the correct versions (and their translations when available) of these documents in the Tabularium.

E. Organizing at least two major plebeian ludi: the Ludi Cereales and the Ludi Plebeii.

1. The Plebeian Aediles are free to set the agenda of events for the Ludi, or even to change the dates of beginning/ending or the events as they deem appropriate.
2. If both Plebeian Aediles feel unable to organize one of these games, they may ask a Curule Aedile to organize the game. If neither Curule Aedile can organize the game, the game becomes responsibility of the Tribunes.
3. If both Plebeian Aediles are unreachable and the beginning of the Ludi is approaching, the Tribunes must reach an agreement between themselves or with the Curule Aediles to hold these ludi. These two Ludi may not be omitted in any way; they must occur.
4. The Plebeian Aediles will have the final responsibility in accordance with the morality and dignitas of the ludi.

F. Organizing the Tribunes' list of vetos or tribunician intercessio on a given subject, and providing it to the magistrates when asked.

G. Setting the agenda of the Comitia Plebis Tributa Voting, as it is elected after or at the same time as the approval of this lex by the Comitia.

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LXXXVIII: Lex Arminia de ministris provincialibus

This law applies to clarify a specific case in the Lex Arminia de edictis.

1. Due to the passing of potestas et imperium, when there is a change of governor [1] in a province, all of his provincial apparitores (such as scribae, legati, etc.) are automatically relieved from their duties. If the new governor [1] desires to keep a previous apparitor, he must re-issue an edictum nominating him or her.

2. Confirming lex Arminia de edictis, all provincial edicta are automatically revoked when there is a change of governor [1], and the new magistrate does not confirm them in his/her imperium.

3. When the term of governor [1] of a province is extended by the Senate, there is no need to re-issue the edicta of the previous year; the same magistrate is the issuer.

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[1] The original version said "Propraetor or Proconsul". In fact, the constitution well mentions "governors" to be appointed by the senate at the head of Nova Roma provinces. Currently, the governors are called legati pro praetore, except for provinces ruled by a praetor or consul, former praetor or consul. In this case, the governor has the title of, for example, "praetor [name of the province at the Latin genitive case]". Italia, not been currently considered as a 'province', is ruled by a praefectus Italiae.


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LXXXIX: Lex Arminia de levandis censorum oneribus

This law is intended to alleviate the burden of the censors, recognizing the expansion of Nova Roma through many countries, languages, and cultures, and allow for improved promulgation of Nova Roma in all parts of the world.

1. A censor, via an edictum specifying the names of specific citizens to be contacted and the time interval during which the edictum is effective, may temporarily delegate censorial powers to a provincial governor and to that governor's designated legate in order to reach a citizen within that governor's province.

2. A provincial governor empowered under the terms of this law shall issue a report to the censor detailing the results of the search. This report may, at the censor's discretion, be made public after any sensitive information has been removed from it.

3. The censor may use the information provided in the provincial governor's report in the execution of censorial duties.

This law shall take effect immediately.

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XC: Lex Arminia de fovenda lingua latina

This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The Latinist shall be released from paying the tax for the following year. To be considered assiduus (assidua), the Latinist must only write to the Consular Quaestor in charge of tax collection during the tax payment period confirming his (her) status as Latinist.

4. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

5. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

6. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies.

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Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: This lex was amended by Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua latina corrigenda and reads as follows:

"This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

4. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

5. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies."

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XCII: Lex Arminia Equitia de imperio

This law is intended to correct the use of an ancient Roman definition in the Nova Roman legal system and to be a basis for present and future legislation.

1. POTESTAS

In Nova Roma, we understand potestas as:

A. Ius coercendi minor, the power to compel obedience in the name of the state, within the duties of the magistrate.
B. Ius edicendi, the power to issue edicts and nominate scribes.
C. Partial iurisdictio, the power to interpret the law within the duties of the magistrate holding the Potestas.
D. Ius contionis habendae, the power to hold a contio, including a question in a Comitia already called by a magistrate. The question must be included by the magistrate who called the comitia under the official authority of the magistrate holding the ius contionis habendae.

2. IMPERIUM

In Nova Roma, we understand Imperium as:

A. Having all the rights of potestas, as described above.
B. Ius agendi cum populo, calling the People to vote in any of their legislative Comitia.
C. Ius agendi cum senatu, calling to Senate to vote or placing a proposed senatus consultum on the Senate agenda.
D. Ius coercendi maior, the power to compel obedience using major force, on all Nova Roma subjects. In Nova Roma, this explicitly excludes physical force, and includes the force of law.
E. Full iurisdictio, the power to interpret the law, on all levels on all Nova Roma subjects.

3. TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS

In Nova Roma, we understand Tribunicia Potestas as:

A. The special powers held by a Tribunus Plebis, powers outside of and separate from Potestas and Imperium, as determined by the uses of the Mos Maiorum of Roma Antiqua or specific legislation of Nova Roma.
B. The holder of Tribunicia Potestas is not subject to any Potestas or Imperium when acting ex officio within his Tribunicia Potestas.
C. Tribunicia Potestas possesses all the rights of Potestas defined in Paragraph I above.
D. Tribunicia Potestas does not automatically grant to its holder the concept of 'Sacrosanctity' either by the Mos Maiorum of Roma Antiqua or any lex or decretum in Nova Roma.

4. OTHER DETERMINATIONS

A. It is not within the scope of this law to define which magistratures have Potestas, Imperium and Tribunicia Potestas as described here.
B. All legal uses of the terms Potestas, Imperium and Tribunicia Potestas will follow the definition of this law.
C. This law recognizes that the Imperium of two different magistrates has different degrees, and the higher Imperium overrides the lower Imperium. However, the level of Imperium as compared to others shall be specified in the legislation attributing Imperium to a magistrature. Identical levels of Imperium within the same magistrature may veto each other.
D. Identical levels of Potestas within the same magistrature may veto each other.
E. Imperium can have geographic boundaries. These boundaries will be called provinciae. Imperium within a provincia will have all the rights described by this lex, except paragraphs I. A.; I. C; I. D; II. B and II. C. Imperium within a provincia also gains the right for its holder to be a representative of the Nova Roma government within the Provincia on all subjects.

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XCIII: Lex Arminia de potestate tribunicia ad comitia convocanda

This law is intended to clarify a particular point of the Lex Salicia de Convocatione Tribunicia Comitiorum and to confirm a legal practice already used in Nova Roma.

1. This law explains that all matters concerning the procedures for summoning the Comitia Plebis Tributa also concern the power of the tribunus plebis to call them (potestas tribunicia).
2. According to the Lex Salicia de Tribunicia Convocatione Comitiorum, a tribune has the power to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa instead of the Comitia Plebis Tributa on specific occasions.
3. Therefore this law confirms that all procedures for summoning the Comitia Plebis Tributa regarding any law also apply to the Comitia Populi Tributa.
4. If Lex Salicia de Convocatione Tribunicia Comitiorum is revoked, or if the tribunes lose the power to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa, this law is also revoked.

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XCIX: Lex Equitia de tirocinio civium novorum

I.A. Nova Roman citizenship begins at the instant a pater or materfamilias recognizes a person as a member of his or her Nova Roman familia and informs the appropriate Nova Roman magistrates in charge of citizen registration of this recognition.
B. In the case of newly-created familiae whose patres or matresfamiliarum are new citizens receiving citizenship at the same time as the familiae are being formed and registered, citizenship begins with the approval of the Censors.
II. Beginning Kalendis Ianuarias, MMDCCLVIII, all new citizens of Nova Roma shall be subject to a probationary period of at least 90 days, during which they will not be allowed the 'iura publica', the right to vote and to stand for any public office.
III.A. The probationary period will end when 90 days have passed and the new citizen has taken and passed a simple examination covering elementary matters of Nova Roman citizenship and basic Roman history, religion, language, and social practices.
B. This examination shall be made available, upon request of the applicant, in any of the languages for which Nova Roma has qualified translators.
C. The examination will be developed by the Censors or such other magistrates as the Censors may designate, and shall be reviewed annually by the Senate.
D. The examination will be graded by the Censors or by such other persons as may be directed by law.
IV.A. These requirements may be wholly or partially waived by the Senate in exceptional circumstances.
B. Examples of such exceptions would include, but not be limited to:
1. Applicants who have been peregrine citizens of a municipium or oppidum for 6 months.
2. Applicants who are peregrine citizens of municipia or oppida who have been elected to an elective office such as duumvir or aedilis.
3. Applicants sponsored by a curule magistrate, including provincial governors.
4. Applicants with exceptional academic and professional qualifications.
V.A. Minor citizens who join Nova Roma after Kalendis Ianuarias, MMDCCLVIII and who have not yet reached 18 years of age may take the examination up to 90 days before their 18th birthday.
B. Taking and passing the examination early will not entitle them to vote or stand for office before their 18th birthday.

LATIN VERSION

I. A. Vt pater aut materfamilias personam gentilem tollat et magistratus proprios quibus praestat cives in album referre de hac approbatione certiores faciat, civitas Novae Romae ilico coepit.

B. Ad familias nuper creatas quarum patres vel matresfamiliarum cives novi sunt, civitatem simul recipientes ac familias constituentes in album referentesque, censoribus probantibus civitas incipit.

II. A Kalendis Ianuariis MMDCCLVIII, omnes cives novi Novae Romae tirocinio ut minimum nonaginta dierum subicientur, per quod eis iura publica non licebit; nec suffragium ferant, nec aliquem honorem publicum petant.

III. A. Post nonaginta dies, cum civis novus periculum probationis simplicis de rebus magni momenti civitati Novae Romae, rudimentisque historiae, religionis, linguae, consuetudinum civiliumque Romanorum subeat et approbetur, tirocinium conficiet.

B. Petitore roganti, haec probatio in promptu erit versa in omnes linguas quibus interpretes periti Novae Romae adsunt.

C. Probatio a censoribus vel magistratibus aliis designatis a censoribus excoletur, et quotannis a Senatu recensebitur.

D. Exercitia a censoribus vel talibus aliis e lege praescriptis notabitur.

IV. A. In rebus raris, haec necessaria omnino vel partim a Senatu remittentur.

B. Nullo pacto circumscribantur; exempla immunitatum talium autem includant:

1. Petitores qui cives peregrini municipi vel oppidi sex menses fuerunt.

2. Petitores qui cives peregrini municipi vel oppidi qui duumviri, aediles, vel magistratus suffragiis creati delecti sunt.

3. Petitores a magistratu curuli provinciae praesidenteve commendantur.

4. Petitores qui potestates raras academicas professionisve habent.

V. A. Civibus impuberibus qui post Kalendas Ianuarias MMDCCLVIII participes Novae Romae erunt et qui nondum duodeviginti annos nati sunt periculum probationis subeant usque ad nonaginta dies ante diem natale duodevicesimum suum licet.

B. Periculo probationis praemature subeundo et superando non liceat suffragia ferant aut honores petant ante diem natalem suum duodevicesimum.

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CII: Lex Equitia familiaris

I. Legal Status.

A. Every citizen is either sui iuris (in his own power) or alieni iuris (in another's power).
B. Any citizen who is a paterfamilias (father of the household) or a materfamilias (mother of the household) is sui iuris; any citizen who is sui iuris is a paterfamilias or materfamilias.
C. Any citizen who is a filiusfamilias (son in power) or a filiafamilias (daughter in power) is in the patria potestas (hereafter 'potestas') of his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias.
D. A wife who is married cum manu is in the manus of her husband; if her husband is a filiusfamilias she is also in the potestas of her husband's paterfamilias and / or materfamilias. If her husband is sui iuris, he is her paterfamilias; if her husband is alieni iuris, his paterfamilias and / or materfamilias is / are her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias.
E. Any citizen who is in potestas or in manus is alieni iuris.

II. Familiae.

A. A familia (household) consists of a paterfamilias and everyone who is in his potestas or manus; or a materfamilias and everyone who is in her potestas; or two heads of household together in a free marriage and everyone who is in their shared potestas.
B. Within this law, the phrase 'paterfamilias and / or materfamilias' means the paterfamilias where he has sole potestas over his familia, or the materfamilias where she has sole potestas over her familia, or both heads of household where they share potestas over their familia.
C. Within this law, the phrase 'paterfamilias or materfamilias' means the paterfamilias where he has sole potestas over his familia, or the materfamilias where she has sole potestas over her familia, or either one of the heads of household where they share potestas over their familia.
D. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias hold(s) potestas over his, her, or their legal descendants (except those who have been emancipated, married cum manu into another familia, or adopted into another familia) and the wives cum manu of those legal descendants.
E. A male citizen who is sui iuris is the paterfamilias of all those in his potestas or manus; a female citizen who is sui iuris is the materfamilias of all those in her potestas.
F. Potestas cannot be shared except by two citizens who are married to one another in a free marriage and are both sui iuris. Where two or more citizens who are sui iuris but are not married to one another in a free marriage have a claim under this law to potestas over another citizen, the praetores may decide the matter, giving potestas to whichever party is best able to fulfill the duties and exercise the rights of a paterfamilias or materfamilias towards the person concerned.
G. For the purpose of family law, and with regard to their familia, a sui iuris citizen couple in a free marriage who share potestas are treated as a single legal person, and any action taken by one of them by virtue of their potestas is considered a joint action by both together. For all other purposes each remains individually answerable at law for his or her own actions.

III. Rights & Duties of Patria Potestas and Manus.

A. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may make legal contracts and transactions, and acquire, hold, and dispose of property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations, on behalf of his or her familia or its individual members.
B. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may give or withhold specific or general consent for members of his or her familia to make legal contracts or transactions, or acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations.
C. A paterfamilias or materfamilias may regulate the conduct of members of his or her familia by means of rewards and punishments. No officer or organ of the state shall interfere either to assist or to prevent the imposition of punishment by a paterfamilias or materfamilias upon a member of his or her familia.
D. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias hold(s) responsibility for the upbringing, education, good conduct, and well-being of those in his, her, or their potestas or manus.

IV. Legal Capacity

A. A citizen who is alieni iuris has no legal capacity to make or witness any legal contract or transaction, or to acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations, except with the explicit consent (whether specific or general) of his or her paterfamilias or materfamilias.
B. A citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 has no legal capacity to make or witness any legal contract or transaction, or to acquire or dispose of property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations, except through his or her tutor or tutrix.
C. Anyone who, having entered into such a contract or transaction, later discovers that the other party was at the time alieni iuris and acting without the necessary consent, has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed that contract or transaction as between himself or herself and the paterfamilias and / or materfamilias of the original party.
D. Any paterfamilias or materfamilias who discovers that anyone in his or her potestas or manus has entered into such a contract or transaction without the necessary consent has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed the contract or transaction as between himself or herself and the other party.
E. Anyone who, having entered into such a contract or transaction, later discovers that the other party was at the time sui iuris but below the age of eighteen (18) and not acting through his or her tutor or tutrix, has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed that contract or transaction.
F. Any tutor or tutrix who discovers that his or her pupillus or pupilla has entered into such a contract or transaction without acting through him or her has sixty (60) days to petition the praetores for the restoration, as nearly as possible, of the status quo ante; if he or she does not, it is considered that he or she has reaffirmed the contract or transaction.

V. Legal Action.

A. A citizen who is alieni iuris may not be party to legal action except where explicitly provided by lex, decretum, edictum, or senatus consultum.
B. If a citizen who is alieni iuris commits an offence, his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias are liable for it; if, in such a case, the paterfamilias' and / or materfamilias' failure to prevent the commission of the offence was due to his or her unavoidable physical absence, the praetor may, at his or her discretion, include in the formula an exceptio (defence) or vis maior (insurmountable necessity).
C. If anyone commits an offence against or incurs a legal obligation to a citizen who is alieni iuris, the latter's paterfamilias or materfamilias may take legal action on his or her behalf.
D. A tutor or tutrix may represent and act on behalf of his or her pupillus or pupilla in legal matters, but is not personally liable for the offences of the pupillus or pupilla.
E. No one shall be held legally liable for any offence except one who was legally liable at the time.

VI. Changes In Legal Status

A. A filiusfamilias or filiafamilias becomes sui iuris if he or she is emancipated.
B. A filiusfamilias or filiafamilias becomes sui iuris if he or she has no legal ascendant who is a citizen.
C. A wife cum manu becomes sui iuris if her marriage is dissolved.
D. A wife cum manu becomes sui iuris if her husband dies or loses his citizenship.
E. A citizen who is alieni iuris becomes sui iuris if he or she is or becomes a flamen, rex sacrorum, a pontifex, or a civil magistrate.
F. A paterfamilias or materfamilias becomes alieni iuris if he or she is adopted by adrogatio.
G. A materfamilias becomes alieni iuris is she is married cum manu.

VII. Marriage

A. If two people live together with affectio maritalis (marital affection), i.e., regarding themselves as married to one another, their relationship is a free marriage.
B. If a male and a female citizen live together for a full year with affectio maritalis without the woman being absent from their home for three or more nights in a row, they may declare their relationship a marriage cum manu contracted by usus. Without such declaration their marriage remains a free marriage.
C. If a male and a female citizen undergo the ceremony of coemptio in the presence of five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions, their relationship is a marriage cum manu contracted by coemptio.
D. If a male and a female citizen of whom one is a patrician or a member of the collegium pontificium undergo the ceremony of confarreatio in the presence of the pontifex maximus, their relationship is a marriage cum manu contracted by confarreatio.
E. If two people are married to one another under the law of the state in which they live but meet none of the criteria set out in VII. A., B., C., or D., their relationship is a free marriage.
F. If a materfamilias marries cum manu, those in her potestas are transferred to the potestas of her husband.

VIII. Dissolution Of Marriage.

A. If a person in a free marriage notifies his or her spouse in writing that he or she wishes the marriage to end, that marriage is dissolved. If, however, both spouses regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as if there had been no dissolution.
B. If a person in a free marriage contracts a new marriage in any of the ways set out in VII, the former marriage is dissolved. If, however, the original spouses regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as if there had been no dissolution.
C. If a husband married cum manu by coemptio or by usus emancipates his wife, the marriage is dissolved. If, however, the spouses retain affectio maritalis or regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as a free marriage.
D. If a couple married cum manu by confarreatio undergoes the ceremony of diffareatio, the marriage is dissolved. If, however, the spouses retain affectio maritalis or regain affectio maritalis within a year of the dissolution, the marriage resumes as a free marriage.

IX. Prohibited Marriages.

A. No marriage may exist if either party is younger than 18 years.
B. No marriage may exist between a citizen and his or her legal or biological ascendant or descendant.
C. No marriage may exist between a citizen and his or her legal or biological collateral relative if either party is fewer than two degrees removed from their common ascendant; except that a marriage between adoptive collateral relatives may exist if at least one party is sui iuris.
D. No marriage may exist between a citizen and the former spouse of his or her legal or biological ascendant or descendant, or between a citizen and the legal or biological ascendant or descendant of his or her former spouse.

X. Emancipation

A. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may emancipate a person, thus releasing him or her from potestas or manus, provided that he, she, or they notify the praetores of the emancipation, and provided that five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions also notify the praetores that they bear witness.
B. A citizen who is alieni iuris and whose paterfamilias and / or materfamilias refuses(s) to emancipate him or her may petition the praetores; if the praetores, after consulting with the paterfamilias and / or materfamilias, consider the refusal unreasonable, they may declare the petitioner sui iuris.

XI. Adoption.

A. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may adopt by adrogatio another citizen who is sui iuris provided that the adoptive parent(s) is / are at least 18 years older than the adopted child, and provided that the adoptive parents(s) and the adopted child all notify the pontifex maximus of their consent, and provided that the pontifex maximus consents, and provided that the comitia curiata bears witness (without right of refusal).
B. A paterfamilias and / or materfamilias may adopt by adoptio another citizen who is alieni iuris provided that the adoptive parent(s) is / are at least 18 years older than the adopted child, and provided that the adoptive paterfamilias and / or materfamilias and the former paterfamilias and / or materfamilias all notify the praetores of their consent, and provided that five witnesses who have the capacity to witness legal transactions also notify the praetores that they bear witness.
C. A citizen adopted by adrogatio becomes the legal child of the adoptive parent(s) and passes into his, her, or their potestas, and ceases to be the legal child relative of his or her former relatives except those in his or her potestas or manus; anyone in the potestas or manus of the adopted child becomes the legal descendant of the adoptive parent(s) in whatever relationship is appropriate to the new relationship between the adopted child and the adoptive parent(s), and passes into the potestas of the adoptive parent(s).
D. A citizen adopted by adoptio becomes the legal child of the adoptive parent(s) and ceases to be the legal relative of his or her former relatives, and passes from the potestas of his or her former paterfamilias and / or materfamilias into the potestas of the adoptive parent(s).
E. A citizen adopted by adrogatio or by adoptio takes the name of his or her adoptive father (or, if there is no adoptive father, the name of his or her adoptive mother), adjusted to his or her gender as appropriate, and adds an agnomen formed from his or her former nomen with the ending -ianus or -iana (e.g., Salix becomes Salicianus, Equitia becomes Equitiana). Any other relatives transferred from one familia to another by adrogatio also change their names in the same way.

XII. Tutela.

A. Any citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 must have a tutor or tutrix (guardian); a citizen who has a tutor is referred to as a pupillus or pupilla.
B. If a citizen is emancipated by his or her paterfamilias and / or materfamilias, his or her former paterfamilas and / or materfamilias is / are his or her tutor, tutrix, or tutores, unless during the emancipation process it is explicitly stated in the notification to the praetores and explicitly witnessed by all the witnesses that one of the witnesses it to be tutor instead.
C. If a citizen is emancipated by the praetores, the praetores must appoint a tutor or tutrix.
D. If a citizen becomes sui iuris on the death of his or her paterfamilias or materfamilias, and if in a valid will the deceased has nominated an eligible citizen as tutor or tutrix, the nominated citizen has thirty (30) days from the time when the will takes effect to accept the nomination; if he or she does not, he or she is considered to have refused.
E. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of eighteen (18) has no tutor under XII. B., XII. C., or XII. D., his or her nearest eligible legal relative is tutor or tutrix, without right of refusal; if several eligible legal relatives are equally closely related, they are joint tutores.
F. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of eighteen (18) has no tutor under XII. B., XII. C., XII. D., or XII. E., the praetores may appoint a consenting eligible citizen to be tutor or tutrix.
G. If a citizen who is sui iuris but is below the age of 18 has need of a temporary tutor or tutrix (for instance while waiting for a tutor nominated in a will to accept, or to take legal action on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla against the latter's regular tutor or tutrix), the praetores may appoint a consenting eligible citizen to be tutor or tutrix for a specified period or until a specified condition be fulfilled.
H. To be eligible to be a tutor or tutrix a person must be a full citizen over the age of eighteen (18), sui iuris, and not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement of the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
I. A tutor or tutrix may make legal contracts or transactions, and acquire, hold, and dispose of property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations, on behalf of his or her pupillus or pupilla, but only in such a way as to conserve or increase the property and contractual rights and benefits of his or her pupillus or pupilla.
K. A tutor or tutrix must make arrangements and, if necessary, financial provision for his or her pupillus' or pupilla's education and upbringing.
L. When a pupillus or pupilla reaches the age of eighteen (18) his or her tutor or tutrix is relieved or his or her duties and must surrender to the pupillus or pupilla any property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations acquired or held on his or her behalf.
M. If a pupillus or pupilla enters the potestas of another citizen, his or her tutor is relieved of his or her duties and must surrender to the new paterfamilias and / or materfamilias any property or contractual rights, benefits, or obligations acquired or held on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla.

XIII. Succession.

A. Any citizen who is sui iuris and aged eighteen (18) or above, and who is not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement or the ruling of a magistrate with imperium, may make a legal will.
B. A will is invalid unless witnessed by five citizens who have the capacity to witness legal transactions, and unless the testator was of sound mind at the time when the will was written, and unless the will clearly names as heir at least one citizen who is sui iuris (or becomes sui iuris on the testator's death) and not prohibited from acting as heir by a court judgement or the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
C. A citizen named as heir in a valid will may refuse up to thirty (30) days after discovering that he or she has been named as heir. The will may name another eligible citizen as secondary heir in case the primary heir refuses, and so on indefinitely. If no heir so named accepts, the will is invalid. A citizen who becomes sui iuris as a result of the death of the deceased may not refuse the inheritance.
D. If a paterfamilias or materfamilias dies without leaving a valid will, any citizens who become sui iuris as a result of the death become heirs without right of refusal; if no citizens become sui iuris as a result of the death, the nearest eligible legal relative(s) become(s) heir(s), each having the right to refuse up to thirty (30) days after discovering that he or she is heir; if there are no eligible legal relatives prepared to accept the inheritance, the inheritance passes to the gens of the deceased and may be disposed of by agreement of the patresfamiliarum and matresfamiliarum of the gens.
E. If more than one person is heir and the will, if there is one, does not state in what proportions they are to share the inheritance, the inheritance is shared equally; except that if there is no valid will and the heirs are those who have become sui iuris as a result of the death, stirpitial representation applies as in ancient law. If one person who is named co-heir in a will refuses the inheritance, his or her share goes to the other heirs in proportion to their existing shares.
F. The heir(s) inherit(s) any property and contractual rights, benefits, and obligations which were held by the deceased and within the jurisdiction of Nova Roma, and must put into effect the instructions given by the deceased in any valid will except any instructions which are illegal, immoral, or impossible; and must assume responsibility for the familial sacra of the deceased.

XIV. Remedies.

A. Any citizen who has the legal capacity to take legal action may bring an action under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, or whatever lex shall supersede it, against a paterfamilias and / or materfamilias for seriously and consistently failing in his, her, or their duties to his, her, or their familia or a particular member of it. The praetor shall direct in his or her formula that if the reus, rea, or rei be found guilty his, her, or their familia or a particular member of it be removed from his, her, or their potestas or manus and, if necessary, placed under the tutela of a tutor or tutrix. The praetor may include other penalties at his or her discretion.
B. Any citizen who who has the legal capacity to take legal action may bring an action under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria, or whatever lex shall supersede it, against a tutor or tutrix for failing in his or her duties to his or her pupillus or pupilla. A pupillus or pupilla may petition the praetores to appoint a temporary tutor or tutrix to bring such an action on his or her behalf. The praetor shall direct in his or her formula that if the reus be found guilty his pupillus or pupilla be removed from his or her tutela and placed under the tutela of another tutor or tutrix. The praetor may require the reus or rea to make restitution for any avoidable diminution of the property or contractual rights or benefits of the pupillus or pupilla and to meet personally any contractual obligations incurred by the tutor or tutrix on behalf of the pupillus or pupilla, and may include other penalties at his or her discretion.

XV. New Citizens.

A. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as the legal child of another citizen takes that citizen's nomen and cognomen, and may choose a praenomen and agnomina subject to the approval of his or her new legal parent and of the magistrates tasked with citizen registration. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as the legal child of a married citizen couple takes the nomen and cognomen of his or her legal father, and may choose a praenomen and agnomina subject to the approval of his or her new legal parents and of the magistrates tasked with citizen registration.
B. A person who is the biological child of a citizen or of a married citizen couple, or who is the legally adopted child of a citizen or of a married citizen couple according to the law of the state in which he or she lives, shall have the right to become a citizen as the legal child of that citizen or married citizen couple.
C. A new citizen entering Nova Roma as a paterfamilias or materfamilias takes the nomen appropriate to his or her gens and a cognomen not already held by any member of that gens.

XVI. Miscellaneous Provisions.

A. To have capacity to witness a legal transaction a person must be a citizen, sui iuris, aged eighteen (18) years or above, and not prohibited from doing so by a court judgement of the ruling of a magistrate with imperium.
B. All citizens retain those rights guaranteed in the Constitution of Nova Roma. The rights of alieni iuris citizens may be exercised on their behalf by their paterfamilias, materfamilias, tutor, or tutrix, except where an alieni iuris citizen is petitioning a praetor directly.
C. No citizen may vote in comitia for another citizen, regardless of familial status, unless a proxy statement has been filed by the citizen granting a voting proxy. This proxy statement must be filed with the presiding magistrate of the comitia during the contio period prior to the vote.
D. The praetores may clarify, supplement, and interpret this law with reference to the relevant provisions and practices of republican Roman law, and with reference to the principles of justice and equity, as was done by the praetores of antiquity.

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CIII: Lex Equitia de iurisdictione

This law is enacted in order to further define the term "competence" as used in the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria

I.

The praetores shall have competence to grant trial in any matter between citizens (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus or between peregrini provided that the conditions set in the Lex Salicia Poenalis, Article VII. B are observed), with the following exceptions:

A.The praetores shall not grant trial against a reus who is a sitting magistrate.
B.The praetores shall not grant trial against a reus who is a former dictator regarding any action taken by that person in the course of his duties as dictator.

II.

Whenever a praetor shall receive a petitio actionis regarding which he is forbidden by this lex from granting trial, he shall dismiss the petitio actionis under the Lex Salicia Iudiciaria article II. A.

III.

The governor of a provincia shall have competence to grant trial in any matter between citizens who live in that provincia (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus who both live in that provincia or between peregrini who both live in that provincia provided that the conditions set in the Lex Salicia Poenalis, Article VII. B are observed).

A.In such cases, all laws concerning the administration of justice shall apply as usual, any reference to the praetor or the praetores being construed as referring to the governor.
B.Should the praetores receive any petitio actionis concerning a matter which is between two citizens who live in the same provincia, or between a citizen and a peregrinus who live in the same provincia, or between two peregrini who live in the same provincia, they shall pass the petitio to the governor of that provincia.
C.Should a petitio submitted to a governor be dismissed by that governor, or should the governor fail to respond to such a petitio within 120 hours (5 days) of its submission, the petitioner may submit the same petitio to the praetores, and the praetores may deal with the petitio as under the lex Salicia iudiciaria and all other relevant laws.

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Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CVI: Lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda

Preamble

We, the Senate and People of Nova Roma, as an independent and sovereign nation, herewith set forth this Constitution as the foundation and structure of our governing institutions and common society. We hereby declare our Nation to stand as a beacon for those who would recreate the best of ancient Rome. As a nation, Nova Roma shall be the temporal homeland and worldly focus for the Religio Romana. The primary function of Nova Roma shall be to promote the study and practice of pagan Roman civilization, defined as the period from the founding of the City of Rome in 753 BCE to the removal of the altar of Victory from the Senate in 394 CE and encompassing such fields as religion, culture, politics, art, literature, language, and philosophy.

As the spiritual heir to the ancient Roman Republic and Empire, Nova Roma shall endeavor to exist, in all manners practical and acceptable, as the modern restoration of the ancient Roman Republic. The culture, religion, and society of Nova Roma shall be patterned upon those of ancient Rome.

I. Constitutional Basis

A. This Constitution shall be the basic authority for all decision-making within Nova Roma and shall limit the authority of all magistrates and bodies, and all leges (laws) passed by the comitia, decreta (decrees) of the priestly collegia, magisterial edicta (edicts) and Senatus consulta shall be subject to it except as provided by the following two provisos:
1. The edicta (edicts) of a dictator appointed under this Constitution may override its provisions, insofar as he is empowered to do so by the Senatus consultum enabling his appointment;
2. This Constitution may be amended by a Lex passed by the comitia centuriata and approved by a vote of two-thirds of the Senate.
B. Legal precedence. This Constitution shall be the highest legal authority within Nova Roma, apart from edicts issued by a legally appointed dictator. It shall thereafter be followed in legal authority by edicta issued by consuls acting under the Senatus consulta ultima, laws properly voted and passed by one of the comitia, decreta passed by the collegium pontificum, decreta passed by the collegium augurum, Senatus consulta, and magisterial edicta (in order of descending authority as described in section IV of this Constitution), in that order. Should a lower authority conflict with a higher authority, the higher authority shall take precedence. Should a law passed by one of the comitia contradict one passed by another or the same comitia without explicitly superseding that law, the most recent law shall take precedence.
C. This Constitution shall serve as the bylaws for Nova Roma, a legally incorporated entity in the state of Maine, USA (hereafter referred to as "the corporation"). The conduct and procedures of the Board of Directors and the officers of the corporation shall be according to the guidelines and strictures set forth in this Constitution. The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be composed of the Senate of Nova Roma (as described in Section V of this Constitution), and the officers of the corporation shall be composed of the magistrates of Nova Roma (as described in Section IV of this Constitution), as follows:
1. The co-presidents of the corporation shall be the consuls of Nova Roma;
2. The co-vice-presidents of the corporation shall be the praetors of Nova Roma;
3. The co-treasurers of the corporation shall be the quaestors of Nova Roma;
4. The co-secretaries of the corporation shall be the censors of Nova Roma.
D. This Constitution may be altered by law passed by the comitia centuriata; such alterations to this Constitution must be ratified by a vote of two-thirds of the entire Senate before they shall take effect. The edicta of an appointed Dictator may also alter this Constitution, subject to ratification by the Senate.
E. The use of male pronouns and technical terms within this Constitution is done solely for clarity, and shall not be construed to imply any disparity between genders before the law.

II. Citizens and Gentes

A. Citizenship
1. Any person 18 years old or older may apply for Citizenship.
2. Citizens may apply for Citizenship on behalf of their children or legal wards (as defined by relevant macronational law) under the age of 18. Such Citizens shall be known as impuberes.
3. Citizenship is open to anyone regardless of ethnic heritage, gender, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation.
4. Citizenship may be involuntarily revoked by those means that shall be established by law, or may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
5. Impuberes may have their Citizenship relinquished on their behalf by their parent or legal guardian (as defined by relevant macronational law) by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
B. The following rights of the Citizens who have reached the age of 18 shall be guaranteed, but this enumeration shall not be taken to exclude other rights that citizens may possess:
1. Complete authority over their own personal and household rites, rituals, and beliefs, pagan or otherwise; except where this Constitution mandates participation in the rites of the Religio Romana, such as the case of magistrates and Senators;
2. The right and obligation to remain subject to the civil rights and laws of the countries in which they reside and/or hold citizenship, regardless of their status as dual citizens of Nova Roma;
3. The right to vote in elections as members of their various comitia on matters brought before the People in such manner as described in this Constitution;
4. The right to participate in all public fora and discussions, and the right to reasonably expect such fora to be supported by the State. Such communications, regardless of their content, may not be restricted by the State, except where they represent an imminent and clear danger to the Republic. Such officially sponsored fora may be expected to be reasonably moderated in the interests of maintaining order and civility;
5. The right of provocatio; to appeal a decision of a magistrate that has a direct negative impact upon that citizen to the comitia populi tributa;
6. The right to privacy; security in one's home, person, and property; and authority over one's home, person, and property. Homes may not be searched, persons may not be detained, and property may not be seized, except by judicial ruling or by a special provision of law;
7. The right to seek and receive assistance and advice from the State in matters of religious and social disputes occurring both within and outside the direct jurisdiction of Nova Roma; and,
8. The right to pursue business enterprises within Nova Roma through the institution of the ordo equester (equestrian order), and the right to receive reasonable encouragement to build a strong economy through Roman-oriented commerce; the only restrictions being those informational and other materials copyrighted by the State, which shall remain the property of the State.
C. The Orders. Even though members of the three orders are equal under the eyes of the law, the institution of the orders is significant enough that it is perpetuated in Nova Roma. There are three orders into which all Citizens fall:
1. Ordo Patricius (patrician order)
a. The Ordo Patricius shall consist of a minimum of 30 families.
b. Should there be fewer than 30 patrician families the Senate shall have the power to nominate a plebeian family to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status.
c. The Senate shall have the power to nominate additional families to the Comitia Curiata for elevation to patrician status if this elevation does not cause the Ordo Patricius to exceed 5% of the population of Nova Roma.
d. A patrician family may allow its members to form new patrician families.
2. Ordo equester (equestrian order). The equestrian order shall consist of citizens who are engaged in the conduct of commerce (preferably with a Roman theme) who request and are granted entry into the equestrian order by the censors. Such individuals are expected to contribute a portion of the revenue derived from Nova Roma back to the State, and receive reasonable encouragement in their enterprise in return. Day to day supervision of venues where the Ordo Equester is engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property will be under the jurisdiction of the Curule Aediles. For purposes of participating in the comitia, holding office, etc. members of the equestrian order shall be considered to be of the patrician or plebeian order, depending on their status prior to inclusion in the equestrian order.
3. Ordo plebeius (plebeian order). The plebeian order shall consist of individuals who do not belong to either the patrician or equestrian orders.
D. Gentes and Families. Families being the backbone of Roman society, the prerogatives and responsibilities of the family are of primary importance to Nova Roma. Except where specifically dealt with in this constitution and the law, each family shall have the right to determine its own course of action, and parents shall have the undisputed right and responsibility to see to the education and raising of their children.
1. Each gens shall be registered with the censors, who will maintain records of gens membership and other relevant information.
2. No two gentes may have the same nomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
3. Each gens shall consist of a minimum of one family.
4. No two families within a gens may have the same cognomen (surname) unless they are differentiated by an agnomen. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring that this rule is observed.
5. Each family shall, through whatever means it may determine appropriate, have a paterfamilias (fem. materfamilias) who shall act as the leader of the family and speak for it when necessary. The holder of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The paterfamilias or materfamilias may, at his or her discretion, expel members of their family, accept new members into it by adoption, or allow members who are not impuberes to form new families belonging to the same order as the pater or materfamilias.
a. The paterfamilias may, at his discretion, exercise the rights enumerated in paragraph II. B. of this Constitutionon behalf of impuberes in their gens, with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II. B. 3.) and the right to join the Ordo Equester (paragraph II. B. 8.).
b. No impuberes may become patres or matresfamiliarum.
E. Tribes and Centuries
1. There shall exist thirty-five tribes, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens. Thirty-one of these tribes shall be designated the Rural tribes, and shall be assigned by the censors as directed by law passed by the comitia populi tributa. Four of these tribes shall be designated the urban tribes, and shall be made up of those citizens who fail to vote in the annual magisterial elections. Should a member of an urban tribe subsequently vote in an annual magisterial election, he or she shall be reassigned to a rural tribe.
2. There shall exist a number of centuries, said number to be set by law enacted by the Comitia Centuriata and not to exceed one-hundred ninety-three, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens. Until such a law is passed, the number of centuries shall be one-hundred ninety-three. The exact composition of these centuries shall be determined by law passed by the comitia centuriata, but shall be weighted in favor of those citizens who have shown the greatest commitment to Nova Roma.

III. Comitia

A. The comitia curiata (Assembly of Curiae) shall be made up of thirty lictores curiati (lictors of the curia), appointed to their positions by the collegium pontificum (college of pontiffs). It shall be called to order by the Pontifex Maximus, and the collegium pontificum shall set the rules by which the comitia curiata shall operate internally. It shall have the following responsibilities:
1. To invest elected and appointed magistrates with Imperium (which is necessary to employ coercitio [the power to compel obedience to their edicts], interpret and execute law, and possess the honor of being preceded by lictors as a symbol of office), without right of refusal individually or as a body;
2. To witness the appointment of official priests and priestesses of the Religio Romana, adoptions, and the recording of wills.
3. To approve or reject the elevation of a plebeian family to the Ordo Patricius;
4. To approve or reject an adoption that elevates a plebeian to the Ordo Patricius or lowers a patrician to the Ordo Plebeius;
5. To approve or reject an application from a patrician who wishes to renounce his status and become a member of the plebeian order.
B. The Comitia Centuriata (Assembly of Centuries) shall be made up of all of the citizens, grouped into their respective centuries. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the comitia centuriata shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the consuls, praetors, and censors;
3. To try legal cases in which the defendant is subject to permanent removal of citizenship.
C. The Comitia Plebis Tributa (Assembly of the Plebeians) shall be made up of all non-patrician citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by a tribune of the plebs, only the comitia plebis tributa shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact plebiscites with the force of law, binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the plebeian aediles and tribunes of the plebs;
3. To try legal cases solely involving members of the plebeian order that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.
D. The Comitia Populi Tributa (Assembly of the People) shall be made up of all citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the comitia populi tributa shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
1. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
2. To elect the quaestors and curule aediles;
3. To try legal cases that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.

IV. Magistrates.

Magistrates are the elected and appointed officials responsible for the maintenance and conduct of the affairs of state. There are two categories of magistrates: ordinarii (those who are ordinarily elected) and extraordinarii (those who are only occasionally appointed or elected). Qualifications necessary to hold these positions may be enacted by law properly passed by one of the comitia.

A. Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place no later than December 15th, and newly-elected officials shall assume their offices on January 1st. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:
1. Censor. Two censors shall be elected by the comitia centuriata to serve a term lasting two years, to be elected in alternate years so as to have a one-year overlap of terms. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to carry out those tasks in which they are mandated by this Constitution and the law to engage (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
b. To maintain the album civium (list of citizens), including the tribe and century to which they are assigned as described by law, and other appropriate information regarding them;
c. To maintain the album gentium (list of gentes) and appropriate information regarding them;
d. To maintain the album senatorum (list of Senators), including the power to add and remove names on that list according to qualifications set by law;
e. To maintain the album equestrium (lists of members of the equestrian order), including the power to add and remove names on that list;
f. To safeguard the public morality and honor through the collegial administering of notae;
1. A nota against an ordinary individual is sufficient to deprive that individual of the right to vote until such time as it is removed;
2. A nota against a member of the Senate is sufficient to remove that individual from the Senate until such time as it is removed.
g. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
2. Consul. Two consuls shall be elected annually by the comitia centuriata to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by twelve lictors;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To call the Senate, the comitia centuriata, and the comitia populi tributa to order;
d. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against another consul or magistrate of lesser authority;
e. To appoint accensi (personal assistants) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
3. Praetor. Two praetors shall be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To call the Senate, the comitia centuriata, and the comitia populi tributa to order when the Consuls are unavailable;
d. To pronounce intercessio against another praetor or magistrate of lesser authority;
e. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
4. Aediles Curules (Curule Aediles). Two curule aediles shall be elected by the comitia populi tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To hold Imperium;
b. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
c. To pronounce intercessio against another aedile (curule or plebeian) or magistrate of lesser authority;
d. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
e. To maintain the venues where the Ordo Equester is engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property. It is the responsibility of the Curule Aediles to report any changes of the Ordo Equester to the Censors.
5. Aediles plebis (Plebeian Aedile). Two plebeian aediles shall be elected by the comitia plebis tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They must both be of the plebeian order and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To issue those edicta (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
b. To pronounce intercessio against another plebeian aedile or magistrate of lesser authority;
c. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
6. Quaestor. A number of quaestors shall be elected by the comitia populi tributa equal to the number of consuls, praetors, and aediles to serve a term lasting one year. One quaestor shall be assigned to each of these magistrates by mutual agreement or, if such cannot be made, by decision of the newly-elected consuls. They shall have the power and obligation to administer those funds that shall be allocated to them by the Senate in its annual budget under the supervision of that magistrate to whom they are assigned. Those quaestors assigned directly to the consuls shall supervise the whole of the aerarium (treasury), but no funds may be spent without the prior approval of the Senate.
7. Tribuni Plebis (Tribune of the Plebs). Five tribunes of the plebs shall be elected by the comitia plebis tributa to serve a term lasting one year. They must all be of the plebeian order, and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
a. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against the actions of any other magistrate (with the exception of the dictator and the interrex), Senatus consulta, magisterial edicta, religious decreta, and leges passed by the comitia when the spirit and / or letter of this Constitution or legally-enacted edicta or decreta, Senatus Consulta or leges are being violated thereby; once a pronouncement of intercessio has been made, the other Tribunes may, at their discretion, state either their support for or their disagreement with that intercessio.
1. Each Tribune may issue only one such declaration of support or disagreement, but may change their declaration from one to the other, should they wish to do so.
2. The initial pronouncement of intercessio by a Tribune shall count as that Tribune's declaration of agreement.
3. Should the number or the Tribunes who choose to disagree with an intercessio equal or exceed the number of Tribunes who choose to support it, the intercessio shall be revoked.
a Intercessio may not be imposed against statements of support for or disagreement with a use of intercessio that are issued pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
b The issuance and function of intercessio shall be defined according to procedures described by legislation passed by Comitia.
b. To pronounce intercessio (intercession; a veto) against another Tribune using the same mechanism as described in paragraph IV. A. 7. a. above;
c. To be immune from intercessio pronounced by other magistrates, except as described in paragraphs IV. A. 7 .a. and IV. A. 7. b. above;
d. To be privy to the debates of the Senate, and keep the citizens informed as to the subjects and results thereof, in such manner and subject to such restrictions as may be defined by law;
1 To call the Senate to order;
2. To call the comitia plebis tributa to order, except when the Patrician order shall constitute more than ten percent (10%) of the total population, in which case the power shall be altered to calling the comitia populi tributa to order;
3. To administer the law;
4. To appoint scribae (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
8. Vigintisexviri (The Twenty-Six). Collectively, the Twenty-Six shall be minor magistrates elected to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia.
9. Apparitores (Attendants). Collectively, the apparitores shall not be considered magistrates, but rather shall be appointed into various decuriae (corporations) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia. They shall include the lictores, lictores curiati, scribae, and accensi.
B. The extraordinarii are as follows:
1. Dictator. In times of emergency, the Senate may appoint a dictator to serve a term not to exceed six months. At the time of such appointment, the Senate may prescribe a given task or boundaries within which the dictator is obliged to remain. The edicts of the dictator are absolute within his sphere of influence, and subject to neither intercessio or provocatio. The dictator shall hold Imperium and have the honor of being preceded by twenty-four lictors. At the end of his term the actions of the dictator shall be subject to final confirmation by the Senate.
2. Interrex. Should both consular positions be vacant at the same time, the Senate shall appoint an Interrex to serve a term lasting no more than five days. The Interrex must be a member of the patrician order, and shall have all the powers and responsibilities of a normally elected consul. The Interrex shall organize new elections in the comitia centuriata to elect two new consuls to serve out the remainder of the previous consuls' term of office.

V. The Senate

The supreme policy-making authority for Nova Roma shall be embodied in its Senate. The album Senatorum (list of Senators) shall be maintained by the censors according to qualifications set by law. The Senate shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:

A. As the repository of experience and wisdom in the affairs of State, the Senate shall have the authority to issue Senatus consulta (advice of the Senate) on those topics upon which it shall see fit to comment.
B. The Senate shall exercise control over the aerarium (treasury) and shall oversee the financial endeavors, health, and policy of the state.
1. No later than the last day of November of each year, the Senate shall prepare a budget for the following year. This budget shall deal with the disbursement of funds from the aerarium to the quaestors for various purposes. Even though the quaestors assigned to the consuls shall be responsible for the maintenance of the entire treasury, no funds from it may be disbursed without the prior approval of the Senate. The Senate may, as required by changing circumstances, pass supplemental Senatus consulta to modify the annual budget.
2. The Senate may, by Senatus consultum, impose taxes, fees, or other financial requirements on the citizens in order to maintain the financial welfare of the state.
C. The Senate may, by Senatus Consultum, create provinciae for administrative purposes and appoint provincial governors therefor, who shall bear such titles as the Senate may deem appropriate. The Senate may review each governor on a yearly basis and it remains in the discretion of the Senate whether or not to prorogue such governors, although this review shall not constitute a ban on the authority of the Senate to remove governors from office as its discretion. Governors shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
1. To hold imperium and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors solely within the jurisdiction of their respective provinciae;
2. To proclaim those edicta (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma, solely within the jurisdiction of their provinciae (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
3. To manage the day-to-day organization and administration of their provinciae;
4. To appoint officers to whom authority may be delegated, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate;
5. To remove officers whom they have appointed, or make changes to their titles and/or delegated authority, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate.
D. Should a magistrate's office become vacant during the course of his term, the Senate may appoint a replacement to serve out the remainder of the term should there be less than three months remaining therein.
E. The Senate shall have the power to issue the Senatus consultum ultimum (the ultimate decree of the Senate). When in effect, this decree will supersede all other governmental bodies and authorities (with the exception of the dictator) and allow the Senate to invest the consuls with absolute powers to deal with a specific situation, subject only to their collegial veto and review by the Senate. Even under the authority of the Senatus consultum ultimum, the consuls may only temporarily suspend this Constitution; they may not enact any permanent changes hereto.
F. The Senate may, by Senatus consultum, enact rules governing its own internal procedures (such Senatus consulta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia).

VI. Public Religious Institutions

A. The Religio Romana, the worship of the Gods and Goddesses of Rome, shall be the official religion of Nova Roma. All magistrates and Senators, as officers of the State, shall be required to publicly show respect for the Religio Romana and the Gods and Goddesses that made Rome great. Magistrates, Senators, and citizens need not be practitioners of the Religio Romana, but may not engage in any activity that intentionally blasphemes or defames the Gods, the Religio Romana, or its practitioners.
B. The priesthoods of the Gods of Rome shall be organized as closely as practical on the ancient Roman model. The institutions of the Religio Romana shall have authority over religious matters on the level of the state and nation only, maintaining the religious rites of the State and providing resources pertaining to the Religio Romana which Citizens may make use of if they choose. Nova Roma shall approach all other religions with a syncretistic outlook, offering friendship to all paths which acknowledge the right of those who practice and honor the Religio Romana to do so and respect the beliefs thereof. Only Citizens of Nova Roma may be members of the public institutions of the Religio Romana, which shall be organized, and have their responsibilities divided, as follows:
1. The collegium pontificum (college of pontiffs) shall be the highest of the priestly collegia. It shall consist of the Pontifex Maximus, fourteen Pontifices, twelve flamines, six Sacerdotes Vestales, and the Rex and Regina Sacrorum. The collegium pontificum shall appoint its own members. The collegium pontificum shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
a. To control the calendar, and determine when the festivals and dies fasti and dies nefasti shall occur, and what their effects shall be, within the boundaries of the example of ancient Rome;
b. To have ritual responsibilities within the Religio Romana; and general authority over the institutions, rites, rituals, and priesthoods of the public Religio Romana;
c. To issue decreta (decrees) on matters relevant to the Religio Romana and its own internal procedures (such decreta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia or Senatus consultum).
2. The Collegium Augurum (College of Augurs) shall be the second-highest ranked of the priestly Collegia. The eldest member of the Collegium shall be the Magister Collegii. The Collegium Augurum shall consist of nine Augurs, five from the Plebeian order and four from the Patrician order. They shall be appointed by the Collegium Pontificum, and shall hold their offices for life, excepting in cases of resignation of office, resignation of citizenship, or loss of Assiduus citizenship by process of law. Resignation of office or citizenship by an Augur must be made in writing to the Pontifex Maximus and the Magister Collegii; the Pontifex Maximus and Magister Collegii shall be informed in writing of any process of law by which such an Augur has lost citizenship. Augurs who have resigned their office, resigned their citizenship, or have lost their citizenship by process of law shall remain sacri in their persons but may exercise no augural powers or functions, nor shall they be accounted members of the Collegium Augurum.
a. The collegium augurum shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
1. To research, practice, and uphold the ars auguria (the art of interpreting divine signs and omens, solicited or otherwise);
2. To issue decreta (decrees) on matters of the ars auguria and its own internal procedures (such decreta may not be overruled by laws passed in the comitia or Senatus consultum).
b. Individual augurs shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
1. To define templum (sacred space) and celebrate auguria (the rites of augury);
2. To declare obnuntiatio (a declaration that unfavorable and unsolicited omens have been observed that justify a delay of a meeting of one of the comitia or the Senate).
3. Other institutions and priesthoods may be instituted, and the rules for such set, by the collegium pontificum, in accordance with the ancient models of the Religio Romana as practiced by our spiritual ancestors.

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CIX: Lex Popillia senatoria

This lex follows the institutions of the kings in establishing a maximum size for the senate, and the lex Ovinia of c.318 in setting guidelines for the selection of new senatores.

I. ((Number of senatores))

After each census the censores shall declare a maximum number of senatores.

A. This number shall be 15% of the total number of assidui at the time, or the nearest whole number.
B. This number shall be the maximum number of senatores until the number is revised by the censores after the following census.
C. This number shall never be lower than the number of senatores who exist at the time of the declaration, regardless of the number of assidui.
D. This number shall never exceed 300, regardless of the number of assidui.
E. After they have declared the maximum number of senatores (and not before), the censores shall revise the list of senatores.

II. ((Removal of senatores))

The censores may remove senatores from the list.

A. They shall begin with the list drawn up by the previous censores.
B. They shall first strike from the list those who have died or lost their citizenship since the last list was drawn up.
C. They may also strike from the list any existing senatores whose past conduct they consider seriously harmful to the dignity of the senate. They shall make public explanation of their reason for doing so.
D. An existing senator may only be removed from the list with the agreement of both censores.

III. ((Sublection of senatores))

The censores shall add new senatores to the list.

A. After removing any senatores whom they wish to remove from the list, the censores shall sublect (add) new senatores to the list until the total number of senatores is equal to the maximum which they have set, or as near to the maximum as the censores consider reasonable.
B. They shall first sublect any dictatorii (citizens who have completed terms as dictator) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
C. They shall next sublect any censorii (citizens who have completed terms as censor) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
D. They shall next sublect any consulares (citizens who have completed terms as consul) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
E. They shall next sublect any praetorii (citizens who have completed terms as praetor) who have not already been sublected, removed, or passed over for sublection.
F. They shall next sublect citizens at their discretion, giving due weight to their past tenure of public office, to their seniority, and to their good character. These may include citizens who were passed over or removed from the senate by previous censores.
G. They may pass over for sublection any citizen qualified under III.B, C, D, or E whose past conduct they consider would be seriously harmful to the dignity of the senate. They shall make public explanation of their reason for doing so.
H. A new senator may only be added to the list with the agreement of both censores.

IV. ((Ius sententiae dicendae))

Higher magistrates and ex-magistrates shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate.

A. Any flamen Dialis, dictator, censor, consul, or praetor shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate and to vote therein; any tribunus plebis shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate but not to vote therein.
B. No flamen Dialis, dictator, censor, consul, praetor, or tribunus plebis shall be counted toward the total number of senatores.
C. Any dictatorius, censorius, consularis, or praetorius shall be entitled to attend meetings of the senate and to vote therein, except one who has been deliberately passed over for sublection.
D. No dictatorius, censorius, consularis, or praetorius shall be counted toward the total number of senatores unless he or she has already been sublected by the censores.

V. ((Immunity))

A decision of the censores to remove an existing senator, or of either censor to pass over a citizen for sublection, is not subject to any appeal or provocatio and cannot be used as grounds to prosecute any current or former censor.

VI. ((Repeals))

The leges Vedia senatoria, Arminia senatoria, and Octavia de senatoribus are repealed.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CX: Lex Fabia de nominibus approbationibusque

PREAMBLE:

This lex provides a frame in the way prospective citizens can choose their roman name. It encompasses historical research in the form of attested lists of Republican names and takes into consideration the laws of Nova Roma that deal with citizenship approval and the scope of Pater / Mater Familias authority on this particular matter. Application to Nova Roman citizenship implies acceptance and agreement to the terms of the present lex and is subject to a probationary period as described by lex Equitia de tirocinio civium novorum. The Censores reserve the right to refuse any application that does not abide by the following articles.

For the purpose of this lex, and as per lex Labiena de gentibus is recognised as the basic unit of society in Nova Roma. Gentes are composed of many different familiae that share the same nomen. Pater / Materfamilias are head of these officially recognised familiae and not of the gentes. This lex spells out the procedures that the Censores will follow in dealing with the approval of prospective citizens to Nova Roma and the incidence those procedures will have on their names.

This lex hereby complements the lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus whose article II.E is repealed. Whenever a contradition arises between the lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus and the present lex de nominibus approbationibusque, the present lex shall have precedence.

BASIS OF AUTHORITY

This lex is based on lex Labiena de gentibus and lex Equitia familiaris and takes into consideration the fact that Familiae are now the basic social units of Nova Roma. As such Pater / Materfamilias are now head of Familiae (natural or adopted) and not Gentes as was previously the case.

DEFINITIONS

The definitions below are provided to help cives understand the context within which Nova Roman nomenclature applies.

  • A Familia (pl familiae) (household) constists of a pater or materfamilias and all who are in their potestas or manus OR two heads of household together in a free marriage and all who are in their shared potestas.
  • A Domus (pl domus) or Stirps (pl. Stirpes) is an informal group of people who all share the same "nomen-cognomen" combination. There are no recognised heads of Domus; The heads of the familiae whose pater / materfamilias belong to the domus may, however, act in concert to authorise any new citizen to use their "nomen-cognomen" combination.
  • A Gens (pl gentes) regroups all the people who share the same nomen. There are no recognised heads of Gentes in Nova Roma. As long as a new citizen does not choose an existing "nomen-cognomen" combination (see domus), he/she can choose to join any gens he / she likes.

I. Names in Nova Roma

I.A. Nomenclature

As per Roma Antiqua the nomenclature of free male citizens is that of the "tria nomina" (three names) formed as "praenomen-nomen-cognomen". The preferred choice for female nomenclature in Nova Roma is also the "tria nomina": This is to reflect the equal treatment of each prospective citizen, regardless of his / her gender, required by the constitution. The Censores, however, MAY recognise the Roman tradition in naming female citizens and may, in certain exceptional cases and after a personal application to the Censores, allow the following nomenclatures: "nomen only" or "nomen-cognomen".

I.A.1. Praenomen

Here is presented a list of Republican praenomina available to the prospective citizen. Each praenomen has been historically researched and attested. This list will be reviewed as and when new evidence comes to light: Please note that NO Praenomen that does not appear on this list will be accepted by the Censorial office without a special application. Please note that this list includes all the most common praenomina: They are accepted as standards by most scholars and will also be accepted by the censores without discussion. There are however a few other, far less common, praenomina available on request, look below.

Praenomina are very often abbreviated, and the abbreviations will be used in most official communications and records.

Common praenomina: the praenomina nearer to the beginning of the list are more frequent; those nearer to the end are less frequent.

Abbreviation Male Female
C. Gaius Gaia
L. Lucius Lucia
M. Marcus Marca
P. Publius Publia
Q. Quintus Quinta
T. Titus Tita
Ti. Tiberius Tiberia
Sex. Sextus Sexta
A. Aulus Aula
D. Decimus Decima
Cn. Gnaeus Gnaea
Sp. Spurius Spuria
M'. Manius Mania
Ser. Servius Servia
Ap. Appius Appia
N. Numerius Numeria
V. Vibius Vibia

Rare praenomina: a list of Republican rare praenomina available to the prospective citizen is presented on the Name page (Index Nominum) of the main Nova Roma Website. This list will be updated by the Censores as new evidence comes to the foreground. These praenomina are only available on request and such requests must be approved by the Censores.

I.A.2. Nomen

The Nomen or genticilium serves to identify which gens a prospective citizen will belong to. The list of Nomina (or gentes) available in Nova Roma can be found in the album gentium. A citizen wishing to join a familia within a gens must seek the approval of the Pater / materfamilias of the said familia. The choice of a gens is subject to the articles II.B.i. and II.B.ii. of the present lex.

Prospective citizens are authorised to petition the Censores if they wish to create a new Gens, thus introducing a new nomen in Nova Roma. If their claim is justified, historically valid and supported by adequate evidence, the censores may, exceptionally, consider such request and eventually decide to authorise the creation of a new gens.

I.A.3. Cognomen

The magistrates of Nova Roma understand the personal nature of cognomina and the fact that they reflect physical or behavioural characteristics. Therefore cognomina may be accepted even if they don't appear on the recommended list. The prospective citizen must be able to justify his / her choice on either historical or personal grounds and that must be subject to the expressed condition that the chosen cognomen be a Latin word. Please note the restriction applied to cognomina that are already attached to a family in a particular gens (see point II.B.i.a of the present lex). A list of recommended cognomina can be found in the Nova Roma web-pages for Roman names. This list will be updated by the Censores as and when new evidence comes to light.

Special Cognomina: this lex revokes article II.E of lex Cornelia et Maria de mutandis nominibus whereby special cognomina were known under the word "agnomina".

Honorary cognomina including, but not limited to, Maximus, Magnus, Augustus are conferred upon a citizen by special dispensation. They can be awarded by a vote of the Senate in recognition of service to Nova Roma. They are not available to be chosen at the application stage.

Geographical honorary cognomina that refer to a provincia or regio (e.g. Germanicus, Britannicus) of Nova Roma and Roma Antiqua are subject to the same limitations as they were customarily bestowed upon a general after a successful campaign. Rare exceptions can be made by the censores in the case of citizen born in the provincia covering the territory of his/her macronation. In that latter case, the geographical cognomen will not be seen as honorary and can be requested at the application stage.

Cognomina that refer to the name of a deity will not currently be accepted unless the prospective citizen specifically expresses a desire to honour a god or goddess that he / she already worships and contact the Censores to present his / her case prior to sending his / her application.

I.B. Name change

I.B.1. Introduction

The choice of a Roman name being a very personal and intimate matter, the Censores and their staff must do their utmost to guide and help prospective citizens to choose the right name on the first instance. As such, no name change should be allowed after the original application has been approved to the satisfaction of all parties involved. However, on exceptional circumstances, the Censores reserve the right to authorise such name change if the citizen in question can effectively argue his / her case and only if this change affects the praenomen, cognomen or agnomen. The ruling of the Censores is final.

In case of a nomen change (i.e. change of gens), the only procedure authorised is that of adoption. Adoption takes the forms of adrogatio or adoptio according to the status, Sui Iuris or Alieni Iuris, of the adopted party. The procedures of Adoption are defined by the lex Equitia familiaris and the effect on name are described below: the citizen wishing to change his / her nomen must seek approval from the new Pater / Materfamilias whose domus he / she wishes to be part of. Upon approval, this prospective citizen will take the praenomen, nomen and eventual cognomen of his / her new Paterfamilias / Materfamilias.

Recent experiences, however, where the Censorial Cohors had to deal with multiple adoptions of several members of the same gens into one familia has shown that in these cases the only distinction between members of that familia would have been to add yet another cognomen (primus, secundus, tertius etc.) to distinguish one civis from the other. The censorial office judged that this solution was not satisfactory as it cannot ensure that each civis would easily be identifiable nor that his / her own individuality would truly be reflected in their new name. The following articles, I.B.ii and I.B.iii, reflect those experiences and propose a way of dealing with adoptions that is consistent with traditional Roman nomenclature and the spirit of flexibility and practicality that were qualities of our forefathers.

I.B.2. Adoption involving two cives belonging to two different gentes

I.B.2.a. The adopted party will take the Nomen AND Cognomen of his / her adopting parent.
I.B.2.b. The adopted party will add to his / her new name a second cognomen based on the root of his / her old Nomen to which will be added -ianus / -iana according to the gender.
I.B.2.c. The adopted party will be able to retain his / her praenomen should he / she wish to, so long as the adopting parent agrees.
I.B.2.d. Example: M. Anicius Brutus wishes to be adopted by the paterfamilias L. Lucretius Candidus. M. Anicius Brutus wishes to keep his Praenomen Marcus. His new name, after the adoption is completed, will be: M. Lucretius Candidus Anicianus.

I.B.3. Adoption involving two cives belonging to the same gens

I.B.3.a. The adopted party will take the Nomen AND Cognomen of his / her adopting parent.
I.B.3.b. The adopted party will retain his / her old Cognomen and use it as a second cognomen in his new name. This second cognomen will not be inherited by his / her filiifamilias.
I.B.3.c. The usual Cognomen resulting from adoption (ending in -ianus / -iana and based on the root of the nomen of the adopted party and as defined by the lex Equitia familiaris is dropped.
I.B.3.d. The adopted party will be able to retain his / her praenomen should he / she wish to, so long as the adopting parent agrees.
I.B.3.e. Example: M. Anicius Brutus wishes to be adopted by the paterfamilias L. Anicius Lepidus. M. Anicius Brutus wishes to keep his Praenomen Marcus. His new name, after the adoption is completed, will be: M. Anicius Lepidus Brutus. Please note the difference with point I.B.2.d above where the new name would have been: M. Anicius Lepidus Anicianus.

II. Approval procedures and names

II.A. Introduction

II.A.1. ((Joining gentes))

This lex applies the revocation by lex Labiena de gentibus of the right of former heads of Gentes (until now also known as Patres / Matresfamilias) to approve or reject the application of a prospective citizen to join a particular Gens.

II.A.2. ((Joining familiae))

This lex confirms the right of heads of Familiae known as Pater / Materfamilias to approve or reject the application of a prospective citizen to join a particular Familia.

II.B. Approval authority

II.B.1. Approval authority in a Familia and / or Domus

II.B.1.a. Familia
Each Familia duly registered with the censorial office will be headed by a Pater / Materfamilias chosen as per the recommendations found in lex Labiena de gentibus.
II.B.1.b. Domus
Each Domus duly registered with the censorial office will be confirmed in its position by the right of using a reserved and specific cognomen within a Gens to differentiate itself from other Domus in that Gens.
No prospective citizen of a particular Gens may choose the cognomen of a Domus already existing within that Gens, unless the prospective citizen has been approved by all the Patres / Matresfamilias of the familiae existing in the said Domus. In effect the new prospective citizen will become the pater / materfamilias of a new Familia within the Domus.
Existing citizens must go through the process of Adoption (either adoptio or adrogatio) to enter an existing Domus. See point I.B.iii.
II.B.1.c. Approval authority of the Pater / Materfamilias
The Pater / Materfamilias of a Familia duly registered with the censorial office will have the ultimate authority in accepting or rejecting the application of any prospective citizen wishing to join this Familia.
II.B.1.d. The duty of the Pater / Mater Familias in guiding prospective Citizens.
II.B.1.d.i As the person responsible to welcome new citizens into the Familia and guiding them in Nova Roma, the Pater / Materfamilias has the duty to help and support the prospective citizen in his / her choice of name, following the laws and edicta that guide such selection, before the familial approval reaches the censorial office.
II.B.1.d.ii. Should it come to the attention of the Censores that a Pater / Materfamilias repeatedly approves prospective citizens with names that do not compy with the present lex, a censorial investigation may be launched as to why that is. If no satisfactory explanation is provided, the Censores may issue a public reprimand against the said Pater / Materfamilias for non adherence to Nova Roman practice as defined by the laws, edicta and decreta of Nova Roma.

II.B.2. Approval authority in a Gens

II.B.2.a. The Gens in Nova Roma
II.B.2.a.i. A Gens in Nova Roma is composed of many different Familiae that share a common nomen.
II.B.2.a.ii. Although members of a particular Gens may wish to organise themselves as they see fit, for the purpose of this lex and in accordance with lex Labiena de gentibus the Censores do not recognise the authority of a head of a Gens as far as approving citizens is concerned.
II.B.2.a.iii. Building on the above point, closed Gentes are now abolished as prospective citizens are free to join any Gens they wish as opposed to officially recognised Familiae and Domus that are allowed to present possible restrictive entry conditions.
II.B.2.b. Approval authority to acceptance in a Gens
II.B.2.b.i. Any prospective citizen may choose the Gens of his choice providing he / she doesn't seek to belong to an already existing Domus. In the latter case approval authority falls within the rights and duties of the Pater / Materfamilias as stated in II.B.1.b.
II.B.2.b.ii. The Censores will hold the ultimate authority to approve or reject prospective citizens seeking admission in a Gens but not in a recognised Familia.

III. Sources

Roman Nomenclature:

Diana Bowder "Who Was Who In the Roman World", Cornell University Press, 1980

John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray "The Oxford History of the Roman World", Oxford University Press, 2001

T. Robert S. Broughton "Magistrates of the Roman Republic", Vol. 1 and 2, American Philological Association/Scholars Press, 1986

Mika Kajava "Roman Female Praenomina" Institutum Romanum Findlandiae Vol. XIV, Rome 1994: Senatorial Women's Praenomina in the Republican and Imperial Periods ( p. 136)

O. Salomies, "Die romischen Vornamen" (Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 82, 1987).

B. Salway, "What's In A Name? A Survey Of Roman Onomastic Practice From c.700 B.C. to A.D. 700"

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/List-of-Republican-Roman-Consuls

http://www.ualberta.ca/~csmackay/Consuls.List.html

http://www.hostkingdom.net/consuls.html

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.

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CXIII: Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda

Citizenship in Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished or involuntarily revoked as per the Constitution of Nova Roma, paragraph II.A.4, or may be temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu, paragraph VI.

Further provision is made by this Lex Minucia Moravia de Civitate Eiuranda by which citizenship in Nova Roma may be involuntarily terminated at the discretion of the Censors when a Citizen fails to register in two consecutive censuses. Outlined in this lex are the procedures by which a Citizen may voluntarily relinquish his or her citizenship by a process of resignation from Nova Roma, guidelines for censorial termination of citizenship for non-compliance with the Lex Fabia de Censu, and procedures to be followed when a person returns into citizenship following suspension of citizenship or relinquishment of citizenship.

I. ((Supercedes))

The leges Cornelia et Maria de civitate eiuranda and Equitia de civitate eiuranda are hereby repealed.

II. Resignation of Citizenship

A: Citizenship from Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the Censors. Submission to the Censors of an intention to resign citizenship should be made in writing with the intention clearly stated, and may be transmitted in writing via any available means.

B. In keeping with Constitutional clause II.A.5, a parent or guardian may voluntarily rescind Nova Roma citizenship of Impuberes (minors) as provided for above.

III. ((Forfeiture of Offices))

If citizenship is resigned, any and all public offices held by the Citizen are immediately vacated at the time that the Censors receive a resignation. No public offices, elected or appointed, shall carry over into a new citizenship should a resigning citizen later reestablish citizenship.

IV. ((Socius))

A Citizen whose citizenship is temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu or by process of law is known as a Socius. A Citizen who voluntarily relinquishes citizenship by submitting a resignation from Nova Roma may also be treated as a Socius for the purposes of this lex. Under the lex Fabia de Censu, a Citizen becomes a Socius after failing to register with one census. Any Socius or former Citizen in a Socius status who fails to register with a census or who fails to otherwise reestablish citizenship may, at the discretion of the Censors, have his or her status terminated, and thus be removed from the censorial Album Civium.

B. A Socius or a former Citizen in a Socius status may request that he or she be removed from the Album Civium and thus all records of the former Citizen's or Socius' former membership in Nova Roma are to be deleted. The Censors must comply with such a request if no exceptions are provided for under the law.

V. ((Reapplication))

A former Citizen or Socius may reapply for citizenship to the Censors under prevailing legal procedures.

VI ((Reinstatement))

A. When a former Citizen applies for reinstatement of citizenship, a waiting period of ninety (90) days precedes reestablishment of citizenship. When citizenship is reestablished a Socius, or a former Citizen who was in a Socius status, shall have restored any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including century points) that he or she may have held at the time that citizenship was either suspended or resigned. A former Citizen whose Socius status was legally terminated, and whose records were thus lawfully removed from the Album Civium, is not entitled to a restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including century points).

B. Once citizenship is reestablished, a returning Citizen may apply to the Collegium Pontificum for reappointment to any religious offices that he or she may have previously held. Only the Collegium Pontificum, or an otherwise designated religious body, is authorized to reappoint a returning Citizen to a religious office.

C: Century points that are due to a returning Citizen for any and all public and/or religious offices that he or she may have previously held shall be restored at the time that citizenship is reestablished, provided that citizenship was reestablished while the former Citizen was in a Socius status, as per VI.A.

D. Senatorial status may be resumed by a returning Citizen at the discretion of the Censors collegially.

VII. ((Multiple Resignations))

If a Citizen resigns his or her citizenship, is subsequently reinstated, and resigns a second time, the Censors may bar this former Citizen from reinstatement as a Citizen of Nova Roma. An exception to IV.B is hereby made such that the Censors may retain records in addition to the Album Civium on any person who has been barred from citizenship in Nova Roma for any reason.

VIII. ((Returnee Rights))

A: All rights and privileges of citizenship are restored in full to a returning Citizen at the time his or her citizenship is reestablished. This lex does not in itself restrict a returning Citizen in any way from lawfully pursuing any entitlements or official positions (via election or appointment) for which he or she would again become eligible.

B. At the discretion of the Senate, the normal waiting period of ninety (90) days may be waived.

Section headers in double parentheses are unofficial and have been inserted for convenience.


Note from Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: The present lex was amended on several points by the Lex Cornelia de civitate eiuranda

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CXIV: Lex Minucia Moravia eiuratione magistratum

I. This Lex pursues the constitutional language of Section IV, headed 'Magistrates', which states that an office becomes vacant when a magistrate resigns or dies.
II. This lex clarifies the legal definition of magisterial resignation, consequences of resignation, and those procedures legally necessary to validate and remedy magisterial vacancy due to resignation of office.
III. The language of this lex is binding on resignation of magisterial offices elected in the Comitia Centuriata, in the Comitia Populi Tributa and in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.
IV. A tendered resignation from an elected office becomes legal and binding once receipt of same is acknowledged to the resigning Magistrate by an appropriate presiding official (defined below) of the comitia by which he or she was elected.
A.i. Resignation of an office elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa is tendered in writing to the Tribuni Plebii or tendered in writing in the presence of three or more Plebian citizens, who shall witness and communicate the resignation to the Tribunes. Once advised of a resignation, the Tribuni Plebii shall respond in writing to the resigning magistrate within 24 hours, in order to acknowledge the tendered resignation, and a vacancy of that office is legally established.
A.ii. Elections shall be held in the Comitia Plebis Tributa within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate,according to prevailing legal procedure governing elections of this comitia.
A.iii. This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the Comitia Plebis Tributa to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation.
B.i. Resignations of offices elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa or the Comitia Centuriata are to be tendered in writing to the Consuls, or in the presence of three or more citizens,who shall acknowledge and communicate receipt of the resignation to the Consuls. Once advised of the resignation, the Consuls shall respond in writing within 24 hours to the resigning magistrate in order to acknowledge the tendered resignation, and a vacancy of that office is thereby legally established.
B.ii. Elections shall be held in the appropriate comitia within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate, according to the respective prevailing laws governing these comitia elections.
B.iii. This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the appropriate comitia to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation.
V. Consuls may not accept resignations of offices elected of the Comitia Plebis Tributa.
VI. The presiding comitia magistrate who lawfully acknowledges receipt of a resignation of office to the tendering magistrate as detailed in Ai and Bi, shall be responsible for communicating this information to the Censors, the Magister Aranearius and the citizenry via public fora within 48 hours.
VII. Accreditation of century points for partial service of a term of office shall not be affected by this lex.

Original text of lex as passed in comitia, maintained here for transparency and tracability:

This lex clarifies the legal definition of magisterial resignation, consequences of resignation, and those procedures legally necessary to validate and remedy magisterial vacancy due to a resignation of office, in accordance with the Constitution of Nova Roma, Section IV, on 'Magistrates', which states that an office becomes vacant when a magistrate resigns or dies while in office. The language of this lex is binding on resignation of magisterial offices elected in the in the Comitia Populi Tributa and in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.

I.A: An elected magistrate resigns from office by tendering his or her notification of a resignation to the presiding official (defined below) of the comitia in which the resigning magistrate was elected.

B: The Tribunes of the Plebs are the presiding officials of the Comitia Plebis Tributa. A resignation of an office that was elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa may be tendered in writing directly to one or more Tribunes of the Plebs, or else is tendered to the Tribunes of the Plebs by posting a notice of resignation via the official Comitia Plebis Tributa list, or a list that is supported by Nova Roma as a Public Forum.

C: The Consuls and Praetors are the presiding officials of the Comitia Populi Tributa. A resignation of an office that was elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa may be tendered in writing directly to one or both Consuls or Praetors, or else is tendered by posting a notice of resignation on a list that is supported by Nova Roma as a public Forum.

II.A: A vacancy of office is legally established when an appropriate presiding official acknowledges in writing the receipt of a tendered resignation to the resigning magistrate. A vacancy may also be legally established when the Censors inform the presiding magistrates that a magistrate is unreachable after an absence of 45 or more days.


B: Within twenty-four (24) hours of receiving notification of a resignation, the presiding official of the respective comitia – any one of the Consuls or Praetors, or any one of the Tribunes of the Plebs, as the case may be, shall acknowledge receipt in writing to the resigning magistrate.

C. Consuls shall not accept a resignation from office of a magistrate elected in the Comitia Plebis Tributa.

D. Tribunes of the Plebs may only accept the resignation from office of a magistrate elected in the Comitia Populi Tributa as in II A and B when none of the Consuls or Praetors is available to accept the resignation on behalf of this comitia.

III: Elections shall be held within 45 days of the established vacancy for a suffect magistrate in the legally appropriate comitia, according to prevailing legal procedures governing elections of that comitia.

IV: This lex does not in itself restrict a former magistrate from standing for election in the Comitia Plebis Tributa or in the Comitia Populi Tributa to fill the vacancy caused by his or her resignation, and for which he or she is eligible to hold.

V: The presiding official of a comitia who lawfully acknowledges receipt of a resignation from office of any magistrate who was elected in either the Comitia Plebis Tributa or Comitia Populi Tributa, as outlined in this lex, shall be responsible for communicating this information to the Censors, the Magister Aranearius and to the citizenry via public fora within the following forty-eight (48) hours from the time that the resignation goes into effect.

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CXXI: Lex Galeria de privatis rebus

I. The Lex Cornelia de privatis rebus is repealed.

II. The Lex Octavia de privatis rebus is repealed.

III. Confidential information consists of the following:

A. information given directly by a person for the purpose of applying for citizenship; and

B. information given directly by a person for the purpose of updating or correcting information referred to in III.A above; and

C. information obtained from the subscription list of the e-mail list that currently constitutes the Forum or main list of Nova Roma, other than information which is available to every member of that e-mail list; and

D. information obtained from the subscription lists from the publications of Nova Roma.

IV. Information is given directly when it is provided voluntarily by the person to whom it pertains.

V. Where confidential information is held in official records or by any magistrate, it shall be made available to any censor, consul, praetor, magister aranearius, or magistrate legally responsible for the handling of applications for citizenship, upon request by that person. It shall be made available to any provincial governor, upon request by that governor, if and only if it pertains to a person living in the province which he or she governs. It shall not be made available to any other person except as provided below.

VI. A censor may at his or her discretion give confidential information to a magistrate other than one entitled to received it under V above upon request by that magistrate.

VII. A magistrate who receives confidential information under V or VI above may at his or her discretion give that information to his or her lawfully appointed assistant.

VIII. A censor may at his or her discretion give confidential information on request to a municipal agent of law enforcement or other person entitled by municipal law to demand and be given the information. Where a censor receives such a request, he or she shall inform the person to whom the information pertains of the request, of all circumstances relevant to the request, and of the censor's actions in response to the request.

IX. Other than as set out above, no person shall give to any other person any confidential information about any third person without the permission of that third person.

X. Nothing in this lex shall be taken to prohibit any person from asking any other person for information about himself or herself. Nothing in this lex shall be taken to prohibit any person from giving information about himself to any other person.

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CXXV: Lex Curiatia Iulia de tributo virginum vestalium

The following new paragraph II.B is inserted in lex Apula de assiduis et capite censis:

" II.B: Those appointed as Vestal virgins by the Collegium Pontificum shall be exempt from paying the annual tax and shall retain their status as assidui so long as they remain Vestal virgins. No special conditions shall be placed on Vestal virgins with regard to their placement in centuries and tribes or upon their ability to run for or hold office."

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CXXVI: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Centuriata. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to function the Comitias under the existing procedures and thusly required the Senate to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Centuriata).

Pursuant to Section III B of the Constitution of Nova Roma, empowers the Comitia to establish procedures and rules for which it is allowed to operate. All previous legislation previously passed is hereby rescinded and repealed.


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

Laws effectively repealed include but are not limited to: Lex Fabia de Ratione Comitorium Centuriatorum and the Lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Centuriata

a. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Centuriata (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The Summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata
In the text of the message must include:
  • Candidates, date of citizenship, if they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and The office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and time when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates up to 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are two vacant offices for office of Praetor – at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward – leaving 1 vacancy. 24 hours after the Contio has started another citizen has stepped forward (and has met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include that individual in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late accepting magistrates does not give the presiding magistrate to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all the necessary constitutionally empowered positions and powers are all available. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each Century in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have to option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolve” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemn” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by centuries.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each century shall be calculated as follows. For each century the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the century. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex, each century shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of votes received by members of that century are in favor. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Centuriata, each century shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes is received from the members of that century are marked “condemno.” Ties within a century will result in that century voting to acquit. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All centuries are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by century.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
a. Each century will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that century. If there is a tie in deciding who won the century, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by breaking the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each century should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per century, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each century that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most centuries, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of a magisterial election, a majority is defined as one the candidate who receives the most centuries per vacancy (not counting those centuries that did not vote).
I. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of centuries casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of centuries casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Century is tied, the century will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A century in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
J. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the centuries must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Centuriata, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of centuries, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
a. Even those centuries in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a Century has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those centuries from consideration during the vote counting process – Only centuries with individuals may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
K. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
L. Only the aggregate voters of the centuries shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual centuries and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined between the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results, (Even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election.) Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censor’s may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and side with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXVII: Lex Cornelia de quaestoribus

Pursuant to Section IV.A.2.b and c of the constitution of Nova Roma and of IV.A.6 of the Constitution of Nova Roma

Introduction: In recent years Nova Roma has had ongoing vacancy issues specifically regarding the electoral officers, Diribitores and Custodes, Editor Commentariorum and Rogatores positions. This has an adverse affect on the people of Nova Roma being able to express their will because the Comitia's that represent the Peoples’ wishes have not been able to be summoned. This law intends to address the issue by giving expanding Consular authority to assign Quaestors to fill the vacant positions until those positions are filled by election or appointment.

A. The positions and offices under the scope of this lex are: Diribitores (also known as election officers) Rogatores. Custodes. Editor commentariorum


B: In the event of a magisterial or administrative vacancy on any of the positions mentioned in Section A The Consul may assign Quaestors to one of those vacant positions. These vacancies, most importantly, the election officers, are vital to the organization and must be filled even if it means that magistrates who are allowed the use of Quaestors go without.


C. Upon being assigned to an open office, a Quaestor will be listed as holding both the Quaestor position to which he or she was elected and as a Suffect from the position he or she was appointed to on the Nova Roma Magistrates page on the official website. Each Quaestor can only be assigned to one open position described in section A as Suffect at a time but may be assigned to more than one such suffect office in the course of a year provided only one such office is held at any time. Any Quaestor assigned to an open position described in A will earn the full century points for the Quaestor position and half of the Century points for holding a Suffect position he or she was appointed. If a Quaestor is assigned as a Suffect officer in those positions more than once in the course of a year, that Quaestor will receive full Century points for holding the office of Quaestor and half the Century points normally granted for the Suffect office with the highest Century point value that he or she held regardless of the length of time actually holding the office.

C. Election related issues: each Quaestor, upon accepting the position of a Diribitor or a Custos accepts the restrictions of not being able to run for office in the next calendar year. If the Quaestor wishes to be relieved of the position the Quaestor must petition the Consuls with at least 30 (thirty) days notice of the summons of the Comitia (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa or the Comitia Plebis Tributa). The Consul has the discretion to accept or deny the petition with notification given in writing to the Quaestor within seven (7) days of the request.

D. Any changes on any of the positions listed in A will be considered to be reflected in this lex. If a position ceases to be an independent office or ceases to exist then no Consul would be able to assign a Quaestor to that position. In other words, this lex will be valid unless specifically repealed by future legislation.

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CXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de vigintisexviris

Introduction - This lex serves the purpose of refining Nova Roma's offices to better serve the interests of the State. In recent years an insufficient number of qualified candidates stood for election to these positions, leaving them vacant.. This lex addresses the need for a more effective and easier alternative for filling these positions; and to give the Senate more direct oversight especially concerning the filling of the electoral magistracies which conduct, count and oversee the elections of officers in Nova Roma.

This Lex supersedes and repeals all previous leges and Senatus Consulta in this jurisdictional area. This includes but is not limited to the following:

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Equitia_de_vigintisexviris_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Galeria_de_editore_commentariorum_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Apula_de_magistro_araneario_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_iure_edicendi_vigintisexvirorum_(Nova_Roma)

Effective immediately the positions that were covered under the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris are no longer independent offices that are elected by the Comitia Populi Tributa; nor are the offices listed in this lex to be classified as Vigintisexviri positions.

Effective Immediately the Office of the Rogator, whose responsibility was focused on registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process reverts to the Censores office to be filled at the discretion of the Censors’. This position, if filled will have the same ranking and distinction as a scribe appointment with all the same rights, responsibilities and century point allocations therein. The independent office of Rogator is now extinct.

Effective immediately the offices of Custodes and Diribitors are combined.

  • A. A new office is created called Diribitores with four positions

available to be appointed by the Senate by proposal of the presiding magistrate. A minimum of two individuals must fill this position at all times.

  • B. The Diribitores will have the duty to count the votes and tie breaking

in the voting processes in the Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa and Comitia Plebis Tributa – in compliance and in accord with the leges governing the vote count and ties breading procedures governing each Comitia .

  • C. The Senate may appoint individuals for suffect (Partial term), full

year terms, or multiple years.

  • D. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the

election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.


Appointment of Diribitors: As Senatorial appointments the presiding magistrate (ie Consul, praetor or Tribune of the Plebs) may present individuals to the Senate for consideration. The Senate has the right and privilege to accept or reject candidates for the Diribitore Position(s).


In the event of an emergency*: An Emergency is described as having 20 days or less to an upcoming Comitia summons – the Presiding magistrate may issue an edicta appointing individual(s) pro-tempore to serve as a diribitore – for one election cycle only. To be specific it means only one summons of one Comita ONLY (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa, and Comitia Plebis Tributa). No individual can be named Pro Tempore Diribitore for more than one time in a calendar year. However that individual may be considered by the Senate for a suffect appointment.

Editor commentariorum and *magister aranearius (webmaster) are the two remaining positions.

The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year terms or multiple years . The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.


The magister aranearius shall be responsible for the design, maintenance, and any alteration of the official web site(s) sponsored by the State. The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates and institutions of Nova Roma regarding content for the web site*. The Magister aranearius may be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year term or multiple years. The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.

The Century points for the positions of the Diribitore, Editor Commentariorum and Magister Aranearius shall receive the same number of points as the Office of Quaestor.

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CXXIX: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to effectively summon the Comitias under the existing procedures and thus the Senate was required to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Populi Tributa).


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

The Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum is hereby repealed.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Populi Tributa

A. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa
The text of the summons must include:
  • Candidates’s names, date of citizenship, a statement that they have met the constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, and the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates as long as there are at least 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are eight vacant offices for office of Quaestor - at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward - leaving 7 vacancies. 24 hours after the Contio has started other citizen(s) step forward (and have met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those individual(s) in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late candidates does not give the presiding magistrate discretionary authority to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days)
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have the option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolvo” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemno” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each tribe shall be calculated as follows. For each tribe the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the tribe. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex (or leges), each tribe shall vote in favor of the leges if a majority of votes received by members of that tribe are in favor. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Populi Tributa, each tribe shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from the members of that tribe are marked “condemno.” Ties within a tribe will result in that tribe voting to acquit. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by tribe.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
i. Each tribe will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
I. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Populi Tributa, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
i. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process – Only tribes with individuals, enrolled in said tribe may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
J. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
K. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual tribes and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined by the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results (even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election). Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censors may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and agree with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXX: Lex Pompeia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

Resolved, in order to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa and avoid the need for emergency decrees (Senatus consulta ultima - SCUs) by the Senate to effectively summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:


I. Status of Previous Leges Governing the Comitia Plebis Tributa

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Plebis Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

A. The Lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum is hereby repealed.
B. The Lex Arminia de suffragiis in comitiis tributis is hereby repealed.
C. The Lex Grylla de magistratibus plebis creandis is hereby repealed.

II. Calling to Order the Comitia Plebis Tributa

A. A Tribunus Plebis may, as described by the Constitution, call the Comitia to order to hold a vote on one or more of the following:
1. an election for office;
2. a Lex (law); or,
3. an appropriate legal proceeding.
B. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
C. The Summons must contain the following information:
1. The subject heading shall be: “Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa”
2. The text of the summons must include:
a) If the summons is to conduct an election then the full Roman name of the candidates, dates of citizenship, an indication of whether or not they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the name of office they are seeking.
b) If the summons is to vote on a lex or leges then the full text of the lex or leges or links to web pages containing the full text of the lex or leges which are being voted on; however, a draft version of the full text is acceptable at this point.
c) If the summons is to convene a trial or other legal proceeding then the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to: the full Roman name of the petitioner; the full Roman name of the defendant; and, the charges or nature of the proceeding.
d) The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end dates and times of the voting period.
3. Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.

III. The Timing of the Vote

A. The Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the website with the corresponding designation.
B. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 72 hours (3 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
C. In the event that, in an effort to fill a Plebian office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates during the first 48 hours in the Contio. In other words, if there are five vacant offices for office of Tribuni Plebis and if, at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia, only one candidate has stepped forward leaving 4 vacancies and 24 hours after the Contio has started two other citizens step forward (and have met the Constitutional requirements for the office of Tribunus Plebis) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those two additional individuals in the Comitia summons and add them to the ballot so a new election or a delay in the Contio does not need to take place. When accepting additional candidates during this 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio, the presiding magistrate must not disregard any Constitutional requirements for the office which is the subject of the election. Candidates who put their names forward during the 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio must meet the Constitutional requirements for the office they seek. Any votes cast for a candidate who does not meet the Constitutional requirements for the office that is the subject of the election will be considered null and will not be counted.
D. A final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
E. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
F. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of the then current Comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
G. In voting for a Lex, the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
H. In a legal proceeding the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
I. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
J. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censores (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
K. The Censores have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censores certify the vote the Censores or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.

IV. Voting Procedures

A. Each plebeian citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens’ vote. Only plebeian citizens will be permitted to vote in the Comitia. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censores, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a Cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep a record of each ballot cast including the ballot number and and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Procedures for Elections
1. The ballot shall include:
a) The name of the office.
b) The number of vacancies.
c) A listing of the candidates for office listed in alphabetical order based on the candidates' nomina, praenomina, and, where applicable, cognomina and agnomina. The list shall be placed on the ballot in a single column.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “uti rogas” (or Yes) or leave the candidate unmarked. Each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” Thus, beside the name of each candidate the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the candidate.
3. A voter may vote for the number of candidates equal to the number of vacant positions. A voter shall not be required to cast votes for all vacancies. A voter may choose to vote for only some of the candidates or none of the candidates.
4. There shall be an area on the ballot for a write-in candidate should the voter wish to cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot.
5. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive their right to cast any votes for a given magistracy.
D. Procedures for Legislation
1. The full text, or a link to the full text on the Nova Roma website, of each proposed law or plebiscite shall appear on the ballot. Links are permitted only if they resolve to locations in the Nova Roma Wiki or website.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each proposal “uti rogas” (or Yes), “antiquo” (or No), or “abstineo” (or Abstain). Thus, for each proposed law the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the plebiscite.
E. Procedures for Trials
1. The ballot shall include the name of the accused, the name of the accuser or party bringing the charges, and the charges and specifications brought against the accused.
2. There shall be an area on the ballot where each voter shall have the option to vote "absolvo" (or Innocent), "condemno" (or Guilty), or “abstineo” (or Abstain - should the voter wish to waive his or her right to vote on the accused's guilt or innocence). Thus, beside the name of the accused, the voter shall be able to mark his or her determination of innocence or guilt.
F. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in counting the vote and any subsequent ballots registered with the same voter identification code shall be considered null and void.

V. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
C. If the Comitia was summoned to vote in an election, the results are calculated as follows:
1. Each tribe will rank the candidates based on the voting results of that tribe with the candidate receiving the highest number of votes ranked first and other candidates ranked similarly based on the number of votes received in the tribe from highest to lowest.
2. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe.
3. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, a winner will be determined using the procedure established in Paragraph VI (Breaking of Ties) of this Lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc until all vacancies are filled.
4. This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
D. If the Comitia was summoned to approve a Lex or Leges, a simple majority of those tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the Lex to be adopted. A simple majority is defined for this purpose as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, with any fractions being rounded down. If a tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a ‘No’ vote and there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes is declared vacant and shall not be counted or used to determine the outcome of the vote.
E. If the Comitia was summoned to conduct a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Plebis Tributa, a majority is defined as one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process. Thus, only tribes with at least one citizen enrolled shall be counted to determine the outcome of a legal proceeding – any tribe without at least one enrolled citizen (vacant tribes) shall not be counted.
F. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.
G. Results shall be tabulated by tribe.
H. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

VI. Breaking of Ties

The following are the only methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be exactly, and only, in the order shown - in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by Tie Breaker #1 then Tie Breaker #2 will be used, and if a clear winner is not determined by Tie Breaker #2 then Tie Breaker #3 will be used to determine a winner. If there is still no clear winner then Tie Breaker #4 will be used. The tie breaking method outlined here will be utilized to resolve ties within individual tribes as well as in the sum total of the Comitia.

A. Tie Breaker #1: If a tie between candidates occurs, the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest, as determined by the Censores based on the date of citizenship recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
B. Tie Breaker #2: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of time as citizens of Nova Roma then the candidate with the largest number of Century Points, as determined by the Censores based on the Century Point totals recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
C. Tie Breaker #3: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of citizenship and the same number of Century Points recorded in the Album Civium then the oldest candidate, as determined by the Censores based date of birth, shall be prevail.
D. Tie Breaker #4: In the highly unlikely event that the candidates have the same length of citizenship, same number of Century Points and the same date of birth then the tie shall be resolved by the Censores using a random lot to determine the winner. In this final method to break a tie, a random lot will be drawn until the tie is resolved and a clear winner is determined. The Censores of Nova Roma shall determine which types of random lots are appropriate for use in tie breaking. The casting of a random lot must be witnessed by at least three Senators and one Pontifex. Neither of the Censores may act as witnesses. The casting of random lot may be conducted and witnessed online using appropriate video conferencing technology.

VII. Certification of the Vote

A. The Censores have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the voting in the Comitia at any time during the voting period and up to 24 hours after the presiding magistrate has announced the close of the voting period.
B. If the Censores need additional time, one or both Censores may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not.
C. The Censores formally certify the election by sending a written notification to the presiding magistrate that they, “Approve and certify the Comitia results.”
D. If the Censores fail to approve and certify the Comitia results:
1. The Censores are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate.
2. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation.
a) If the Senate decides to override the decision of the Censores, the Censores can either (1) certify the election or (2) refuse to sign. If the Censores choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censores.
b) If the Senate determines that the Censores issues are valid and agree with the Censores the results of the Comitia are null and void.
3. The presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.
E. If the Censores fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censores are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXXII: Lex Cornelia de punctis censualibus

Introduction:

Nova Roma’s primary means of compensating its citizens for service and citizenship has been through the utilization of Census Points (hereinafter referred to as CPs). The accumulation of CPs must be carefully monitored to insure that all citizens receive neither more nor less than the appropriate credit for their service. There are also areas in Nova Roma life that have been ignored and hopefully this comprehensive law will address some of those areas.

In accordance with Section II. E. 2 of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Cornelia de Punctis Censualibus is hereby enacted.


I.

With the passage of this law all previous conflicting legislation is hereby repealed. This includes but is not limited to: Lex Vedia Centuriata (http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Vedia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma) ) and the Lex Fabia Centuriata: http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Fabia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma)



II.

Points will be awarded for all relevant events in each citizen’s record based on the values established in this Lex. For elected positions, citizens are awarded points for each term served. For example, if one was Consul three times then that individual earns three times the CPs – reflecting each term served.



III.

It is the responsibility of each citizen to review their CPs details and ensure that all of their previous service is represented. The Censors, strive to be as accurate as they can be, but it is only with the active cooperation and involvement of citizens that we can ensure the records are as close to perfection as possible. Upon the enactment of this lex, all CPs accumulated so far will be totaled and carried over into the new census points as a direct conversion. There will be no conversion and/or recalculation of century points to census points.


A. Magistrates:

Censor: 30 CP

Consul: 30 CP

Praetor: 25 CP

Tribune of the Plebs: 25 CP

Curule Aedile: 20 CP

Plebian Aedile: 20 CP

Quaestor: 15 CP

Dictator: 30 CP

Interrex: 10 CP

Magistrates Appointed by the Senate (Diribitors, Magister Aranearius, Editor Commentariorum, etc): 7 CP


B. Apparitores: Citizens may hold more than one position in a magistrate’s staff but only get awarded points for one position within that staff. A citizen may not receive census points for more than three such simultaneously-held positions.

Apparitor: 5 pts


C. Provincial Positions: Citizens may hold more than one position within a province – but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. If individuals are governor of more than 1 province they only get points awarded for one province as they are stake-holders for the Senate.

Governor 25 CP

Apparitor: 5 pts

Provincial Sacerdos/Priest: 5 CP


D. Sacerdotes: Citizens may hold more than one position listed in this subparagraph but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. Citizens who serve Nova Roma in one of the positions listed below but also serve in a provincial sacerdos role may receive the points for Provincial Sacerdos/Priest as stated in subparagraph C above in addition to the points awarded for service in a position listed in this subparagraph.


Rex Sacrorum 20

Regina Sacrorum 20

Flamen Maior 20

Pontifex Maximus 20

Pontifex 20

Flamen Minor 15

Augur 15

Vestal 15

Other Sacerdos/Priest 5

For Provincial Sacerdotes see sub-paragraph C above.


E. Other Positions:

Senator: 20 CP

Pater Patriae: 10 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator)

Princeps Senatus: 15 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator – Consistent to the previously adopted Senatus Consulta)

The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.


F. Sodalitates (officially sanctioned sodalitates only): Citizens may hold more than one sodalitas position, but get points for the highest one only. The positions and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each Head. A report must be filed to the Censores to determine the validity of issuing CPs ensuring that the charter approved by the Senate is being properly maintained and elections are held in timely manner. It is the responsibility of the Head of the Sodalitas to provide this information.


Head of a Sodalitas 10 CP

Person of High Authority: 6 CP

Person of Minor Authority: 3 CP

Member of Sodalitas: 1 CP


G. Orders, Citizenship and Candidates:

The Orders:

Patrician: 10 pts

Plebeian: 7 pts

Ordo Equester - 10 CP

Length of citizenship:

Less than 6 months: 5 CP

Between 6 and 12 months: 10 CP

Between 1 year and 5 years: 20 CP

Between 5 years and 10 years: 40 CP

Between 10 years and 20 years: 75 CP

The disbursement of points are not added together. If one has been a member of NR for 13 years they only get 75 CPs because of the bracket that they are in.

Unsuccessfully run for office: 2 CP (Maximum of 1 award per calendar year)


H. Public Events: In an effort to recognize the time, effort, costs of putting on public events the following is stipulated: A public event is one that is identified as a gathering of more than 4 citizens (minors not counted) for the purposes of facilitating an event in which Nova Roma plays an important part this includes but not limited to: Religious rituals occurring, discussion of Nova Roma events, Legionnaire reenactments, dining and camaraderie. After Action reports (hereinafter referred to as AAR) are required to be posted at the public fora as well as a copy is to be given to the Censors. In the AAR, there needs to be the following: The organizer of the event, participants, overview of the event. Some photographic evidence and/or video documentation is to be provided to ensure that those who participated are awarded the points. Each year a citizen may earn points in this category for no more than 3 events.

Organizer of the Event: 5 CP

Participant: 2 CP


I. Reenactors – Of Officially Sponsored Legions.

Liaison between Sponsored Legion and Nova Roma: 3 CPs

Member of Sponsored Legion: 1 CP



IV.

It is now also official policy in Nova Roma that we recognize the need to raise additional revenue. In order to accomplish this Nova Roma establishes the ability of citizens to purchase their way to increase the power of the Vote. Citizens who pay the established fee, which will be confirmed by the CFO of Nova Roma will be able to move up a class of centuries to the next class level. In other words, if a citizen is currently in a Class V level of centuries by paying the fee they will move to the 4th class. This is available to all the classes except for citizens already enrolled in the 1st and 2nd classes. This fee is a yearly recurring fee.

A. The fee for the remainder of the year for 2013 will be $10.00 US

B. The fee for the full year for 2014 will be: $30.00 US

C. The fee for every year after that will be set by the Senate via Senatus Consultum.

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CXXXIII: Lex Cornelia de cursu honorum

As a means of consolidating the laws regarding the eligibility of individuals to serve in magisterial positions (Section IV of the Constitution), this law seeks to make it easier for citizens to know the requirements to run and hold office as well as aid magistrates in cross checking the eligibility of candidates who wish to run for office.

This lex repeals the following:

I

1. To run for and assume the office of Censor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor or Consul for at least 6 months OR held the position of Senator of Nova Roma for a year.

2. To run for and assume the office of Consul one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor, or Tribune of the Plebs for at least 6 months; or have served as a Provincial Governor for at least 3 years; or Senator for a year.

3. To run for and assume the office of Praetor (NOT Provincial Praetor) one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or Senator for 6 months.

3a. To be appointed Provincial Governor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or a Senator for 6 months. An applicant may substitute service in an apparitor position for at least one year for the previous requirements.

EXEMPTION: In the case of this position only, the senate may waive the previously held exemption if and only if no other candidate steps forward to serve as Governor/Provincial Praetor of a province.

4. To run for and assume the office of Curule Aedile one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 25 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Plebeian Aedile, Provincial Governor, Quaestor or a Senator for at least 6 months.

5. To run for and assume the office of Quaestor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 21 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least a year.
  • Must have previously have held the position of an Apparitor for at least 6 months of service.

6. To be appointed as an election official, minor magistrate, or Apparitor of Nova Roma as defined by IV.A.8 or IV.A.9 of the Constitution of Nova Roma one must meet all of these requirements *:

  • Must be at least 18 years of age.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must be a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 6 months.

* Serving in the positions that fall under the umbrella that are classified under item 6 are generally described to be our entry level positions within Nova Roma and we encourage any and all citizens to being their process of learning about Nova Roma and volunteering their time in one of the many apparitore positions that are available both within one’s province and within the positions that serve Nova Roma in its entirety (consul, censor, praetor.).

II

Age Exemption Procedure

An age Exemption can be granted to a person by the approval of both Censors and receiving an age dispensation via Senatus Consultum from the Senate of Nova Roma via 2/3s approval of the Senate of Nova Roma

Citizens who wish to run for office must present the Consuls with their petition for exemption to the age restriction.

In the case of the annual December magisterial elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls no later than the 15th of October.

In the case of mid-year elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls as soon as possible, but the presentation of such petitions shall not be regarded as sufficient reason to postpone replacement elections more than thirty days as required by the Constitution, and the right of underage cives to run for office shall not override the Constitutional requirement to fill vacant magistracies in a timely manner.

The petition will include the following information: a. Full Roman name b. Length of Citizenship c. Prior experience within Nova Roma d. The office for which the applicant intends to run

The Consuls shall present the petition to the Senate for a vote in such manner as to allow due consideration of the petition.

III

There shall be no exemption for citizens who are not in the Assiduus/Assidua status or any other magisterial requirement unless directly specified in this lex.

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CXXXIV: Lex Cornelia de apparitoribus

Introduction:

In order to prevent abuse of the Century/Census Point (hereinafter referred to as CPs) system, to protect the electoral integrity of the Comitia Centuriata and promote the proper exercise of the voice of the People of Nova Roma, to insure that only an appropriate number of apparitores be appointed by magistrates, to discourage duplicative and inefficient bureaucracy, and to treat CPs as bona fide compensation for services rendered, this lex places reasonable limits on the number of apparitores, including scribae and accensi, that may be appointed.

DEFINITION: Apparitores (Attendants). Collectively, the apparitores shall not be considered magistrates but rather shall be appointed into various decuriae (corporations/cohors/Staffs) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia. They shall include lictores, lictores curiati, scribae and accensi. (Taken from the Constitution of Nova Roma IV.A.9)

Pursuant to Section IV. A. 9. Upon passage of this lex it is the policy of Nova Roma to impose limits on magistrates who employ apparitores, to keep the amount of apparitores consistent with the size of the organization.

I.

Apparitores perform important functions in Nova Roma. This lex recommends that all citizens, especially new citizens, gain necessary experience concerning the inner workings of Nova Roma. It is equally important that individuals who volunteer their time and effort in Nova Roma are best utilized for the organization; creating bureaucratic nepotism is highly discouraged.

II.

This lex limits the number of apparitores that magistrates may utilize in the scope of their duties:

a. Each Censor: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

b. Each Consul: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

c. Each Praetor/Governors: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

d. Each Curule Aedile: May employ a total of 12 individuals who will earn CPs.

e. Each Plebian Aedile May employ a total of 4 individuals who will earn CPs.

f. Each Tribune of the Plebs: May employ a total of 2 individuals who will earn CPs


III.

It is the policy of Nova Roma that magistrates who are elected and are bound by their oath of office should do the preponderance of their work and not delegate all or most of their tasks to subordinates and assistants (who are not bound by the Oath of office).

IV.

If Magistrates choose to exceed the number of Apparitores in excess of section II of this lex those apparitories in excess will not receive payment for services in the form of CPs. This will be determined by Section V of this lex.

V.

Magistrates must disclose in the form of an appropriately published edict, the names of those apparitor who will receive CPs by June 1st. If the Magistrate is a suffectus magistrate that magistrate must disclose, in the form of an appropriately published edict the names of those apparitories who will receive CPs within 60 days of assuming office.

VI.

If a magistrate does not publish the edict no apparitor will receive CPs for that position. They will, for all intent and purposes have volunteered their time and effort for no payment. This is also applicable for those apparitores who continue service for a magistrate and do not receive CPs.

VII.

A Citizen may serve in as many apparitor positions to as many magistrates as he or she wishes; however, the citizen will receive CPs for service in no more than 3 cohortes (staff) during 1 (one) calendar year.

VIII.

When Nova Roma reaches an Assidui tax base of more than 300 Assidui citizens the presiding magistrate may petition the senate of Nova Roma to adjust the staff sizes of magistrates. The Senate may at that time raise the staff members of individual magistrates or the entire spectrum based on their discretion. However, the Senate must take into consideration the overall number of tax paying citizens as their primary factor.

IX.

If a Magistrate is serving without a colleague that magistrate is entitled to employ double the legal staff limit specified in Section II of this lex. However, if a suffectus magistrate is elected, appointed or assumes the position the Magistrate must reduce his staff within 30 days or publish an edict confirming which apparitores will be given compensation of CPs.

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CXXXVI: Lex Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua Latina corrigenda

Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: With the approval of the present lex the Arminia de fovenda lingua latina reads as follows:


This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

4. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

5. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies.

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CXXXVII: Lex Pompeia de cursu honorum

Resolved, in order to establish the minimum eligibility requirements to serve in those offices specified in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution that are elected by the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:

I. Tribunus Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Tribunus Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 25 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least 18 months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Tribunus Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Tribunus Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in I.A-I.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as a Tribunus Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified I.A, I.B, I.C or I.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for I.A, I.B, I.C and I.D but fails to meet I.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


II. Aedilis Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Aedilis Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 18 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least six months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Aedilis Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Aedilis Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in II.A-II.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as an Aedilis Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified II.A, II.B, II.C or II.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for II.A, II.B, II.C and II.D but fails to meet II.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


III. Plebeian status

If at any time during his or her candidacy for the office of Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis a candidate is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order the presiding magistrate of the Comitia Plebis Tributa must immediately terminate such candidacy. Similarly, if a Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis who is serving in office is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order during his or her term of office then he or she shall be required to step down immediately and the Censores shall ensure an appropriate entry is made in the citizen’s official record. Any other Tribunus Plebis serving in office at the time of such a resignation may call for suffectus candidates and summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa to conduct an election to fill the vacancy left by the departing tribune or aedile.

IV. Implementation

This law shall go into effect immediately upon approval by a simple majority of the tribes voting in the Comitia Plebis Tributa. However, any citizen holding one of the aforementioned positions at the time of the passage of this law or listed as an official candidate in a election for one of the aforementioned positions at the time this law goes into force shall be exempt from the eligibility requirements stated in paragraphs I and II for the remainder of his or her term. All candidates and all elected Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis, regardless of when their candidacy or term of office started, must maintain plebeian status as stated in paragraph III as there shall be no relief, remedy, exemption or grandfathering for the provisions of paragraph III of this law.

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CXXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de classibus et ordine equestri

Introduction: The purpose of this lex is to bring Nova Roma closer to the ancients by implementing and bringing to life an important segment of the ancient Roman community, The Ordo Equester. This will spell out clearly, transparently the requirements and privliedges of being a member of this esteemed order. In creating this segment of society into Nova Roma it also requires some readjusting of the Comitia Centuriata in accomplishing this every aspect of each citizen’s alignment within the Comitia is transparently laid out from the Census points each citizen earns, to their Class membership and the actual evolution of centuries as Nova Roma’s tax base increases.

I. The lex Octavia altera de comitiis centuratis is hereby repealed.

II. The preconditions for admittance to the Ordo are:

a. That the person be an Assiduus classified citizen of Nova Roma

b. Admission to the Ordo Equester is voluntary and occurs only if the citizen accepts the honor.

c. That the citizen applying must have:

i. A total of at least 220 census points, in which case membership is permanent subject to the citizen maintaining a balance of census points that totals at least 220. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

ii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for business contributions for Ordo membership by any citizen operating a business within Nova Roma, or legally utilising any assets of Nova Roma. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for donative contributions for Ordo membership. Membership is permanent and no further donative contribution shall be required for the citizen to maintain membership of the Ordo. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iv. Be chosen by one censor for outstanding service to Nova Roma. A Censor may only choose one citizen during his/her two year term as censor. Membership of the Ordo through this means shall not result in advance for the citizen in the centuries and/or classes, though advancement may occur by accruing more census points through the normal public service criteria. A Suffect Censor can not choose any citizen. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

III. The requirements for continued membership in the Ordo Equester are:

a. For those citizens admitted under I.b.i permanent, but subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

b. For those citizens admitted under I.b.ii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the business contribution amount for the year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the business contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further business contributions shall be required. A person operating a business within Nova Roma is not eligible to apply for membership of the ordo by virtue of donative contributions as at II.c below.

c. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the donative contribution amount for that year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the donative contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further donative contributions shall be required.

d. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iv permanent, subject to that citizen not resigning or being banished and also subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

IV. The process for admittance to the Ordo:

a. Is automatic for I.b.i and not requiring Censorial approval, collegiate or otherwise.

b. Is subject to the Censors acting in a collegiate manner to admit a citizen for I.b.ii to I.b.iv inclusive.

c. Does not require any public reason to be published to support the decision to admit a person.

d. Requires that the Censors set the amount of census points for the citizens initially admitted under I.b.ii to I.b.iii inclusive at 220 should they be less than 220.

V. The process for rejection of an application to be admitted to the Ordo does not require the Censors to publish a reason for rejection, nor for the censors to provide the person applying with the reasons for rejection. The Censors shall however inform a citizen whose application has been rejected of the fact of rejection, but there is no requirement placed upon the Censors to supply that citizen with the reasons for rejection.

VI. The number of centuries shall be determined based on the number of Assidui citizens in Nova Roma. The Comitia Centuriata will have 31 Centuries that will be divided into 5 classes. The addition of new centuries to the Comitia Centuriata will be structured to coincide to benchmarks of Assidui citizens.

a. 300 and fewer Assidui citizens will result in 31 Centuries

b. 301-600 Assidui citizens will result in 61 Centuries

c. 601 -1200 Assidui Citizens will result in 91 Centuries

d. 1201-1800 Assidui Citizens will result in 121 Centuries

e. 1801-2400 Assidui Citizens will result in 151 Centuries

f. 2401 and above Assidui Citizens will result in 193 Centuries.

VII. The Censores may no longer alter the makeup of the centuries by class. The Censores are tasked to ensure that each class is properly filled with the appropriate citizens in compliance to existing legislation. If there are centuries assigned to classes that do not have the citizens to fill those centuries then the Censores cannot fill those centuries.

a. The Number of Census points will determine what class citizens are allocated in the Comitia Centuriata.

i. If Citizens hold 220 or more Census Points and have accepted enrollment into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to that Class and appropriate Century.

ii. If Citizens hold between 140-219 Census points OR have not accepted membership into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to the First Class of Centuries.

iii. If Citizens census points fall within the 100 – 139 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Second class.

iv. If Citizens census points fall within the 50-99 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Third class.

v. If Citizens census points fall within the 35-49 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fourth class.

vi. If Citizens census points fall within 17-34 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fifth class.

vii. If Citizens census points do not meet the minimum threshold of 16 Census points they will be allocated to the Capite Censi Century.

VIII. The relative sizes of each class shall be set as follows:

a. Class I: 49% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century in this class shall be composed of all those members of the Ordo Equester who have accepted membership into the Ordo Equester. This will be referred to as Century 1.

ii. The Century set aside for the members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 2 Centuries when Nova Roma reaches 91 Centuries as defined under section VI.C. These two centuries will be designated as Century 1 and Century 2.

iii. The Centuries set aside for members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 3 Centuries when Nova Roma achieves the full complement of 193 centuries as described under VI.f. These 3 centuries will be designated as Century 1, Century 2 and Century 3.

b. Class II: 10% of the total number of Centuries

c. Class III: 10% of the total number of Centuries

d. Class IV: 10% of the total number of Centuries

e. Class V: 15% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century within class V is reserved for the Capite Censi Only.

f. Within each class, the number of citizens is to be spread as equitable as possible. With the exception of those individual centuries that have extra requirements (Section VIII,a,i and Section VIII,e,i). The Censors are instructed to ensure each class is properly and equitable represented.

IX. Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXXXIX: Lex Cornelia poenalis

Introduction: Nova Roma must have a method to administer and adjudicate conflicts between citizens. This has been an area of ongoing concern since Nova Roma was created. The most recent attempt, the Leges Salicia, have not been successful. There are multiple problems with the Leges Salicia. The recent unpleasantness with the trials that Nova Roma have gone through have proven beyond a doubt that Nova Roma needed to rethink how we balance the need for conflict resolution while taking steps to ensure the protection of the Organization. This law achieves that balance.

I. The lex Salicia iudiciaria and the lex Salicia poenalis are repealed.

II. Any attempt to introduce or change the current judicial system or administratively alter the procedures within and for Nova Roma, other than those processes outlined in this lex, shall be illegal.

III. The judicial system of Nova Roma shall be based solely on the Code of Conduct as defined in this lex.

IV. Only the praetors, consuls, censors and Senate shall enforce and administer the Code of Conduct.

V. The Code of Conduct shall be applicable and have legal force within:

a. All official fora under the control of the praetors

b. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Senate

c. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the provincial governors.

d. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of official Nova Roman sodalities, as defined by the Senate.

e. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Collegium Pontificum or the Collegium Augurum as defined by the collegium concerned and such definition being ratified by the Senate.

f. Official Nova Roman in-person meetings, authorised and/or sponsored by a magistrate of Nova Roma, the Senate, the Collegium Pontificum, the Collegium Augurum or a provincial magistrate.

VI. The Code of Conduct shall be as follows:

a. A person who advocates or otherwise promotes or publicises a prohibited course of action in any area as defined at section V above, or commits an act in support of such a course of action, whether such act is successful in its execution or not, shall be deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

b. The following are courses of action that are, for the purposes of section II.B.4 of the Nova Roman Constitution, deemed to represent and imminent and clear danger to the Republic and are thus prohibited for the purposes of section VI.a above together with the relevant penalty schedule (as defined below) that shall apply :

i. The overthrow and/or replacement of a magistrate(s), official (elected or appointed) and/or Senate of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule I)

ii. Threats of violence, intimidation or harm to person(s) or threats to damage property (schedule I)

iii. The theft of, or destruction or damage to corporate assets (schedule I)

iv. The provision of data or information from any Nova Roman record or database to an unauthorised person or organization. Exceptions are for the purpose of complying with a legal demand by macronational authorities, and in order to protect and/or preserve the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. (schedule I)

v. The dissolution of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vi. The removal of the religio publica as the official religion of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vii. The surrender or sabotage of the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

viii. Public displays of hatred towards any person, or group of persons, based on colour, race, religion, ethnic origin, gender or sexual orientation (schedule III)

ix. Extolling the benefits and/or values of an organization deemed by the Senate to be a competing organization (schedule III)

x. Resigning from any magistracy or office at a time critical to the security and/or well-being of Nova Roma, where such resignation would likely pose an imminent and clear danger to the continued survival, or orderly functioning of, Nova Roma, and where no other magistrate or official of equal or greater authority currently holds office, or where such other magistrate or official is unavailable (schedule IV)

xi. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication during a comitia summons, with the intended result of disrupting and/or terminating any vote within that comitia that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule IV)

xii. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication that violates the Terms of Service (ToS) of any communication venue owned by a third party service or company, and which Nova Roma utilizes, thereby imperilling, impeding or preventing Nova Roma’s right to use that communication venue. (schedule IV)

c. Any citizen of Nova Roma may present a praetor with a complaint alleging a breach of the Code of Conduct. Upon receipt of such information the praetor must within 7 calendar days of such receipt review the evidence presented as well as any other evidence which the praetor subsequently discovers upon investigation of the allegation. If the praetor upon review of such evidence concludes there is no breach of the Code of Conduct no further action shall be taken. If the praetor considers that there is reasonable suspicion that a breach of the Code of Conduct has occurred, then:

i. The praetor must then contact the person at section VI.a and request an explanation for the alleged breach of the Code of Conduct and require an answer within 14 calendar days.

ii. Should no answer be received by the praetor within 14 calendar days then the person at section VI.a shall be automatically deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

iii. Should an answer be received within 14 calendar days the praetor shall review it and determine if:

1. A response can be made from the individual accused and/or by a representative on behalf of the accused.

2. There is no clear and convincing evidence of the accused having violated the Code of Conduct. If that is the case, no further action shall be taken.

3. There is evidence a breach has occurred but mitigating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such then the praetor has the discretionary power to issue a warning and not impose a penalty, or should the praetor not wish to exercise that discretion a level (a) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed. Should a person who has been warned previously commit further similar or greater, as defined by the praetor, breaches of the Code of Conduct then this discretionary power shall not be exercised and a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed.

4. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and no aggravating circumstances. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (b) penalty under the relevant schedule.

5. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and aggravating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule.

6. If If there is a guilty decision on any item covered under section v.b.i – v.b.xiii, then the praetor shall transfer authority over the matter to the princeps senatus, who shall issue a call to convene the Senate into a formal meeting of the Senate in session, as defined by the SENATUS CONSULTUM DE RATIONE SENATUS MMDCCLXV. The princeps senatus shall present the Senate with such evidence and the matter shall be debated by the Senate. The princeps senatus shall present a draft senatus consultum to the Senate that asks it to decide whether the alleged breach has occurred and to approve the sentencing of the infraction according to the schedule listed in this lex.

a. The princeps senatus shall have the administrative discretion to judicially review the administrative process conducted by the Praetor, can conduct necessary discovery, and recommend alternative sentences. The only limitation is that the princeps senatus cannot impose any sentence in excess of the schedule listed in this lex.

7. In assessment of evidence, or mitigating circumstances or aggravating circumstances, the praetor shall determine those by use of his/her own judgement.

8. If any punishment is so warranted by any empowered magistrate or empowered individual covered in section iii before said punishment may be applied it must be reviewed by the Senate of Nova Roma. If the Senate of Nova Roma does not approve by consent of the voting members of the senate (simple majority of all senators present) then the punishment is voided and not applied. Only after the consent of the Senate may any punishment be applied.

iv. The following define Schedule I to Schedule IV penalties:

1. Schedule I (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 10 years to 19 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 5 years from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 20 years to 29 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 7 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 30 years to 99 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: perpetual loss of the right to stand for any public office.

2. Schedule II (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 4 years to 5 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 1 year from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 6 years to 7 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 2 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 8 years to 9 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 4 years from the date of return.

3. Schedule III (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 1 year.

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 2 years.

c. Aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 3 years.

4. Schedule IV (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 6 months to 1 year

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 1 year to 5 years

c. Aggravating circumstances:  : Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma for 5 year to 10 years

v. Where a range of years in the form of a penalty exists, the praetor shall, at his or her own discretion, choose the exact amount of years from within that range, excluding section VI.c.III.5 where the vote of the Senate imposes the penalty and level.

vi. The right of appeal upon imposition of a penalty under this lex shall be defined as the exercise of the right of provocatio, as per section II.B.5 of the Nova Roman Constitution.

vii. The mechanism for imposing the penalty shall be by means of a praetorial edict issued by the presiding praetor. The censors must upon publication of the praetorial edict record the details of the penalty in the Album civium entry for the person at VI.a.

d. The praetor shall use his/her own judgement in determining the facts of a matter, and/or evaluating evidence in respect of that matter, concerning an alleged breach of the Code of Conduct. This also applies to the Senate with regard to judicial review of any guilty verdict.

e. In cases where there is a difference between the decision of the Praetor and a decision reached by the Senate of Nova Roma the decision by the Senate of Nova Roma is the decision of final resort.

f. There shall be a limitation on the period of time for each breach during which the actions described in this lex can be utilized and after that time no action shall be taken, dated from the time and date offense or action. The limitations according to the associated schedule number for the breach concerned are:

i. Schedule I: 10 years

ii. Schedule II 5 years

iii. Schedule III: 3 years

iv. Schedule IV: 1 year

VII. Rights of all citizens under this lex.

a. Citizens have the right to know who their accuser is.

b. Citizens have a right to a defense and may seek representation. Citizens also have a right to know the accusations and evidence presented against them.

c. Any punishment determined by the praetor is suspended and shall not take effect until the Senate ratifies that punishment by vote.

VIII Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXL: Lex Cornelia de civitate eiuranda

I. For the purpose of section V of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda, the “prevailing legal procedures” shall be defined as those procedures contained within a Senatus consultum, which at the time of the enactment of this lex is the “Senatus consultum on the reapplication process for citizenship”, passed 2765 A.U.C. A senatus consultum issued after the enactment of this lex may amend, or enhance, the “prevailing legal procedures”.

II. Section II.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Citizenship from Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished by either:

1. Notification of the Censors. Submission to the Censors by the citizen intending to resign of an intention to resign citizenship should be made in writing with the intention clearly stated, and may be transmitted in writing via any available means.

2. A statement of intent to resign citizenship made in writing by the citizen intending to resign in a public communications forum, list, board or venue, electronic or otherwise, whether that forum is owned or controlled by Nova Roma or not, to which the censors or another magistrate (as described in section IV.A or section IV.B of the Nova Roman Constitution) or a provincial governor of Nova Roma has access. Such intent may also be made by email to a magistrate or provincial governor. The magistrate or governor shall forward verbatim the text of the resignation and provide any electronic hyperlink to such a statement or a forwarded copy of the email concerned. The censors shall exercise collegiate judgment in whether to accept any such communication at section II.A.2 as intent to resign citizenship.”

III. Section IV.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“A Citizen whose citizenship is temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu is known as an exsilius. A Citizen who voluntarily relinquishes citizenship by submitting a resignation from Nova Roma may also be treated as a exsilius for the purposes of this lex. Under the lex Fabia de Censu, a Citizen becomes a excensus after failing to register with one census. Any excensus or former Citizen in a excensus status who fails to register with a census or who fails to otherwise reestablish citizenship may, at the discretion of the Censors, have his or her status terminated, and thus be removed from the censorial Album Civium.”

IV. Section IV of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a subsection C to read:

“A citizen subject to banishment imposed under the terms of any lex shall not be treated as exsilius and upon imposition of the banishment shall be treated as a former citizen, devoid of any and all legal rights within Nova Roma.”

V. Section VI.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“When a former Citizen applies for reinstatement of citizenship, a waiting period of ninety (90) days must precede the reestablishment of citizenship. A former Citizen whose citizenship was removed by the process of banishment is not entitled to a restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including census points). In the case of any other Citizen who was exsilius or excensus the restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (excluding census points) shall be at the discretion of, the censors acting in a collegiate manner. The restoration of census points for a person who was exsilius or excensus shall be determined by the process in section XXXX of this lex.”

VI. Section VI.C of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Any census points that are due under the terms of this lex to a returning Citizen must be restored at the time that citizenship is legally re-established by the censors.”

VII. Section VIII.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“All rights and privileges of citizenship are restored to a Citizen at the time his or her citizenship is re-established, subject to any legal prohibitions, cancellations, or any other such restriction, that may exist at the time of re-establishment of citizenship.”

VIII. The Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a section IX. ((Census Point loss)) which shall have the following sub-sections:

“A. Voluntary resignations shall be classified as follows:

1. Personal: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation of a non-Nova Roman nature

2. NR dispute: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation where a conflict, conducted in public or private, has occurred over matters that relate to Nova Roman matters, between the Citizen resigning Citizenship and another Citizen(s), or a former Citizen(s) or another person(s)

3. No reason: No reason is provided in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately

4. No warning: The Citizen resigning, while holding office, whether elected or appointed, gave no prior notice of an intent to resign, thus preventing alternative solutions to resignation being discussed

5. 2nd resignation: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship twice.

6. 3rd plus resignations: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship three or more times.

B. A Citizen who has voluntarily resigned shall be classed as either “citizen” (not holding elected or appointed office at the time of resignation), “minor official” (holding an office at the time of resignation, whether that office was elected or by appointment, that was not censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor) or “major official” (held office at the time of resignation as censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor).

C. Upon restoration of Citizenship, except in cases where the returning Citizen is returning from a period of legal banishment that has now expired, the amount of Citizen Points (CP) that must be returned to the Citizen is based on the table below “at VIII.D”, Where the amount of loss is listed as a percentage, that percentage must be deducted from the CP held by the Citizen at the time of his/her resignation, or the fixed amount of actual CP that must be deducted. After calculation of a percentage loss, the result of CP if less than a whole number shall be rounded down. If after deduction of a fixed amount of CP this results in a negative number, that shall be recorded in the Citizen’s Album Civium. The censors shall administer the application of the CP deductions in the table below.

D. Census Point loss table

Personal NR Dispute No reason No warning 2nd resignation 3rd resignation
Citizen 20% loss 35% loss 50% loss N/A 100% loss Set CP to -100
Minor official 30% loss 60% loss 80% loss +20% loss 2x % loss Set CP to -250
Major official 50% loss 80% loss 100% loss 2x % loss 3x % loss Set CP to -500

Notes:

1) 2nd resignation of a person deemed at the time of resignation does not require that he/she was also an official on 1st resignation. 2) Results of CP loss may place the resigned citizen in negative balance, which he/she will have to work off balance before CP can be earned. 3) Tax rates will be addressed through Senatus consultum (tax is the prerogative of the Senate) but persons who have resigned and returned will be required to pay the Nova Roman tax for the class they were in prior to CP loss.

4) CP loss will be calculated at the time of resignation, not upon returning, and amount of loss noted on citizen's Album page together with the class and century they were in at time of resignation.

5) The table is read left to right, so the censors shall first determine which applies; Personal, NR dispute or No reason. Then they shall determine if warning was not given and apply the enhanced penalties indicated, and finally evaluate if the citizen has resigned two, or three (or more) times and apply those penalty enhancers.

6) +20% means that this 20% is added to either, 30%, 60% or 80% depending on which applies to the Citizen.

7) 2x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of two; 3x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of three.


Note from Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: The present lex changes several points of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda

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CXLII: Lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda

Preamble

Whereas the Senate and People of Nova Roma and the Republic of the Nova Roman People has been dragged into crisis and turmoil by Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix and their faction,

and whereas the faction that caused this chaos by a meditated coup and still controls the infrastructure of Nova Roma, refuses to return these assets of Nova Roma to the Nova Roman people,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix instilled fear in the citizenry by the expulsion of the elected magistrates and the tribunes of the plebs for life, by the oppression of the citizens’ rights and free speech, by destroying the citizenship and Nova Roman identity of citizens who expressed disagreement with their tyrannical actions, and thus they made free speech dangerous, and honest public discussion in the official forum of Nova Roma controlled by the coup-makers impossible,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, who maintain control of the voting tools of Nova Roma, withhold the election of new magistrates, causing Nova Roma to be without official government,

we, the citizens of Nova Roma assembled for the purpose of saving Nova Roma from this crisis, do hereby resolve to restore Nova Roma to proper function under proper political process, and to organize our Roman community life until the res publica is restored to said function; to which end we do take affirmative and restorative action by proclaiming the following unofficial and non-corporate private citizens’ initiative in the form of a lex, to be enacted as temporary measures, not to be held as binding under the corporate constitution of Nova Roma or the regulations of the State of Maine:


I. The election of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

I.A. In order to provide a temporary substitution during the forced absence of a fully functioning Nova Roman government, the corporate management and state magistracies, with respect to the extraordinary circumstances when the People of Nova Roma is not in possession of the infrastructure of Nova Roma, and in order to provide the traditional reckoning of years required by Roman custom, four tribuni militum consulari potestate (an alternative title is “tribuni militares consulari potestate”, the English title is “military tribunes with consular power” or “consular tribunes” for short) shall be elected by a non-corporate session of the comitia centuriata, according to the laws in force that regulate consular elections, with the procedural exceptions granted to the current consules by the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis.
I.B. A candidate to the office of tribunus militum consulari potestate shall be at least 21 years of age and shall have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years. The magistrate presiding at the election may make an exception from under the requirement of length of citizenship, and may accept or refuse all kinds of candidates based on their merits to Nova Roma.


II. The role of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the consules, in that they shall provide the citizenry with guidance in their Nova Roman community life, by serving as a center offering cohesion and coordination to the citizens, their activities and initiatives as long as the individuals in control of the infrastructure and assets of Nova Roma are not filling this role. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the praetores and censores as well, likewise to their ancient Roman counterpart, inasmuch as the circumstances necessitate acting in the capacity of a censor or praetor. In addition, the Nova Roman tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the four aediles as well, unless aediles are elected or other officers entrusted with the aedilician duties.

II.A. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall take care of the same tasks and shall have the same powers and rights that the consules, praetores, censores and aediles would have, excepting such as would require the holding of position as an officer of Nova Roma, Inc.. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall not be considered officers of Nova Roma Inc., or any part of the corporate structure and organization, but shall exist only within the symbolic framework of the res publica, and shall serve as civic representatives of the people that gave a mandate to them; the purpose of the office being to organize community life and the res publica, without having the power to issue any decision of binding force upon the corporation.
II.B. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall represent the law respecting senatores and citizens of Nova Roma; and thus they shall work, as their primary goal, on the restoration of the res publica out of the turmoil.
II.C. Decisions and actions of the tribuni can be made individually, jointly or collegially. Individual decisions or actions are the ones taken by only one tribunus. Sessions of the senate and the comitia can only be called to order and presided individually. Any decision or action of a consular tribune can be vetoed by one or more of his colleagues: the veto procedure and its time frames shall be the same as described by the lex Labiena de intercessione. If some of the tribuni aren’t involved in the making of a decision or action, it shall not be considered to be made collegially, but only a joint decision or action taken by some tribuni and not by the entire college of the tribuni. Collegial decisions and actions require the participation (agreement, disagreement, abstention, with the agreements plus abstentions exceeding the number of disagreements) of all tribuni in the action or decision-making. Unanimous collegial decisions require the agreement or conscious abstention of all tribuni.
II.D. A consular tribune is regarded as involved in an action or decision-making if he was demonstrably informed that he was invited to make a decision or action. If such a consular tribune is unresponsive 72 hours after having been contacted and fully informed, his absence shall be counted as conscious abstention.
II.E. The tribuni shall appoint, by unanimous collegial decision, a praefectus officio tribunicio praetorio who, while not being a tribunus but a subordinate first officer, shall be responsible for the coordination and organization of the administrative work and all activities of the joint office of the college of the consular tribunate.
II.F. The consulship and this consular tribunate shall be considered to be the same magistracy, identical by all intents and purposes: all legal documents of Nova Roma referring to the consulship shall be taken also as a reference to the consular tribunate.


III. Term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

III.A. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall commence on January 1.
III.B. If the crisis is still unresolved as of September 1st, the tribuni shall pass a senatus consultum ultimum with the decision whether the tribunal form of government is to be continued for the next year or the res publica should revert to the consular government. After the decision, a period of interregnum shall follow, for ceremonial and religious reasons, and for the holding of next year’s elections, whether it be for a consular or tribunal government.
III.C. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall end on the day before the Ides of October, in the Sacred 20th Anniversary Year of the Founding of Nova Roma, when they shall transfer the government to a series of Interreges.
III.D. The first interrex shall complete the ritual founding of Nova Roma by reissuing the Declaration of Nova Roma and conducting those proper Latin religious rituals and ceremonies on the Ides of October, day of the October Horse, a most propitious day to ceremonially close the founding years of Nova Roma, that were missing or not perfectly performed at the founding of Nova Roma 20 years ago. This “Completion of the Founding of Nova Roma” Ceremony shall be performed and the ritual prayers and vows worded in a manner that ensure that Nova Roma as the spiritually legitimate heir to the ancient Roman Empire, and as state and nation of Nova Romans is fully acknowledged by the Penates, Lares and Manes of the Roman People, the Gods of Rome. These rituals shall be supervised by at least one pontifex and one augur who are proficient in Latin and highly respected experts of the sacra publica and cultus deorum. The first interrex in the series of interreges shall be the person who has already served as the first ever interrex of Nova Roma, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander. His appointment shall be formally made by a senatus consultum ultimum, enacted no later than the last day of September, and the same senatus consultum ultimum shall define the specific order and sequence of interreges until December 31.
III.E. After the founding rituals are completed, the elections for the next year shall be conducted by the interreges, in a manner described by the senatus consultum ultimum that specifies the order and sequence of the interreges, and the new government shall enter office on the next Kalends of January. If the new government remains to be led by tribuni militum consulari potestate, their term of office, from this year on in each subsequent year, shall be one year from January 1 to December 31.
III.F. The office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall be filled until the declaration of the recognition of the new legal corporate government, whereas the office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate will automatically expire. There shall be an alternative mechanism to disband the entire college of the tribuni militum consulari potestate: if two of the tribuni jointly declare that they step down from office with the intention of dissolving the college of the tribuni by this action, the term of office of the entire college of the tribuni expires immediately.


IV. The election, assignment and function of quaestores

IV.A. Eight non-corporate quaestores shall be elected according to the laws of Nova Roma, by a non-corporate session of the comitia populi tributa, to assist the tribuni militum consulari potestate and all other higher officers in any task assigned to them by the higher officers as described in the laws of Nova Roma. The status of non-corporate quaestores and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the tribuni militum consulari potestate as described under II.A..
IV.B. Each tribunus militum consulari potestate shall assign one individual quaestor to his own government office. Other quaestores may be assigned to other officers by the tribuni.
IV.C. Candidates for the quaestorship shall be at least 21 years of age and there is no other requirement.


V. Other non-corporate magistrates and officers

V.A. Other ordinary magistrates such as the diribitores, magister aranearius, vigintisexviri, aediles, tribuni plebis, praetores and censores may be elected if their election is authorized previously by a senatus consultum. Consules shall not be elected for the next calendar year (MMDCCLXX AUC). Non-corporate apparitores and all types of elected or appointed officers may be elected or appointed by the public institutions or the higher officers normally authorized to do so. The status of all non-corporate magistrates and officers and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..
V.B. If the illegal coup senate or the comitia called to order by the illegal magistrates of the coup faction, or any illegal separatist corporate authority of Nova Roma manages to elect or appoint corporate magistrates, promagistrates, governors or other officers (henceforth “officers”) for Nova Roma, the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall pass a decree of the lawful senate to decide whether to recognize any of the illegal corporate officers as real magistrates, promagistrates, governors or officers of the res publica, except in the case of corporate quaestores and aediles, where recognition is automatic. Such recognized corporate officers shall be considered as (supernumerary) colleagues of the non-corporate officers, but may only be integrated to the lawful government on an individual basis decided by the tribuni militum consulari potestate, with specification as to what powers and rights they are entitled to exercise.
V.B.1. If corporate aediles are elected, and there are non-corporate aediles already in office, the corporate aediles are automatically recognized as junior colleagues to the non-corporate aediles and will be recorded with the title “aediles corporativi”. If there are no non-corporate aediles in office, the recognition of corporate aediles is automatic.
V.B.2. There shall not exist lawfully recognized corporate and non-corporate consules, censores and governors (within an identical province) at the same time. If the lawful senate recognizes the corporate consules, censores or governors, the non-corporate counterparts are immediately dismissed. Such recognition of corporate consules is the valid way of terminating the non-corporate crisis government, as described under III.F.


VI. The non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges

The status of all non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..

VI.A. If the corporate coup senate enacts a senatus consultum, or if the comitia called to order by illegal magistrates of the coup faction enacts a lex, it can be considered lawful and valid within the Free Nova Roma if, and only if, the non-corporate senate approves it as well, however in the case of a lex, by this approval it is automatically reclassified as a senatus consultum ultimum.
VI.B. Since the corporate infrastructure, including all communication channels and the voting tools of Nova Roma are under control of the coup faction, who refuse to defer to lawfully established procedure, disallow any exercise of electoral process and willfully impede the election of magistrates, the tribuni militum consulari potestate are authorized to issue alternative session rules and voting procedures for all comitia (and also for the senate) which shall differ from the procedure described by the laws of Nova Roma only in those points where it is necessitated by the circumstances of the crisis.
VI.C. Presiding magistrates are hereby authorized, if approved by at least one augur, to take auspices for the senate or comitia sessions over which they preside, or to delegate this authorization to a pontifex who shall take the auspices in their name. A magistrate presiding over an election is further authorized, if approved by at least one pontifex, to convene the comitia curiata jointly with the authorizing pontifex to invest the elected magistrates with imperium
VI.D. If a corporate priestly college enacts a decretum, it shall be considered lawful and valid automatically within the Free Nova Roma unless its non-corporate priestly college counterpart invalidates it. The non-corporate priestly colleges consist of those members of the priestly colleges who are loyal citizens of Nova Roma and, if the head of a particular college isn’t loyal to the res publica, the interim president of that college shall be the member with the highest rank, or if it isn’t viable, the member with the greatest length of membership within that college, and he shall be titled as “extraordinary secretary” (ab officiis extraordinariis).


VII. Legal force

This lex is enacted, operating, and to be interpreted under the authority of the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis, and thus has all the force of a senatus consultum ultimum to override temporarily the existing laws of Nova Roma for the benefit of the recovering citizenry. Should any danger to the continued existence of the Free Nova Roma emerge the management of which is not covered by this lex or other laws, the committee of the liberatores are lawfully empowered to defend the freedom of the res publica.


VIII. Subsequent confirmation

This non-corporate lex shall not have any legal meaning or official status either under the laws of the State of Maine or within the context of Nova Roma, Inc. as a corporation chartered in the State of Maine, USA; however, it shall become an official lex of the Nova Roman Republic upon subsequent confirmation by the lawful, legal state and corporate authorities of Nova Roma after order is restored to the Republic. The non-corporate senate shall have the power to declare, by a senatus consultum ultimum, the recognition of the new corporate government as lawful and legal under the laws of the Republic, but such a declaration of recognition can only take force if the corporate government has already confirmed all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions made until the day of the declaration of recognition. This subsequent confirmation by the corporate authorities is obligatory and it is a prerequisite, inasmuch as the validity of the recognition of the corporate government as lawful under the laws of the Republic depends on the corporate government’s full confirmation of all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions without any exception. If such a declaration of recognition by a non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum is made, and if all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions are confirmed by the corporate authorities, all non-corporate institutions and offices immediately merge with the corporate institutions, in a manner described by the same senatus consultum ultimum.

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CXLIII: Lex Aurelia de legionibus

Preamble

Whereas in the Declaration of Nova Roma, the New Roman People renounced, “eternally and without exception”, the use of force in the pursuit of the restoration of the Roman republic, in order to exist “as a lawful, peaceful and benign nation, in accord with the principles acknowledged and shared by the world community”, the Army of the New Roman People (Exercitus Populi Novi Romani) may only exist as a ceremonial honor guard and martial arts corps promoting the history of the Roman army and spreading Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the military reenactment groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated by permanent legislation, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

The entirety of all the military units of Nova Roma is the Exercitus (Reconstructivus/Ritualis) Populi Novi Romani Quiritium (the Reenactment Armed Forces of the New Roman People of the Quirites), and, as a consequence of their imperium, its ceremonial supreme commanders and commanders-in-chief are the consules of the year, its vice-supreme commanders are the praetores, the territorial commanders-in-chief are governors of the provinces, but other, specially appointed commanders may exist, as well.

II.:

The Exercitus Populi Novi Romani Quiritium is composed of independent, autonomous, self-governing reenactment units which all have their own rules of operation, determined by themselves. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the unit, the more support shall be given to the reenactment unit from the organization.

III.

The highest units of the Reenactment Armed Forces of Nova Roma are the autonomous, self-governing military units, three types of which can exist: the Autonomous Reenactment Legio, the Autonomous Reenactment Cohors, and the Autonomous Reenactment Exercitus, which is an independent and self-governing reenactment organization composed of more than one Legiones. Each Autonomous Reenactment Unit in Nova Roma is completely self-governing and operates according to their own rules and practices. The difference between the Autonomous Reenactment Legio and Cohors is in name only, and it is determined only by the reenactors’ intention of what type of ancient Roman unit they want to represent, therefore these all can be colloquially referred to in a simplified form as “legion (Legio, Cohors) or joint legions (Exercitus) of Nova Roma”, but in order to avoid confusion, all three categories will be referred to as “Automonous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma” henceforward if all of them are indicated at the same time.

IV.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma can be established only by an official act of levy of a magistrate or governor with imperium. If a Roman military reenactment group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the levy of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman military reenactment unit. A reenactment group can be declared as a Nova Roman unit only if it requires by rule that all of its soldiers (not including tirones) have to be Nova Roman citizens. The Chief Commanding Officer (CO, simply “commander” hereafter) of the Nova Roman reenactment unit shall be ceremonially appointed by a magistrate or governor with imperium, but the actual method of selecting the commander shall be done according to the internal rules of the unit. The appointment by the Nova Roman authorities is purely a formal and ceremonial action, and the magistrate or governor with imperium must appoint any citizen as commander whom the leadership of the unit requests.

V.

The internal structure of these autonomous units, whether they are composed of more divisions, regiments, battalions, companies or squads (legiones, cohortes, manipuli, centuriae, contubernia), is left to the internal decision of that reenactment unit. Nova Roma will keep direct contact only with the autonomous top unit (which encompasses all subdivisions and represents the totality of the reenactment organization), and the responsible contact person and representative for Nova Roma will be the Chief Commanding Officer of the Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

VI.

The Chief Commanding Officer of an autonomous reenactment unit of Nova Roma must hold the military rank of Tribunus, or the title of Praefectus Cohortis or Praefectus Legionis, which are not military ranks proper, but political military offices. If the commander’s military rank is not Tribunus, he can hold any other military rank (Tesserarius, Optio, Centurio etc…), but he must immediately be promoted to, and must concurrently hold, the political army rank of Praefectus as well. The rank of Praefectus is automatically granted by Nova Roma to a commander of any autonomous Nova Roman reenactment unit, but formally they shall receive their appointment from the governor of the province where the group resides or from the consuls or from other magistrates with imperium, and the appointing governor or magistrate shall be the immediate ceremonial superior of the appointed commander. This appointment is a requirement to the establishment or recognition of a new Nova Roman unit, and each autonomous unit leader is entitled to it. The duty of the autonomous unit commander is to serve as the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit.

VII.

A commander of an autonomous Legio, or a commander of an autonomous Exercitus, composed of more than one legions, shall wear the political rank of Legatus or Legatus Legionis. This rank is not granted automatically, however, but it is granted at the discretion of the Senate or of a governor or magistrate with imperium. The rank of Legatus is not permanent, it is not a military rank proper, but a political office within the military, and it expires after the term of office is over. In case it has expired, the commander can ask for a renewal of his appointment. If he doesn’t get immediately re-appointed, he can still continue as the actual commander of his reenactment group (but now as Praefectus or Tribunus) without any interruption.

VIII.

Besides fully Nova Roman reenactment units, Nova Roma accepts allied military reenactment units as its partner groups. If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be an allied unit of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a military reenactment unit allied to Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as an allied unit of Nova Roma only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its soldiers who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit. There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

IX.

A Roman-era military reenactment organization representing any ancient Roman-era culture or ethnicity can apply for the status of recommended or sponsored military unit of Nova Roma with the title “friend of Nova Roma” (amicus populi Novi Romani). If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be a friend of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a friend of Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as a friend of Nova Roma only if it makes a reference to its friendship with Nova Roma on its main internet location (website or social media page). There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit. A unit that is a friend of Nova Roma shall have the right to have its own page on the Nova Roma website where it can introduce and promote itself, and shall have a limited number of promotional opportunities on the fora or social media pages and groups of Nova Roma.

X.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

X.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

X.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit.

X.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

X.D.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman units or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

X.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the unit must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

XI.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit or any subdivision unit of an autonomous military reenactment organization of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being conscripted as a Nova Roman legion or other unit type:

XI.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall possess, use, respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

XI.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XI.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XI.D.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman reenactment unit shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the unit, and the unit can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

XI.E.

Reenactor soldiers of a military unit of Nova Roma shall swear an oath of loyalty to the Nova Roman Republic in which they pledge to promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor soldiers of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

XII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

XII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma.

XII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

XIII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied unit of Nova Roma:

XIII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma.

XIII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XIII.C.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an allied autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XIII.D.

An allied reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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CXLIV: Lex Aurelia de familiis gladiatoriis et ludis gladiatoriis

Preamble

Nova Roma is committed against any use of real violence with harmful intention, however, the ancient Roman martial arts of the gladiators encompasses, besides the negative aspects of violence, a historical value and a deeper meaning of noble ideas of fate, human virtues, honor, life and death, mythological motives and religious devotion. With the non-violent, playful, educational but serious reconstruction of the ancient Roman gladiatorial games, Nova Roma aims to invoke that nobler spirit and spiritual aspect in the martial arts of the gladiators, and strives to educate about their historical and cultural significance in order to promote the history of the Roman army and to spread Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the gladiatorial groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

A gladiatorial reenactment group is officially termed as a familia gladiatoria or ludus gladiatorius; the designation is chosen at the discretion of the group, but the term “ludus” is recommended for those groups where education of children or training of gladiators is in the focus, while the term familia is recommended for a less school-like, veteran gladiatorial group where training is not in the focus but public performances fill most of the time of the group.

II.

Nova Roma recognizes its own gladiatorial groups and allied gladiatorial groups as an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma or as Allied Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Groups. Each type works as an independent, autonomous, self-governing gladiatorial reenactment group with its own rules of operation, determined by the group. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the gladiatorial group, the more support shall be given to the reenactment group from the organization.

III.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma can be established only by registration at the aedilician office, and the aediles (either central Nova Roman aediles or municipal, township level aediles) will grant this status if the applicant group meets the requirements. If a gladiatorial group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new gladiatorial reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the aediles, who then shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. A gladiatorial group can be declared as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group only if its lanista is a Nova Roman citizen; the position of the lanista is selected and regulated by internal group rules. The gladiators of the group do not necessarily have to be Nova Roman citizens, but when a decision between groups about granting support, favor or privilege is made, the proportion of Nova Roman citizens in the group shall be taken into the weighing of the selection of the group to be favored.

IV.

An Allied Gladiatorial Group can be established by the same registration method as a fully Nova Roman gladiatorial group, and the aediles shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as an allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma. A gladiatorial group can be declared as an allied gladiatorial group only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its members who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the group and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his group.

V.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

V.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

V.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group.

V.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

V.D.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman groups or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

V.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the groups can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the group must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

VI.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being registered as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group:

VI.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall possess, use, respect and honor a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

VI.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VI.C.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman gladiatorial group shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the group, and the group can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

VI.E.

It is ethical requirement from the gladiator reenactors of a gladiatorial group of Nova Roma that they shall promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor gladiators of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

VII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

VII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups.

VII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the group can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

VIII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied group of Nova Roma:

VIII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the flag of Nova Roma.

VIII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VIII.C.

An allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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