Leges Novae Romanae

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This is a consolidated page of all ''leges'' currently '''''In Force''''' for Nova Roma. The pages is a useful means to search efficiently through all the ''leges'' for a particular element or subject of interest.
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'''This is a consolidated page of all ''leges'', both past and present, for Nova Roma. The pages is a useful means to search efficiently through all the ''leges'' for a particular element or subject of interest.'''
  
=CXLIII: Lex Aurelia de legionibus=
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=CXXVI: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum=
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=CXXVII: Lex Cornelia de quaestoribus=
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=CXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de vigintisexviris=
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=CXXIX: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum=
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=CXXXI: Lex Cornelia de lege Labiena abroganda=
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=CXXXIII: Lex Cornelia de cursu honorum=
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=CXXXVI: Lex Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua Latina corrigenda=
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Revision as of 06:30, 12 October 2020

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This is a consolidated page of all leges, both past and present, for Nova Roma. The pages is a useful means to search efficiently through all the leges for a particular element or subject of interest.

CXXVI: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Centuriata. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to function the Comitias under the existing procedures and thusly required the Senate to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Centuriata).

Pursuant to Section III B of the Constitution of Nova Roma, empowers the Comitia to establish procedures and rules for which it is allowed to operate. All previous legislation previously passed is hereby rescinded and repealed.


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

Laws effectively repealed include but are not limited to: Lex Fabia de Ratione Comitorium Centuriatorum and the Lex Curiatia Iulia de ratione comitiorum centuriatorum.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Centuriata

a. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Centuriata (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The Summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata
In the text of the message must include:
  • Candidates, date of citizenship, if they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and The office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and time when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Centuriata is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates up to 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are two vacant offices for office of Praetor – at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward – leaving 1 vacancy. 24 hours after the Contio has started another citizen has stepped forward (and has met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include that individual in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late accepting magistrates does not give the presiding magistrate to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all the necessary constitutionally empowered positions and powers are all available. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each Century in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have to option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolve” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemn” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by centuries.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each century shall be calculated as follows. For each century the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the century. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex, each century shall vote in favor of the lex if a majority of votes received by members of that century are in favor. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Centuriata, each century shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes is received from the members of that century are marked “condemno.” Ties within a century will result in that century voting to acquit. If no one in the century votes, the century is skipped and the election officials move to the next century.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All centuries are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by century.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
a. Each century will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that century. If there is a tie in deciding who won the century, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by breaking the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each century should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per century, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each century that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most centuries, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of a magisterial election, a majority is defined as one the candidate who receives the most centuries per vacancy (not counting those centuries that did not vote).
I. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of centuries casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of centuries casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Century is tied, the century will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A century in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
J. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the centuries must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Centuriata, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of centuries, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
a. Even those centuries in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a Century has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those centuries from consideration during the vote counting process – Only centuries with individuals may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
K. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
L. Only the aggregate voters of the centuries shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual centuries and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined between the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results, (Even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election.) Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censor’s may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and side with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

Learn more ...


CXXVII: Lex Cornelia de quaestoribus

Pursuant to Section IV.A.2.b and c of the constitution of Nova Roma and of IV.A.6 of the Constitution of Nova Roma

Introduction: In recent years Nova Roma has had ongoing vacancy issues specifically regarding the electoral officers, Diribitores and Custodes, Editor Commentariorum and Rogatores positions. This has an adverse affect on the people of Nova Roma being able to express their will because the Comitia's that represent the Peoples’ wishes have not been able to be summoned. This law intends to address the issue by giving expanding Consular authority to assign Quaestors to fill the vacant positions until those positions are filled by election or appointment.

A. The positions and offices under the scope of this lex are: Diribitores (also known as election officers) Rogatores. Custodes. Editor commentariorum


B: In the event of a magisterial or administrative vacancy on any of the positions mentioned in Section A The Consul may assign Quaestors to one of those vacant positions. These vacancies, most importantly, the election officers, are vital to the organization and must be filled even if it means that magistrates who are allowed the use of Quaestors go without.


C. Upon being assigned to an open office, a Quaestor will be listed as holding both the Quaestor position to which he or she was elected and as a Suffect from the position he or she was appointed to on the Nova Roma Magistrates page on the official website. Each Quaestor can only be assigned to one open position described in section A as Suffect at a time but may be assigned to more than one such suffect office in the course of a year provided only one such office is held at any time. Any Quaestor assigned to an open position described in A will earn the full century points for the Quaestor position and half of the Century points for holding a Suffect position he or she was appointed. If a Quaestor is assigned as a Suffect officer in those positions more than once in the course of a year, that Quaestor will receive full Century points for holding the office of Quaestor and half the Century points normally granted for the Suffect office with the highest Century point value that he or she held regardless of the length of time actually holding the office.

C. Election related issues: each Quaestor, upon accepting the position of a Diribitor or a Custos accepts the restrictions of not being able to run for office in the next calendar year. If the Quaestor wishes to be relieved of the position the Quaestor must petition the Consuls with at least 30 (thirty) days notice of the summons of the Comitia (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa or the Comitia Plebis Tributa). The Consul has the discretion to accept or deny the petition with notification given in writing to the Quaestor within seven (7) days of the request.

D. Any changes on any of the positions listed in A will be considered to be reflected in this lex. If a position ceases to be an independent office or ceases to exist then no Consul would be able to assign a Quaestor to that position. In other words, this lex will be valid unless specifically repealed by future legislation.

Learn more ...


CXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de vigintisexviris

Introduction - This lex serves the purpose of refining Nova Roma's offices to better serve the interests of the State. In recent years an insufficient number of qualified candidates stood for election to these positions, leaving them vacant.. This lex addresses the need for a more effective and easier alternative for filling these positions; and to give the Senate more direct oversight especially concerning the filling of the electoral magistracies which conduct, count and oversee the elections of officers in Nova Roma.

This Lex supersedes and repeals all previous leges and Senatus Consulta in this jurisdictional area. This includes but is not limited to the following:

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Equitia_de_vigintisexviris_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Galeria_de_editore_commentariorum_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Apula_de_magistro_araneario_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_iure_edicendi_vigintisexvirorum_(Nova_Roma)

Effective immediately the positions that were covered under the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris are no longer independent offices that are elected by the Comitia Populi Tributa; nor are the offices listed in this lex to be classified as Vigintisexviri positions.

Effective Immediately the Office of the Rogator, whose responsibility was focused on registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process reverts to the Censores office to be filled at the discretion of the Censors’. This position, if filled will have the same ranking and distinction as a scribe appointment with all the same rights, responsibilities and century point allocations therein. The independent office of Rogator is now extinct.

Effective immediately the offices of Custodes and Diribitors are combined.

  • A. A new office is created called Diribitores with four positions

available to be appointed by the Senate by proposal of the presiding magistrate. A minimum of two individuals must fill this position at all times.

  • B. The Diribitores will have the duty to count the votes and tie breaking

in the voting processes in the Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa and Comitia Plebis Tributa – in compliance and in accord with the leges governing the vote count and ties breading procedures governing each Comitia .

  • C. The Senate may appoint individuals for suffect (Partial term), full

year terms, or multiple years.

  • D. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the

election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.


Appointment of Diribitors: As Senatorial appointments the presiding magistrate (ie Consul, praetor or Tribune of the Plebs) may present individuals to the Senate for consideration. The Senate has the right and privilege to accept or reject candidates for the Diribitore Position(s).


In the event of an emergency*: An Emergency is described as having 20 days or less to an upcoming Comitia summons – the Presiding magistrate may issue an edicta appointing individual(s) pro-tempore to serve as a diribitore – for one election cycle only. To be specific it means only one summons of one Comita ONLY (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa, and Comitia Plebis Tributa). No individual can be named Pro Tempore Diribitore for more than one time in a calendar year. However that individual may be considered by the Senate for a suffect appointment.

Editor commentariorum and *magister aranearius (webmaster) are the two remaining positions.

The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year terms or multiple years . The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.


The magister aranearius shall be responsible for the design, maintenance, and any alteration of the official web site(s) sponsored by the State. The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates and institutions of Nova Roma regarding content for the web site*. The Magister aranearius may be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year term or multiple years. The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.

The Century points for the positions of the Diribitore, Editor Commentariorum and Magister Aranearius shall receive the same number of points as the Office of Quaestor.

Learn more ...


CXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de vigintisexviris

Introduction - This lex serves the purpose of refining Nova Roma's offices to better serve the interests of the State. In recent years an insufficient number of qualified candidates stood for election to these positions, leaving them vacant.. This lex addresses the need for a more effective and easier alternative for filling these positions; and to give the Senate more direct oversight especially concerning the filling of the electoral magistracies which conduct, count and oversee the elections of officers in Nova Roma.

This Lex supersedes and repeals all previous leges and Senatus Consulta in this jurisdictional area. This includes but is not limited to the following:

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Equitia_de_vigintisexviris_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Galeria_de_editore_commentariorum_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Apula_de_magistro_araneario_(Nova_Roma)

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_iure_edicendi_vigintisexvirorum_(Nova_Roma)

Effective immediately the positions that were covered under the Lex Equitia de Vigintisexviris are no longer independent offices that are elected by the Comitia Populi Tributa; nor are the offices listed in this lex to be classified as Vigintisexviri positions.

Effective Immediately the Office of the Rogator, whose responsibility was focused on registering qualified voters, issuing voter codes, and administering the routine citizenship application process reverts to the Censores office to be filled at the discretion of the Censors’. This position, if filled will have the same ranking and distinction as a scribe appointment with all the same rights, responsibilities and century point allocations therein. The independent office of Rogator is now extinct.

Effective immediately the offices of Custodes and Diribitors are combined.

  • A. A new office is created called Diribitores with four positions

available to be appointed by the Senate by proposal of the presiding magistrate. A minimum of two individuals must fill this position at all times.

  • B. The Diribitores will have the duty to count the votes and tie breaking

in the voting processes in the Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa and Comitia Plebis Tributa – in compliance and in accord with the leges governing the vote count and ties breading procedures governing each Comitia .

  • C. The Senate may appoint individuals for suffect (Partial term), full

year terms, or multiple years.

  • D. Since the diribitores are by definition privy to the details of the

election process, they may not run for any elective office while they serve in office as diribitores.


Appointment of Diribitors: As Senatorial appointments the presiding magistrate (ie Consul, praetor or Tribune of the Plebs) may present individuals to the Senate for consideration. The Senate has the right and privilege to accept or reject candidates for the Diribitore Position(s).


In the event of an emergency*: An Emergency is described as having 20 days or less to an upcoming Comitia summons – the Presiding magistrate may issue an edicta appointing individual(s) pro-tempore to serve as a diribitore – for one election cycle only. To be specific it means only one summons of one Comita ONLY (Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Populi Tributa, and Comitia Plebis Tributa). No individual can be named Pro Tempore Diribitore for more than one time in a calendar year. However that individual may be considered by the Senate for a suffect appointment.

Editor commentariorum and *magister aranearius (webmaster) are the two remaining positions.

The editor commentariorum shall be responsible for the production, publication, and distribution of the official publications sponsored by the State. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed by a vote of the senate. The editor commentariorum shall be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year terms or multiple years . The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.


The magister aranearius shall be responsible for the design, maintenance, and any alteration of the official web site(s) sponsored by the State. The magister aranearius shall solicit input from the other magistrates and institutions of Nova Roma regarding content for the web site*. The Magister aranearius may be appointed for suffect (Partial term), full year term or multiple years. The standard Senatorial appointment should be for a minimum of 2 years.

The Century points for the positions of the Diribitore, Editor Commentariorum and Magister Aranearius shall receive the same number of points as the Office of Quaestor.

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CXXIX: Lex Cornelia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum

Resolved, it is the purpose of this lex to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Populi Tributa. In the past 3 years Nova Roma has been unable to effectively summon the Comitias under the existing procedures and thus the Senate was required to pass Emergency Decrees (SCUs) to resolve this impasse. By promulgating this lex no further SCU will be needed to summon this Comitia (Comitia Populi Tributa).


I. Laws Repealed or Rescinded

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

The Lex Fabia de ratione comitiorum populi tributorum is hereby repealed.


II. Calling to Order the Comitia Populi Tributa

A. Either a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex (hereinafter referred to as presiding magistrate) may, as described by the Constitution call the Comitia Populi Tributa (hereinafter referred to as “The Comitia”) in order to hold a vote on the following: A Lex, a series of leges, to hold an election or to conduct an appropriate legal proceeding.
i. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
ii. It is recommended that the presiding magistrate seek auspices with a member of the College of Augurs or an appropriate alternative.
iii. The summons must contain the following information:
Subject heading: Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa
The text of the summons must include:
  • Candidates’s names, date of citizenship, a statement that they have met the constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the office they are seeking.
  • Full text of leges which are being voted on, draft version is acceptable at this point.
  • The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end date of the voting period.
  • Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.
In the event of a legal proceeding the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to:
  • Name of the petitioner, name of the defendant, and the charges specified.
iv. The Timing of the Vote.
1. The Official Summons of the Comitia Populi Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the Website with the corresponding designation.
2. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 120 hours (5 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
3. In the event that, in an effort to fill a magisterial office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates as long as there are at least 48 hours remaining in the Contio. In other words, there are eight vacant offices for office of Quaestor - at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia only one candidate has stepped forward - leaving 7 vacancies. 24 hours after the Contio has started other citizen(s) step forward (and have met the requirements) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those individual(s) in this comitia summons, a new election or a delay in the existing contio does not need to take place. The acceptance of late candidates does not give the presiding magistrate discretionary authority to disregard any constitutional requirements for office.
4. Final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
5. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
6. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of this comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
7. In voting for a lex, the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
8. In a legal proceeding the minimum contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days)
9. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
10. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censors (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
11. The Censors have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censors certify the vote and/or election the Censors or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.


III. Voting Procedures

A. Each citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens vote. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censors, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep record of the voter identification number and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. In the case of a magisterial election, each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “Yes (uti rogas) or leave the candidate unmarked; each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” In the case of legislation, for each proposed law, each voter shall have the option to vote “yes (uti rogas) or “no (antiquo).” In the case of a legal proceeding each voter shall have the option to vote “absolvo” (I absolve, innocent) or “condemno” (I condemn, guilty).
D. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in tallying the vote.


IV. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. In the case of magisterial election the votes of each tribe shall be calculated as follows. For each tribe the candidates shall be ranked in order by the number of yes votes they receive. The candidate(s) that receives the most “yes” votes wins the tribe. Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex. If more than one office is vacant the HIGHEST ranked member wins until all offices are filled. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
C. In the case of a vote on a lex (or leges), each tribe shall vote in favor of the leges if a majority of votes received by members of that tribe are in favor. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
D. In the case of a vote on a legal proceeding before the Comitia Populi Tributa, each tribe shall vote for conviction if a majority of the votes received from the members of that tribe are marked “condemno.” Ties within a tribe will result in that tribe voting to acquit. If no one in the tribe votes, the tribe is skipped and the election officials move to the next tribe.
E. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
F. Results shall be counted by tribe.
G. In case of magisterial elections the results are calculated as follows:
i. Each tribe will rank the candidates voting results from highest to lowest. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, Ties will be decided by using the procedure established in "THE BREAKING OF TIES" section of this lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. (If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc etc until all vacancies are filled.) This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
H. In the case of lex or leges, a simple majority of tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the lex to be adopted. In the case of a vote on the a lex or Leges, a simple majority is defined as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, fractions being rounded down. If a Tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a No vote, there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes shall not be counted.
I. In the case of a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Populi Tributa, a "majority" is defined as "one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down."
i. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process – Only tribes with individuals, enrolled in said tribe may determine the outcome of a legal proceeding.
J. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as a manual count.
K. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizen shall be secret.


V. The Breaking of Ties

The following are the only three methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be in numerical order – in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by the method #1 - then #2 will be used and then #3 until a winner shall be determined. This will be utilized for both ties in individual tribes and in the sum total of the Comitia.

1. In case of tied candidates the tie is resolved giving the highest position to the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest.
2. If the above tie breaking process does not resolve the tie situation the winning candidate between the tied candidates will be the one with the most century points.
3. If the above two tie breaking processes fail to break the tie the result will be determined by the ages of the tied candidates. The oldest candidate will be declared the winner of the tie.

Addendum: In the event that Nova Roma implements a Cista voting platform (internally controlled) and can establish a random tie breaking program that cannot be tampered with to manipulate the results (even the implication of tampering could damage the credibility of our electoral process and must be avoided to the extent of our ability to do so. Nothing must infringe on the integrity of the election). Such a tie breaking program would need to be thoroughly tested and endorsed by the Senate of Nova Roma, prior to being used by the Comitia. Upon this requirement being satisfied the election officers may use a lot breaking device with the approval and consent of the Censors The Censors through the certification process must be confident that the integrity of the tie breaking procedure is both beyond the bounds of human manipulation and that the will of the People through the vote is maintained. The entire electoral process must be, and be seen to be, entirely credible and transparent. Once completed then the Certification process may progress as written in this Lex.

In addition, the presiding magistrate has the duty and responsibility to request a member of the College of Pontifices or appropriate Priest to conduct a ceremonia, at the start of a vote, to address the State’s need to utilize a method of tie resolution that does not utilize chance and a more direct form of divine intervention due to the corruption and tampering of men.


VI. Certification Process

The Censors have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, within the timeframe. If the censors need additional time, one or both censors may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not. The Censors certify the election by sending a notification to the presiding magistrate that they “Approve and sign off on the Comitia results.”

If the Censors fail to sign off on the certification process they are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation. If the Senate decides to override the Censors decision the Censors can

1. Certify the election or
2. Refuse to sign.

If the Censors choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censors. If the Senate determines that the Censors issues are valid and agree with the Censors the results of the Comitia are null and void. The Presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.

If the Censors fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censors are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXX: Lex Pompeia de ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum

Resolved, in order to establish ongoing, simple and easily understood procedures to summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa and avoid the need for emergency decrees (Senatus consulta ultima - SCUs) by the Senate to effectively summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:


I. Status of Previous Leges Governing the Comitia Plebis Tributa

All previous laws relating to the Comitia Plebis Tributa (hereinafter referred to as the Comitia) are hereby rescinded as they apply to the election of magistrates and the promulgation of legislation by the Comitia.

A. The Lex Moravia de suffragiis in comitiis plebis tributis et ratione comitiorum plebis tributorum is hereby repealed.
B. The Lex Arminia de suffragiis in comitiis tributis is hereby repealed.
C. The Lex Grylla de magistratibus plebis creandis is hereby repealed.

II. Calling to Order the Comitia Plebis Tributa

A. A Tribunus Plebis may, as described by the Constitution, call the Comitia to order to hold a vote on one or more of the following:
1. an election for office;
2. a Lex (law); or,
3. an appropriate legal proceeding.
B. The Comitia may be summoned by the presiding magistrate by making a public declaration announcing the summons in the official public fora.
C. The Summons must contain the following information:
1. The subject heading shall be: “Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa”
2. The text of the summons must include:
a) If the summons is to conduct an election then the full Roman name of the candidates, dates of citizenship, an indication of whether or not they met the Constitutional and legal requirements of the office they are seeking, and the name of office they are seeking.
b) If the summons is to vote on a lex or leges then the full text of the lex or leges or links to web pages containing the full text of the lex or leges which are being voted on; however, a draft version of the full text is acceptable at this point.
c) If the summons is to convene a trial or other legal proceeding then the presiding magistrate will include all necessary information including but not limited to: the full Roman name of the petitioner; the full Roman name of the defendant; and, the charges or nature of the proceeding.
d) The dates and times when the members of the Comitia shall begin and end the Contio and the start and end dates and times of the voting period.
3. Also, the presiding magistrate shall include any additional special instructions necessary that pertain to the mechanics of the vote.

III. The Timing of the Vote

A. The Official Summons of the Comitia Plebis Tributa is identified as an edictum. A copy of the Official Summons will be posted on the website with the corresponding designation.
B. The edictum containing the call to vote must be issued at least 72 hours (3 days) prior to the start of the voting session. This period shall be known as the Contio and during this time formal discussion of the agenda (leges and legal proceeding) and/or candidates shall take place.
C. In the event that, in an effort to fill a Plebian office, there are not enough candidates at the time of the opening of the Contio, the presiding magistrate may accept additional candidates during the first 48 hours in the Contio. In other words, if there are five vacant offices for office of Tribuni Plebis and if, at the time the presiding magistrate summons the Comitia, only one candidate has stepped forward leaving 4 vacancies and 24 hours after the Contio has started two other citizens step forward (and have met the Constitutional requirements for the office of Tribunus Plebis) the presiding magistrate has the discretion to include those two additional individuals in the Comitia summons and add them to the ballot so a new election or a delay in the Contio does not need to take place. When accepting additional candidates during this 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio, the presiding magistrate must not disregard any Constitutional requirements for the office which is the subject of the election. Candidates who put their names forward during the 48 hour grace period following the start of the Contio must meet the Constitutional requirements for the office they seek. Any votes cast for a candidate who does not meet the Constitutional requirements for the office that is the subject of the election will be considered null and will not be counted.
D. A final draft of all legislation being voted on must be presented to the Comitia at least 48 hours prior to the close of the Contio.
E. During the Contio all constitutional powers remain in effect. Tribunes can issue intercessio, magistrates who share imperium or outrank in imperium may exercise their constitutionally derived powers.
F. Intercessio may be exercised against the following: The entire election, vote, one specific item on the agenda, or multiple items on the agenda. The removal of an item or items is effective for the length of the then current Comitia summons only. It does not prevent the item from being listed in a future Comitia summons.
G. In voting for a Lex, the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 120 hours (5 days).
H. In a legal proceeding the minimum Contio period must last no fewer than 192 hours (8 days).
I. The ability to vote during the voting period may be impacted due to calendar issues as enacted by decreta of the Collegium Pontificum. Any impact must be announced by the presiding magistrate.
J. Election officials shall tally the vote and deliver the results to both the presiding magistrate and the Censores (Secretaries of the Corporation) within 48 hours of the close of voting period. The presiding magistrate cannot announce the result until the certification process is fulfilled.
K. The Censores have 24 hours to certify the results given by the election officials. They have the ability to review all actions taken by the election officials to ensure accuracy and impartiality. Once the Censores certify the vote the Censores or the presiding magistrate shall announce the result(s) in the appropriate official public fora. Once completed the presiding magistrate shall bring the Comitia to a close.

IV. Voting Procedures

A. Each plebeian citizen will receive a unique voter identification code. This code shall be used to maintain anonymity in the voting process, and to minimize the possibility of voter fraud. The voter identification code can be issued via automatic process by the web based secured form used or by the 3rd party alternative. If an automated process is impractical, or non-existent the Censores shall in a timely manner, prior to vote, issue the voter codes, delivered to the citizens and supply the electoral officers with the list of valid voter codes within each tribe in a way that assures the anonymity of the citizens’ vote. Only plebeian citizens will be permitted to vote in the Comitia. The election officials shall not have access to the names of the citizens associated with the particular voter identification codes, nor shall the election officials have access to the Censor tools or censor database.
B. The election officials, Censores, Web Master, or any authorized or appointed official shall make available a Cista (a secure web-based form – internal voting platform) or a secured 3rd party alternative (currently Nova Roma uses votingplace.net) that will allow citizens to vote. It is highly recommended that a link is posted on the Nova Roma website, and a link posted in the official public fora before the voting period is open. The election officials will keep a record of each ballot cast including the ballot number and and the desired vote of the individual. The information thus collected will be either forwarded to the election officials as it is gathered or at the end of the process, at their discretion. Alternative methods of voting may be enacted by other legislation as required.
C. Procedures for Elections
1. The ballot shall include:
a) The name of the office.
b) The number of vacancies.
c) A listing of the candidates for office listed in alphabetical order based on the candidates' nomina, praenomina, and, where applicable, cognomina and agnomina. The list shall be placed on the ballot in a single column.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each candidate “uti rogas” (or Yes) or leave the candidate unmarked. Each ballot shall carry the following direction: “You may vote for 1 candidate per office vacancy, please select the magistrate you most strongly support.” Thus, beside the name of each candidate the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the candidate.
3. A voter may vote for the number of candidates equal to the number of vacant positions. A voter shall not be required to cast votes for all vacancies. A voter may choose to vote for only some of the candidates or none of the candidates.
4. There shall be an area on the ballot for a write-in candidate should the voter wish to cast a vote for a candidate not listed on the ballot.
5. There shall be an area on the ballot for an abstention, should the voter wish to waive their right to cast any votes for a given magistracy.
D. Procedures for Legislation
1. The full text, or a link to the full text on the Nova Roma website, of each proposed law or plebiscite shall appear on the ballot. Links are permitted only if they resolve to locations in the Nova Roma Wiki or website.
2. Each voter shall have the option to mark each proposal “uti rogas” (or Yes), “antiquo” (or No), or “abstineo” (or Abstain). Thus, for each proposed law the voter shall be able to mark his or her approval of the plebiscite.
E. Procedures for Trials
1. The ballot shall include the name of the accused, the name of the accuser or party bringing the charges, and the charges and specifications brought against the accused.
2. There shall be an area on the ballot where each voter shall have the option to vote "absolvo" (or Innocent), "condemno" (or Guilty), or “abstineo” (or Abstain - should the voter wish to waive his or her right to vote on the accused's guilt or innocence). Thus, beside the name of the accused, the voter shall be able to mark his or her determination of innocence or guilt.
F. Once cast, no vote may be altered, even with the correct voter identification code. Should multiple votes be registered with the same voter identification code, only the first recorded vote shall be used in counting the vote and any subsequent ballots registered with the same voter identification code shall be considered null and void.

V. Procedures for Counting Votes

A. Votes shall be counted by tribes.
B. The Voting period for the Comitia, shall be no fewer than 168 hours (7 days). All tribes are allowed to vote at the commencement of the voting period. The presiding magistrate will notify the Comitia of the opening of the voting period via the official public fora and a notice will be posted on the website.
C. If the Comitia was summoned to vote in an election, the results are calculated as follows:
1. Each tribe will rank the candidates based on the voting results of that tribe with the candidate receiving the highest number of votes ranked first and other candidates ranked similarly based on the number of votes received in the tribe from highest to lowest.
2. The candidate that wins the most votes is declared the winner of that tribe.
3. If there is a tie in deciding who won the tribe, a winner will be determined using the procedure established in Paragraph VI (Breaking of Ties) of this Lex (by resolving the tie between the candidates who are tied). Depending on the number of vacancies there could be more than one winner. If there is more than one vacancy, each tribe should have more than one winner, those being the highest and second highest vote totals per tribe, etc until all vacancies are filled.
4. This process will be done for each tribe that voted. The winner then is determined by which candidate won the most tribes, until all office vacancies are filled.
D. If the Comitia was summoned to approve a Lex or Leges, a simple majority of those tribes casting votes must vote in favor for the Lex to be adopted. A simple majority is defined for this purpose as one half of the number of tribes casting votes plus one, with any fractions being rounded down. If a tribe is tied, the tribe will be counted as a ‘No’ vote and there will be no tie breaking procedure. A tribe in which no voter cast votes is declared vacant and shall not be counted or used to determine the outcome of the vote.
E. If the Comitia was summoned to conduct a legal proceeding, a majority of the tribes must vote in favor of conviction in order for the accused to be condemned. In the case of a trial before the Comitia Plebis Tributa, a majority is defined as one half of the total number of tribes, plus one, fractions being rounded down. Even those tribes in which no voters cast votes shall be counted, as implicit votes for acquittal, toward the total. If a tribe has no members enrolled the election officials are instructed to remove those tribes from consideration during the vote counting process. Thus, only tribes with at least one citizen enrolled shall be counted to determine the outcome of a legal proceeding – any tribe without at least one enrolled citizen (vacant tribes) shall not be counted.
F. Votes may be tallied by automated means should the election officials determine such is preferable to, and at least as accurate as, a manual count.
G. Results shall be tabulated by tribe.
H. Only the aggregate votes of the tribes shall be delivered to the presiding magistrate; the votes of individual citizens shall be secret.

VI. Breaking of Ties

The following are the only methods to be utilized to determine the results of ties. The process to be used will be exactly, and only, in the order shown - in other words no choosing. If a victor is not determined by Tie Breaker #1 then Tie Breaker #2 will be used, and if a clear winner is not determined by Tie Breaker #2 then Tie Breaker #3 will be used to determine a winner. If there is still no clear winner then Tie Breaker #4 will be used. The tie breaking method outlined here will be utilized to resolve ties within individual tribes as well as in the sum total of the Comitia.

A. Tie Breaker #1: If a tie between candidates occurs, the candidate who has been a citizen of Nova Roma the longest, as determined by the Censores based on the date of citizenship recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
B. Tie Breaker #2: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of time as citizens of Nova Roma then the candidate with the largest number of Century Points, as determined by the Censores based on the Century Point totals recorded in the Album Civium, shall prevail.
C. Tie Breaker #3: If the candidates remain tied because they have the same length of citizenship and the same number of Century Points recorded in the Album Civium then the oldest candidate, as determined by the Censores based date of birth, shall be prevail.
D. Tie Breaker #4: In the highly unlikely event that the candidates have the same length of citizenship, same number of Century Points and the same date of birth then the tie shall be resolved by the Censores using a random lot to determine the winner. In this final method to break a tie, a random lot will be drawn until the tie is resolved and a clear winner is determined. The Censores of Nova Roma shall determine which types of random lots are appropriate for use in tie breaking. The casting of a random lot must be witnessed by at least three Senators and one Pontifex. Neither of the Censores may act as witnesses. The casting of random lot may be conducted and witnessed online using appropriate video conferencing technology.

VII. Certification of the Vote

A. The Censores have the responsibility and powers to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the voting in the Comitia at any time during the voting period and up to 24 hours after the presiding magistrate has announced the close of the voting period.
B. If the Censores need additional time, one or both Censores may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate. The presiding magistrate has the discretion to approve an extension or not.
C. The Censores formally certify the election by sending a written notification to the presiding magistrate that they, “Approve and certify the Comitia results.”
D. If the Censores fail to approve and certify the Comitia results:
1. The Censores are required to explain their rationale to the presiding magistrate.
2. With this notification the presiding magistrate notifies the Senate. Within 48 hours, the presiding magistrate issues an emergency summons of the Senate for the sole purpose of addressing this issue and to promulgate a Senatus Consulta based on the Comitia situation.
a) If the Senate decides to override the decision of the Censores, the Censores can either (1) certify the election or (2) refuse to sign. If the Censores choose to refuse to sign, the Senate certifies the election in place of the Censores.
b) If the Senate determines that the Censores issues are valid and agree with the Censores the results of the Comitia are null and void.
3. The presiding magistrate notifies the People and closes the Comitia and the Comitia will need to be completely restarted.
E. If the Censores fail to respond within the 24 hour timeframe, the Censores are deemed to have consented and the Comitia results can then be posted by the presiding magistrate.

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CXXXI: Lex Cornelia de lege Labiena abroganda

Repeal - Lex Labiena de custodia perpetua fori -

http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Labiena_de_custodia_perpetua_fori_(Nova_Roma)

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CXXXII: Lex Cornelia de punctis censualibus

Introduction:

Nova Roma’s primary means of compensating its citizens for service and citizenship has been through the utilization of Census Points (hereinafter referred to as CPs). The accumulation of CPs must be carefully monitored to insure that all citizens receive neither more nor less than the appropriate credit for their service. There are also areas in Nova Roma life that have been ignored and hopefully this comprehensive law will address some of those areas.

In accordance with Section II. E. 2 of the Constitution of Nova Roma, the Lex Cornelia de Punctis Censualibus is hereby enacted.


I.

With the passage of this law all previous conflicting legislation is hereby repealed. This includes but is not limited to: Lex Vedia Centuriata (http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Vedia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma) ) and the Lex Fabia Centuriata: http://novaroma.org/nr/Lex_Fabia_centuriata_(Nova_Roma)



II.

Points will be awarded for all relevant events in each citizen’s record based on the values established in this Lex. For elected positions, citizens are awarded points for each term served. For example, if one was Consul three times then that individual earns three times the CPs – reflecting each term served.



III.

It is the responsibility of each citizen to review their CPs details and ensure that all of their previous service is represented. The Censors, strive to be as accurate as they can be, but it is only with the active cooperation and involvement of citizens that we can ensure the records are as close to perfection as possible. Upon the enactment of this lex, all CPs accumulated so far will be totaled and carried over into the new census points as a direct conversion. There will be no conversion and/or recalculation of century points to census points.


A. Magistrates:

Censor: 30 CP

Consul: 30 CP

Praetor: 25 CP

Tribune of the Plebs: 25 CP

Curule Aedile: 20 CP

Plebian Aedile: 20 CP

Quaestor: 15 CP

Dictator: 30 CP

Interrex: 10 CP

Magistrates Appointed by the Senate (Diribitors, Magister Aranearius, Editor Commentariorum, etc): 7 CP


B. Apparitores: Citizens may hold more than one position in a magistrate’s staff but only get awarded points for one position within that staff. A citizen may not receive census points for more than three such simultaneously-held positions.

Apparitor: 5 pts


C. Provincial Positions: Citizens may hold more than one position within a province – but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. If individuals are governor of more than 1 province they only get points awarded for one province as they are stake-holders for the Senate.

Governor 25 CP

Apparitor: 5 pts

Provincial Sacerdos/Priest: 5 CP


D. Sacerdotes: Citizens may hold more than one position listed in this subparagraph but only get points awarded for one – the highest ranked position. Citizens who serve Nova Roma in one of the positions listed below but also serve in a provincial sacerdos role may receive the points for Provincial Sacerdos/Priest as stated in subparagraph C above in addition to the points awarded for service in a position listed in this subparagraph.


Rex Sacrorum 20

Regina Sacrorum 20

Flamen Maior 20

Pontifex Maximus 20

Pontifex 20

Flamen Minor 15

Augur 15

Vestal 15

Other Sacerdos/Priest 5

For Provincial Sacerdotes see sub-paragraph C above.


E. Other Positions:

Senator: 20 CP

Pater Patriae: 10 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator)

Princeps Senatus: 15 CP (in addition to the CP awarded for Senator – Consistent to the previously adopted Senatus Consulta)

The Senate shall have the authority to issue points for special appointed positions, as well as rewards for special services performed on behalf of the State. Such rewards must be announced at the time of the appointment, and may not be awarded retroactively.


F. Sodalitates (officially sanctioned sodalitates only): Citizens may hold more than one sodalitas position, but get points for the highest one only. The positions and titles of officials included in each rank are defined by each Head. A report must be filed to the Censores to determine the validity of issuing CPs ensuring that the charter approved by the Senate is being properly maintained and elections are held in timely manner. It is the responsibility of the Head of the Sodalitas to provide this information.


Head of a Sodalitas 10 CP

Person of High Authority: 6 CP

Person of Minor Authority: 3 CP

Member of Sodalitas: 1 CP


G. Orders, Citizenship and Candidates:

The Orders:

Patrician: 10 pts

Plebeian: 7 pts

Ordo Equester - 10 CP

Length of citizenship:

Less than 6 months: 5 CP

Between 6 and 12 months: 10 CP

Between 1 year and 5 years: 20 CP

Between 5 years and 10 years: 40 CP

Between 10 years and 20 years: 75 CP

The disbursement of points are not added together. If one has been a member of NR for 13 years they only get 75 CPs because of the bracket that they are in.

Unsuccessfully run for office: 2 CP (Maximum of 1 award per calendar year)


H. Public Events: In an effort to recognize the time, effort, costs of putting on public events the following is stipulated: A public event is one that is identified as a gathering of more than 4 citizens (minors not counted) for the purposes of facilitating an event in which Nova Roma plays an important part this includes but not limited to: Religious rituals occurring, discussion of Nova Roma events, Legionnaire reenactments, dining and camaraderie. After Action reports (hereinafter referred to as AAR) are required to be posted at the public fora as well as a copy is to be given to the Censors. In the AAR, there needs to be the following: The organizer of the event, participants, overview of the event. Some photographic evidence and/or video documentation is to be provided to ensure that those who participated are awarded the points. Each year a citizen may earn points in this category for no more than 3 events.

Organizer of the Event: 5 CP

Participant: 2 CP


I. Reenactors – Of Officially Sponsored Legions.

Liaison between Sponsored Legion and Nova Roma: 3 CPs

Member of Sponsored Legion: 1 CP



IV.

It is now also official policy in Nova Roma that we recognize the need to raise additional revenue. In order to accomplish this Nova Roma establishes the ability of citizens to purchase their way to increase the power of the Vote. Citizens who pay the established fee, which will be confirmed by the CFO of Nova Roma will be able to move up a class of centuries to the next class level. In other words, if a citizen is currently in a Class V level of centuries by paying the fee they will move to the 4th class. This is available to all the classes except for citizens already enrolled in the 1st and 2nd classes. This fee is a yearly recurring fee.

A. The fee for the remainder of the year for 2013 will be $10.00 US

B. The fee for the full year for 2014 will be: $30.00 US

C. The fee for every year after that will be set by the Senate via Senatus Consultum.

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CXXXIII: Lex Cornelia de cursu honorum

As a means of consolidating the laws regarding the eligibility of individuals to serve in magisterial positions (Section IV of the Constitution), this law seeks to make it easier for citizens to know the requirements to run and hold office as well as aid magistrates in cross checking the eligibility of candidates who wish to run for office.

This lex repeals the following:

I

1. To run for and assume the office of Censor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor or Consul for at least 6 months OR held the position of Senator of Nova Roma for a year.

2. To run for and assume the office of Consul one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 30 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 4 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Praetor, or Tribune of the Plebs for at least 6 months; or have served as a Provincial Governor for at least 3 years; or Senator for a year.

3. To run for and assume the office of Praetor (NOT Provincial Praetor) one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or Senator for 6 months.

3a. To be appointed Provincial Governor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 27 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held one or more of the following positions for at least six months: Tribune of the Plebs, Plebeian Aedile, Curule Aedile, Quaestor, or a Senator for 6 months. An applicant may substitute service in an apparitor position for at least one year for the previous requirements.

EXEMPTION: In the case of this position only, the senate may waive the previously held exemption if and only if no other candidate steps forward to serve as Governor/Provincial Praetor of a province.

4. To run for and assume the office of Curule Aedile one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 25 years old
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 2 years.
  • Must have previously held the position of Plebeian Aedile, Provincial Governor, Quaestor or a Senator for at least 6 months.

5. To run for and assume the office of Quaestor one must meet all of these requirements:

  • Must be at least 21 years old.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least a year.
  • Must have previously have held the position of an Apparitor for at least 6 months of service.

6. To be appointed as an election official, minor magistrate, or Apparitor of Nova Roma as defined by IV.A.8 or IV.A.9 of the Constitution of Nova Roma one must meet all of these requirements *:

  • Must be at least 18 years of age.
  • Must be an Assiduus/Assidua (Tax Payer).
  • Must be a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 6 months.

* Serving in the positions that fall under the umbrella that are classified under item 6 are generally described to be our entry level positions within Nova Roma and we encourage any and all citizens to being their process of learning about Nova Roma and volunteering their time in one of the many apparitore positions that are available both within one’s province and within the positions that serve Nova Roma in its entirety (consul, censor, praetor.).

II

Age Exemption Procedure

An age Exemption can be granted to a person by the approval of both Censors and receiving an age dispensation via Senatus Consultum from the Senate of Nova Roma via 2/3s approval of the Senate of Nova Roma

Citizens who wish to run for office must present the Consuls with their petition for exemption to the age restriction.

In the case of the annual December magisterial elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls no later than the 15th of October.

In the case of mid-year elections, such petitions must be presented to the Consuls as soon as possible, but the presentation of such petitions shall not be regarded as sufficient reason to postpone replacement elections more than thirty days as required by the Constitution, and the right of underage cives to run for office shall not override the Constitutional requirement to fill vacant magistracies in a timely manner.

The petition will include the following information: a. Full Roman name b. Length of Citizenship c. Prior experience within Nova Roma d. The office for which the applicant intends to run

The Consuls shall present the petition to the Senate for a vote in such manner as to allow due consideration of the petition.

III

There shall be no exemption for citizens who are not in the Assiduus/Assidua status or any other magisterial requirement unless directly specified in this lex.

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CXXXIV: Lex Cornelia de apparitoribus

Introduction:

In order to prevent abuse of the Century/Census Point (hereinafter referred to as CPs) system, to protect the electoral integrity of the Comitia Centuriata and promote the proper exercise of the voice of the People of Nova Roma, to insure that only an appropriate number of apparitores be appointed by magistrates, to discourage duplicative and inefficient bureaucracy, and to treat CPs as bona fide compensation for services rendered, this lex places reasonable limits on the number of apparitores, including scribae and accensi, that may be appointed.

DEFINITION: Apparitores (Attendants). Collectively, the apparitores shall not be considered magistrates but rather shall be appointed into various decuriae (corporations/cohors/Staffs) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the comitia. They shall include lictores, lictores curiati, scribae and accensi. (Taken from the Constitution of Nova Roma IV.A.9)

Pursuant to Section IV. A. 9. Upon passage of this lex it is the policy of Nova Roma to impose limits on magistrates who employ apparitores, to keep the amount of apparitores consistent with the size of the organization.

I.

Apparitores perform important functions in Nova Roma. This lex recommends that all citizens, especially new citizens, gain necessary experience concerning the inner workings of Nova Roma. It is equally important that individuals who volunteer their time and effort in Nova Roma are best utilized for the organization; creating bureaucratic nepotism is highly discouraged.

II.

This lex limits the number of apparitores that magistrates may utilize in the scope of their duties:

a. Each Censor: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

b. Each Consul: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

c. Each Praetor/Governors: May employ a total of 5 individuals who will earn CPs.

d. Each Curule Aedile: May employ a total of 12 individuals who will earn CPs.

e. Each Plebian Aedile May employ a total of 4 individuals who will earn CPs.

f. Each Tribune of the Plebs: May employ a total of 2 individuals who will earn CPs


III.

It is the policy of Nova Roma that magistrates who are elected and are bound by their oath of office should do the preponderance of their work and not delegate all or most of their tasks to subordinates and assistants (who are not bound by the Oath of office).

IV.

If Magistrates choose to exceed the number of Apparitores in excess of section II of this lex those apparitories in excess will not receive payment for services in the form of CPs. This will be determined by Section V of this lex.

V.

Magistrates must disclose in the form of an appropriately published edict, the names of those apparitor who will receive CPs by June 1st. If the Magistrate is a suffectus magistrate that magistrate must disclose, in the form of an appropriately published edict the names of those apparitories who will receive CPs within 60 days of assuming office.

VI.

If a magistrate does not publish the edict no apparitor will receive CPs for that position. They will, for all intent and purposes have volunteered their time and effort for no payment. This is also applicable for those apparitores who continue service for a magistrate and do not receive CPs.

VII.

A Citizen may serve in as many apparitor positions to as many magistrates as he or she wishes; however, the citizen will receive CPs for service in no more than 3 cohortes (staff) during 1 (one) calendar year.

VIII.

When Nova Roma reaches an Assidui tax base of more than 300 Assidui citizens the presiding magistrate may petition the senate of Nova Roma to adjust the staff sizes of magistrates. The Senate may at that time raise the staff members of individual magistrates or the entire spectrum based on their discretion. However, the Senate must take into consideration the overall number of tax paying citizens as their primary factor.

IX.

If a Magistrate is serving without a colleague that magistrate is entitled to employ double the legal staff limit specified in Section II of this lex. However, if a suffectus magistrate is elected, appointed or assumes the position the Magistrate must reduce his staff within 30 days or publish an edict confirming which apparitores will be given compensation of CPs.

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CXXXV: Lex Cornelia de rebus ordinis equestris

Constitutional Change of the Ordo Equaestor Section of the Constitution Section II.C.2.


Ordo Equester (Equestrian Order) the Equestrian Order shall consist of high standing citizens who excel in their service to the Res Publica. Equestrians shall be enrolled into the Ordo Equester as specified by laws approved by the Comitia.

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CXXXVI: Lex Cornelia de Arminia de fovenda lingua Latina corrigenda

Note by Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: With the approval of the present lex the Arminia de fovenda lingua latina reads as follows:


This law is intended to encourage classical studies and increase the usage of Latin among the citizens of Nova Roma, recognizing that the fostering of the Latin language is one of the most important and strategic concerns of Nova Roman government.

1. A citizen sufficiently skilled in the Latin language that he or she can correct existing texts in Latin [i.e., proofread them] and translate accurately from his or her native language into Latin who has also served the Res Publica in this capacity may petition the Senate for the honorary title of "Latinist."

2. The application of the citizen shall be sent to the Senate through the consules. The Senate will vote on the proposal and a simple majority shall be sufficient to approve the title.

3. The title of Latinist must be reviewed annually by the Senate, and will be valid from the time of approval until the end of the year. The tax release, however, will be valid only for the following year, even though it is renewed.

4. A Senatus consultum may specify other rules for the application of a Latinist.

5. The title of Latinist shall be considered a title granted by the Senate to citizens for their services to the Res Publica in the promotion of Latin studies.

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CXXXVII: Lex Pompeia de cursu honorum

Resolved, in order to establish the minimum eligibility requirements to serve in those offices specified in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution that are elected by the Comitia Plebis Tributa, we, the Plebeian citizens of Nova Roma, enact the following:

I. Tribunus Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Tribunus Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 25 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least 18 months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Tribunus Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Tribunus Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in I.A-I.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as a Tribunus Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified I.A, I.B, I.C or I.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for I.A, I.B, I.C and I.D but fails to meet I.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


II. Aedilis Plebis

To run for and assume the office of Aedilis Plebis one must meet all of these eligibility requirements or a presiding magistrate for such an election must reject the candidacy:

A. Must be at least 18 years old on the date of assuming office.
B. Must be a current citizen of Nova Roma and must have held such citizenship continuously for at least six months prior to the date of assuming office.
C. Must be of the plebeian order.
D. Must have previously served at least six months as an Apparitor, Provincial Governor, Senator, or as any elected official as defined in Section IV of the Nova Roma Constitution.
E. Must hold current assiduus status – i.e., must be current on Nova Roma tax payments.
F. There shall be no exemption from these eligibility requirements for Aedilis Plebis.
G. A presiding magistrate for an election in which a candidate for Aedilis Plebis does not meet the eligibility requirements specified in II.A-II.E above must reject such candidacy and ensure the individual does not appear on the ballot. If any candidate is rejected due to such ineligibility, a presiding magistrate shall state the full Roman name and the specific reason for the rejection of such a candidacy on the Main List and any other official fora used to conduct the election within the first 24 hours of contio.
H. If a write-in candidate should receive enough votes in an election to win a seat as an Aedilis Plebis but that write-in candidate does not meet the eligibility requirement specified II.A, II.B, II.C or II.D above then a presiding magistrate of such an election must reject the write-in candidate as unqualified for office and the write-in candidate shall not be permitted to assume office. If such a candidate meets the eligibility requirements for II.A, II.B, II.C and II.D but fails to meet II.E because he or she has not paid taxes and is not in assiduus status then the presiding magistrate shall contact the write-in candidate directly to determine whether or not the candidate intends to pay taxes and assume office or wishes to forfeit the office. Such a write-in candidate will have one week to pay the required taxes and will then be permitted to assume office. If the taxes are not brought current within one week then such a write-in candidate shall forfeit the office and the office will go to the citizen who has the next highest vote total.


III. Plebeian status

If at any time during his or her candidacy for the office of Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis a candidate is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order the presiding magistrate of the Comitia Plebis Tributa must immediately terminate such candidacy. Similarly, if a Tribunus Plebis or Aedilis Plebis who is serving in office is adopted into a patrician family or is elevated to the patrician order during his or her term of office then he or she shall be required to step down immediately and the Censores shall ensure an appropriate entry is made in the citizen’s official record. Any other Tribunus Plebis serving in office at the time of such a resignation may call for suffectus candidates and summon the Comitia Plebis Tributa to conduct an election to fill the vacancy left by the departing tribune or aedile.

IV. Implementation

This law shall go into effect immediately upon approval by a simple majority of the tribes voting in the Comitia Plebis Tributa. However, any citizen holding one of the aforementioned positions at the time of the passage of this law or listed as an official candidate in a election for one of the aforementioned positions at the time this law goes into force shall be exempt from the eligibility requirements stated in paragraphs I and II for the remainder of his or her term. All candidates and all elected Tribuni Plebis and Aediles Plebis, regardless of when their candidacy or term of office started, must maintain plebeian status as stated in paragraph III as there shall be no relief, remedy, exemption or grandfathering for the provisions of paragraph III of this law.

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CXXXVIII: Lex Cornelia de classibus et ordine equestri

Introduction: The purpose of this lex is to bring Nova Roma closer to the ancients by implementing and bringing to life an important segment of the ancient Roman community, The Ordo Equester. This will spell out clearly, transparently the requirements and privliedges of being a member of this esteemed order. In creating this segment of society into Nova Roma it also requires some readjusting of the Comitia Centuriata in accomplishing this every aspect of each citizen’s alignment within the Comitia is transparently laid out from the Census points each citizen earns, to their Class membership and the actual evolution of centuries as Nova Roma’s tax base increases.

I. The lex Octavia altera de comitiis centuratis is hereby repealed.

II. The preconditions for admittance to the Ordo are:

a. That the person be an Assiduus classified citizen of Nova Roma

b. Admission to the Ordo Equester is voluntary and occurs only if the citizen accepts the honor.

c. That the citizen applying must have:

i. A total of at least 220 census points, in which case membership is permanent subject to the citizen maintaining a balance of census points that totals at least 220. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

ii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for business contributions for Ordo membership by any citizen operating a business within Nova Roma, or legally utilising any assets of Nova Roma. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iii. Contributed during the year in which he/she applies the minimum amount set annually by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for donative contributions for Ordo membership. Membership is permanent and no further donative contribution shall be required for the citizen to maintain membership of the Ordo. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

or

iv. Be chosen by one censor for outstanding service to Nova Roma. A Censor may only choose one citizen during his/her two year term as censor. Membership of the Ordo through this means shall not result in advance for the citizen in the centuries and/or classes, though advancement may occur by accruing more census points through the normal public service criteria. A Suffect Censor can not choose any citizen. Upon acceptance of the offer the citizen will be duly enrolled.

III. The requirements for continued membership in the Ordo Equester are:

a. For those citizens admitted under I.b.i permanent, but subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

b. For those citizens admitted under I.b.ii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the business contribution amount for the year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the business contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further business contributions shall be required. A person operating a business within Nova Roma is not eligible to apply for membership of the ordo by virtue of donative contributions as at II.c below.

c. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iii renewed annually and subject to the citizen making the donative contribution amount for that year of renewal. After ten years of uninterrupted and continuous payments of the donative contributions required, membership shall become permanent and no further donative contributions shall be required.

d. For those citizens admitted under I.b.iv permanent, subject to that citizen not resigning or being banished and also subject to the citizen retaining a balance of at least 220 census points. Should the citizen suffer a reduction in census points that results in his/her total being less than 220 census points, removal from the Ordo is deemed automatic, and the Censores shall upon such reduction reflect this change in the Album Civium and note the reason in the Censorial record for that citizen.

IV. The process for admittance to the Ordo:

a. Is automatic for I.b.i and not requiring Censorial approval, collegiate or otherwise.

b. Is subject to the Censors acting in a collegiate manner to admit a citizen for I.b.ii to I.b.iv inclusive.

c. Does not require any public reason to be published to support the decision to admit a person.

d. Requires that the Censors set the amount of census points for the citizens initially admitted under I.b.ii to I.b.iii inclusive at 220 should they be less than 220.

V. The process for rejection of an application to be admitted to the Ordo does not require the Censors to publish a reason for rejection, nor for the censors to provide the person applying with the reasons for rejection. The Censors shall however inform a citizen whose application has been rejected of the fact of rejection, but there is no requirement placed upon the Censors to supply that citizen with the reasons for rejection.

VI. The number of centuries shall be determined based on the number of Assidui citizens in Nova Roma. The Comitia Centuriata will have 31 Centuries that will be divided into 5 classes. The addition of new centuries to the Comitia Centuriata will be structured to coincide to benchmarks of Assidui citizens.

a. 300 and fewer Assidui citizens will result in 31 Centuries

b. 301-600 Assidui citizens will result in 61 Centuries

c. 601 -1200 Assidui Citizens will result in 91 Centuries

d. 1201-1800 Assidui Citizens will result in 121 Centuries

e. 1801-2400 Assidui Citizens will result in 151 Centuries

f. 2401 and above Assidui Citizens will result in 193 Centuries.

VII. The Censores may no longer alter the makeup of the centuries by class. The Censores are tasked to ensure that each class is properly filled with the appropriate citizens in compliance to existing legislation. If there are centuries assigned to classes that do not have the citizens to fill those centuries then the Censores cannot fill those centuries.

a. The Number of Census points will determine what class citizens are allocated in the Comitia Centuriata.

i. If Citizens hold 220 or more Census Points and have accepted enrollment into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to that Class and appropriate Century.

ii. If Citizens hold between 140-219 Census points OR have not accepted membership into the Ordo Equester they will be allocated to the First Class of Centuries.

iii. If Citizens census points fall within the 100 – 139 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Second class.

iv. If Citizens census points fall within the 50-99 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Third class.

v. If Citizens census points fall within the 35-49 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fourth class.

vi. If Citizens census points fall within 17-34 Census points they will be allocated to the Centuries within the Fifth class.

vii. If Citizens census points do not meet the minimum threshold of 16 Census points they will be allocated to the Capite Censi Century.

VIII. The relative sizes of each class shall be set as follows:

a. Class I: 49% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century in this class shall be composed of all those members of the Ordo Equester who have accepted membership into the Ordo Equester. This will be referred to as Century 1.

ii. The Century set aside for the members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 2 Centuries when Nova Roma reaches 91 Centuries as defined under section VI.C. These two centuries will be designated as Century 1 and Century 2.

iii. The Centuries set aside for members of the Ordo Equester will be expanded to 3 Centuries when Nova Roma achieves the full complement of 193 centuries as described under VI.f. These 3 centuries will be designated as Century 1, Century 2 and Century 3.

b. Class II: 10% of the total number of Centuries

c. Class III: 10% of the total number of Centuries

d. Class IV: 10% of the total number of Centuries

e. Class V: 15% of the total number of Centuries

i. One single century within class V is reserved for the Capite Censi Only.

f. Within each class, the number of citizens is to be spread as equitable as possible. With the exception of those individual centuries that have extra requirements (Section VIII,a,i and Section VIII,e,i). The Censors are instructed to ensure each class is properly and equitable represented.

IX. Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXXXIX: Lex Cornelia poenalis

Introduction: Nova Roma must have a method to administer and adjudicate conflicts between citizens. This has been an area of ongoing concern since Nova Roma was created. The most recent attempt, the Leges Salicia, have not been successful. There are multiple problems with the Leges Salicia. The recent unpleasantness with the trials that Nova Roma have gone through have proven beyond a doubt that Nova Roma needed to rethink how we balance the need for conflict resolution while taking steps to ensure the protection of the Organization. This law achieves that balance.

I. The lex Salicia iudiciaria and the lex Salicia poenalis are repealed.

II. Any attempt to introduce or change the current judicial system or administratively alter the procedures within and for Nova Roma, other than those processes outlined in this lex, shall be illegal.

III. The judicial system of Nova Roma shall be based solely on the Code of Conduct as defined in this lex.

IV. Only the praetors, consuls, censors and Senate shall enforce and administer the Code of Conduct.

V. The Code of Conduct shall be applicable and have legal force within:

a. All official fora under the control of the praetors

b. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Senate

c. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the provincial governors.

d. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of official Nova Roman sodalities, as defined by the Senate.

e. Those communication venues under the care, custody and control of the Collegium Pontificum or the Collegium Augurum as defined by the collegium concerned and such definition being ratified by the Senate.

f. Official Nova Roman in-person meetings, authorised and/or sponsored by a magistrate of Nova Roma, the Senate, the Collegium Pontificum, the Collegium Augurum or a provincial magistrate.

VI. The Code of Conduct shall be as follows:

a. A person who advocates or otherwise promotes or publicises a prohibited course of action in any area as defined at section V above, or commits an act in support of such a course of action, whether such act is successful in its execution or not, shall be deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

b. The following are courses of action that are, for the purposes of section II.B.4 of the Nova Roman Constitution, deemed to represent and imminent and clear danger to the Republic and are thus prohibited for the purposes of section VI.a above together with the relevant penalty schedule (as defined below) that shall apply :

i. The overthrow and/or replacement of a magistrate(s), official (elected or appointed) and/or Senate of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule I)

ii. Threats of violence, intimidation or harm to person(s) or threats to damage property (schedule I)

iii. The theft of, or destruction or damage to corporate assets (schedule I)

iv. The provision of data or information from any Nova Roman record or database to an unauthorised person or organization. Exceptions are for the purpose of complying with a legal demand by macronational authorities, and in order to protect and/or preserve the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. (schedule I)

v. The dissolution of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vi. The removal of the religio publica as the official religion of Nova Roma by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

vii. The surrender or sabotage of the corporate status of Nova Roma Inc. by any method that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule II)

viii. Public displays of hatred towards any person, or group of persons, based on colour, race, religion, ethnic origin, gender or sexual orientation (schedule III)

ix. Extolling the benefits and/or values of an organization deemed by the Senate to be a competing organization (schedule III)

x. Resigning from any magistracy or office at a time critical to the security and/or well-being of Nova Roma, where such resignation would likely pose an imminent and clear danger to the continued survival, or orderly functioning of, Nova Roma, and where no other magistrate or official of equal or greater authority currently holds office, or where such other magistrate or official is unavailable (schedule IV)

xi. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication during a comitia summons, with the intended result of disrupting and/or terminating any vote within that comitia that is illegal and/or unconstitutional (schedule IV)

xii. Engaging in a pattern of behaviour and communication that violates the Terms of Service (ToS) of any communication venue owned by a third party service or company, and which Nova Roma utilizes, thereby imperilling, impeding or preventing Nova Roma’s right to use that communication venue. (schedule IV)

c. Any citizen of Nova Roma may present a praetor with a complaint alleging a breach of the Code of Conduct. Upon receipt of such information the praetor must within 7 calendar days of such receipt review the evidence presented as well as any other evidence which the praetor subsequently discovers upon investigation of the allegation. If the praetor upon review of such evidence concludes there is no breach of the Code of Conduct no further action shall be taken. If the praetor considers that there is reasonable suspicion that a breach of the Code of Conduct has occurred, then:

i. The praetor must then contact the person at section VI.a and request an explanation for the alleged breach of the Code of Conduct and require an answer within 14 calendar days.

ii. Should no answer be received by the praetor within 14 calendar days then the person at section VI.a shall be automatically deemed to have breached the Code of Conduct.

iii. Should an answer be received within 14 calendar days the praetor shall review it and determine if:

1. A response can be made from the individual accused and/or by a representative on behalf of the accused.

2. There is no clear and convincing evidence of the accused having violated the Code of Conduct. If that is the case, no further action shall be taken.

3. There is evidence a breach has occurred but mitigating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such then the praetor has the discretionary power to issue a warning and not impose a penalty, or should the praetor not wish to exercise that discretion a level (a) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed. Should a person who has been warned previously commit further similar or greater, as defined by the praetor, breaches of the Code of Conduct then this discretionary power shall not be exercised and a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule shall be imposed.

4. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and no aggravating circumstances. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (b) penalty under the relevant schedule.

5. There is evidence a breach has occurred and there are no mitigating circumstances and aggravating circumstances exist. If there is evidence of such, then the praetor shall impose a level (c) penalty under the relevant schedule.

6. If If there is a guilty decision on any item covered under section v.b.i – v.b.xiii, then the praetor shall transfer authority over the matter to the princeps senatus, who shall issue a call to convene the Senate into a formal meeting of the Senate in session, as defined by the SENATUS CONSULTUM DE RATIONE SENATUS MMDCCLXV. The princeps senatus shall present the Senate with such evidence and the matter shall be debated by the Senate. The princeps senatus shall present a draft senatus consultum to the Senate that asks it to decide whether the alleged breach has occurred and to approve the sentencing of the infraction according to the schedule listed in this lex.

a. The princeps senatus shall have the administrative discretion to judicially review the administrative process conducted by the Praetor, can conduct necessary discovery, and recommend alternative sentences. The only limitation is that the princeps senatus cannot impose any sentence in excess of the schedule listed in this lex.

7. In assessment of evidence, or mitigating circumstances or aggravating circumstances, the praetor shall determine those by use of his/her own judgement.

8. If any punishment is so warranted by any empowered magistrate or empowered individual covered in section iii before said punishment may be applied it must be reviewed by the Senate of Nova Roma. If the Senate of Nova Roma does not approve by consent of the voting members of the senate (simple majority of all senators present) then the punishment is voided and not applied. Only after the consent of the Senate may any punishment be applied.

iv. The following define Schedule I to Schedule IV penalties:

1. Schedule I (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 10 years to 19 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 5 years from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 20 years to 29 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 7 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 30 years to 99 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: perpetual loss of the right to stand for any public office.

2. Schedule II (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 4 years to 5 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 1 year from the date of return.

b. No mitigation and no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 6 years to 7 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 2 years from the date of return.

c. No mitigation and aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 8 years to 9 years. Upon any return of Nova Roman citizenship: loss of the right to stand for any public office for a further 4 years from the date of return.

3. Schedule III (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Banishment from Nova Roma for 1 year.

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 2 years.

c. Aggravating circumstances: Banishment from Nova Roma for 3 years.

4. Schedule IV (levels a, b and c)

a. Mitigation: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 6 months to 1 year

b. No mitigation, no aggravating circumstances: Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma, for 1 year to 5 years

c. Aggravating circumstances:  : Loss of membership from all areas at section V that the person at VI.a might legitimately be admitted to at the time of the imposition of the penalty and loss of voting rights and right to stand for any public office for, or be appointed to, any office or position in Nova Roma for 5 year to 10 years

v. Where a range of years in the form of a penalty exists, the praetor shall, at his or her own discretion, choose the exact amount of years from within that range, excluding section VI.c.III.5 where the vote of the Senate imposes the penalty and level.

vi. The right of appeal upon imposition of a penalty under this lex shall be defined as the exercise of the right of provocatio, as per section II.B.5 of the Nova Roman Constitution.

vii. The mechanism for imposing the penalty shall be by means of a praetorial edict issued by the presiding praetor. The censors must upon publication of the praetorial edict record the details of the penalty in the Album civium entry for the person at VI.a.

d. The praetor shall use his/her own judgement in determining the facts of a matter, and/or evaluating evidence in respect of that matter, concerning an alleged breach of the Code of Conduct. This also applies to the Senate with regard to judicial review of any guilty verdict.

e. In cases where there is a difference between the decision of the Praetor and a decision reached by the Senate of Nova Roma the decision by the Senate of Nova Roma is the decision of final resort.

f. There shall be a limitation on the period of time for each breach during which the actions described in this lex can be utilized and after that time no action shall be taken, dated from the time and date offense or action. The limitations according to the associated schedule number for the breach concerned are:

i. Schedule I: 10 years

ii. Schedule II 5 years

iii. Schedule III: 3 years

iv. Schedule IV: 1 year

VII. Rights of all citizens under this lex.

a. Citizens have the right to know who their accuser is.

b. Citizens have a right to a defense and may seek representation. Citizens also have a right to know the accusations and evidence presented against them.

c. Any punishment determined by the praetor is suspended and shall not take effect until the Senate ratifies that punishment by vote.

VIII Upon enactment of this lex, the only lawful method of subsequently superseding, amending or repealing this lex must be by way of a vote in the Comitia Centuriata that must achieve an extraordinary majority of 2/3s or greater (67% or greater) of the total Centuries.

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CXL: Lex Cornelia de civitate eiuranda (Nova Roma)

I. For the purpose of section V of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda, the “prevailing legal procedures” shall be defined as those procedures contained within a Senatus consultum, which at the time of the enactment of this lex is the “Senatus consultum on the reapplication process for citizenship”, passed 2765 A.U.C. A senatus consultum issued after the enactment of this lex may amend, or enhance, the “prevailing legal procedures”.

II. Section II.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Citizenship from Nova Roma may be voluntarily relinquished by either:

1. Notification of the Censors. Submission to the Censors by the citizen intending to resign of an intention to resign citizenship should be made in writing with the intention clearly stated, and may be transmitted in writing via any available means.

2. A statement of intent to resign citizenship made in writing by the citizen intending to resign in a public communications forum, list, board or venue, electronic or otherwise, whether that forum is owned or controlled by Nova Roma or not, to which the censors or another magistrate (as described in section IV.A or section IV.B of the Nova Roman Constitution) or a provincial governor of Nova Roma has access. Such intent may also be made by email to a magistrate or provincial governor. The magistrate or governor shall forward verbatim the text of the resignation and provide any electronic hyperlink to such a statement or a forwarded copy of the email concerned. The censors shall exercise collegiate judgment in whether to accept any such communication at section II.A.2 as intent to resign citizenship.”

III. Section IV.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“A Citizen whose citizenship is temporarily suspended under the Lex Fabia de Censu is known as an exsilius. A Citizen who voluntarily relinquishes citizenship by submitting a resignation from Nova Roma may also be treated as a exsilius for the purposes of this lex. Under the lex Fabia de Censu, a Citizen becomes a excensus after failing to register with one census. Any excensus or former Citizen in a excensus status who fails to register with a census or who fails to otherwise reestablish citizenship may, at the discretion of the Censors, have his or her status terminated, and thus be removed from the censorial Album Civium.”

IV. Section IV of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a subsection C to read:

“A citizen subject to banishment imposed under the terms of any lex shall not be treated as exsilius and upon imposition of the banishment shall be treated as a former citizen, devoid of any and all legal rights within Nova Roma.”

V. Section VI.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“When a former Citizen applies for reinstatement of citizenship, a waiting period of ninety (90) days must precede the reestablishment of citizenship. A former Citizen whose citizenship was removed by the process of banishment is not entitled to a restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (including census points). In the case of any other Citizen who was exsilius or excensus the restoration of any titles, honors and/or effects of past public offices (excluding census points) shall be at the discretion of, the censors acting in a collegiate manner. The restoration of census points for a person who was exsilius or excensus shall be determined by the process in section XXXX of this lex.”

VI. Section VI.C of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“Any census points that are due under the terms of this lex to a returning Citizen must be restored at the time that citizenship is legally re-established by the censors.”

VII. Section VIII.A of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended to read:

“All rights and privileges of citizenship are restored to a Citizen at the time his or her citizenship is re-established, subject to any legal prohibitions, cancellations, or any other such restriction, that may exist at the time of re-establishment of citizenship.”

VIII. The Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda is amended by the insertion of a section IX. ((Census Point loss)) which shall have the following sub-sections:

“A. Voluntary resignations shall be classified as follows:

1. Personal: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation of a non-Nova Roman nature

2. NR dispute: The reason provided, in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately, clearly relates to a situation where a conflict, conducted in public or private, has occurred over matters that relate to Nova Roman matters, between the Citizen resigning Citizenship and another Citizen(s), or a former Citizen(s) or another person(s)

3. No reason: No reason is provided in the judgment of the censors acting collegiately

4. No warning: The Citizen resigning, while holding office, whether elected or appointed, gave no prior notice of an intent to resign, thus preventing alternative solutions to resignation being discussed

5. 2nd resignation: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship twice.

6. 3rd plus resignations: The Citizen has resigned his/her citizenship three or more times.

B. A Citizen who has voluntarily resigned shall be classed as either “citizen” (not holding elected or appointed office at the time of resignation), “minor official” (holding an office at the time of resignation, whether that office was elected or by appointment, that was not censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor) or “major official” (held office at the time of resignation as censor, consul, praetor or provincial governor).

C. Upon restoration of Citizenship, except in cases where the returning Citizen is returning from a period of legal banishment that has now expired, the amount of Citizen Points (CP) that must be returned to the Citizen is based on the table below “at VIII.D”, Where the amount of loss is listed as a percentage, that percentage must be deducted from the CP held by the Citizen at the time of his/her resignation, or the fixed amount of actual CP that must be deducted. After calculation of a percentage loss, the result of CP if less than a whole number shall be rounded down. If after deduction of a fixed amount of CP this results in a negative number, that shall be recorded in the Citizen’s Album Civium. The censors shall administer the application of the CP deductions in the table below.

D. Census Point loss table

Personal NR Dispute No reason No warning 2nd resignation 3rd resignation
Citizen 20% loss 35% loss 50% loss N/A 100% loss Set CP to -100
Minor official 30% loss 60% loss 80% loss +20% loss 2x % loss Set CP to -250
Major official 50% loss 80% loss 100% loss 2x % loss 3x % loss Set CP to -500

Notes:

1) 2nd resignation of a person deemed at the time of resignation does not require that he/she was also an official on 1st resignation. 2) Results of CP loss may place the resigned citizen in negative balance, which he/she will have to work off balance before CP can be earned. 3) Tax rates will be addressed through Senatus consultum (tax is the prerogative of the Senate) but persons who have resigned and returned will be required to pay the Nova Roman tax for the class they were in prior to CP loss.

4) CP loss will be calculated at the time of resignation, not upon returning, and amount of loss noted on citizen's Album page together with the class and century they were in at time of resignation.

5) The table is read left to right, so the censors shall first determine which applies; Personal, NR dispute or No reason. Then they shall determine if warning was not given and apply the enhanced penalties indicated, and finally evaluate if the citizen has resigned two, or three (or more) times and apply those penalty enhancers.

6) +20% means that this 20% is added to either, 30%, 60% or 80% depending on which applies to the Citizen.

7) 2x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of two; 3x % loss means that the prior amount calculated is multiplied by a factor of three.


Note from Praetor C. Aemilius Crassus: The present lex changes several points of the Lex Minucia Moravia de civitate eiuranda

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CXLI: Lex Cornelia de constitutione corrigenda secunda

CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE.

The change will affection Section IV A of the Constitution of Nova Roma, if passed by the People and ratified by the Senate of Nova Roma.

The current reading is this:

Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of theordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place no later than December 15th, and newly-elected officials shall assume their offices on January 1st. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:

The new change will be as follows:

Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place every civil year no later than November 20th for the plebeian offices and no later than December 15th for the curule magistracies and other elected officials. Newly elected Quaestores will assume office on December 5th, the tribuni plebis and aediles plebis shall enter their offices on December 10, all other officials shall enter their offices on the following Kalends of January. Anyone currently serving in an elected or appointed office may complete their term and enter their newly elected office on or after January 1. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows:

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CXLII: Lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda

Preamble

Whereas the Senate and People of Nova Roma and the Republic of the Nova Roman People has been dragged into crisis and turmoil by Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix and their faction,

and whereas the faction that caused this chaos by a meditated coup and still controls the infrastructure of Nova Roma, refuses to return these assets of Nova Roma to the Nova Roman people,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix instilled fear in the citizenry by the expulsion of the elected magistrates and the tribunes of the plebs for life, by the oppression of the citizens’ rights and free speech, by destroying the citizenship and Nova Roman identity of citizens who expressed disagreement with their tyrannical actions, and thus they made free speech dangerous, and honest public discussion in the official forum of Nova Roma controlled by the coup-makers impossible,

and whereas the perpetrators of the coup, who maintain control of the voting tools of Nova Roma, withhold the election of new magistrates, causing Nova Roma to be without official government,

we, the citizens of Nova Roma assembled for the purpose of saving Nova Roma from this crisis, do hereby resolve to restore Nova Roma to proper function under proper political process, and to organize our Roman community life until the res publica is restored to said function; to which end we do take affirmative and restorative action by proclaiming the following unofficial and non-corporate private citizens’ initiative in the form of a lex, to be enacted as temporary measures, not to be held as binding under the corporate constitution of Nova Roma or the regulations of the State of Maine:


I. The election of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

I.A. In order to provide a temporary substitution during the forced absence of a fully functioning Nova Roman government, the corporate management and state magistracies, with respect to the extraordinary circumstances when the People of Nova Roma is not in possession of the infrastructure of Nova Roma, and in order to provide the traditional reckoning of years required by Roman custom, four tribuni militum consulari potestate (an alternative title is “tribuni militares consulari potestate”, the English title is “military tribunes with consular power” or “consular tribunes” for short) shall be elected by a non-corporate session of the comitia centuriata, according to the laws in force that regulate consular elections, with the procedural exceptions granted to the current consules by the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis.
I.B. A candidate to the office of tribunus militum consulari potestate shall be at least 21 years of age and shall have been a citizen of Nova Roma for at least 3 years. The magistrate presiding at the election may make an exception from under the requirement of length of citizenship, and may accept or refuse all kinds of candidates based on their merits to Nova Roma.


II. The role of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the consules, in that they shall provide the citizenry with guidance in their Nova Roman community life, by serving as a center offering cohesion and coordination to the citizens, their activities and initiatives as long as the individuals in control of the infrastructure and assets of Nova Roma are not filling this role. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the praetores and censores as well, likewise to their ancient Roman counterpart, inasmuch as the circumstances necessitate acting in the capacity of a censor or praetor. In addition, the Nova Roman tribuni militum consulari potestate shall fill the role of the four aediles as well, unless aediles are elected or other officers entrusted with the aedilician duties.

II.A. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall take care of the same tasks and shall have the same powers and rights that the consules, praetores, censores and aediles would have, excepting such as would require the holding of position as an officer of Nova Roma, Inc.. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall not be considered officers of Nova Roma Inc., or any part of the corporate structure and organization, but shall exist only within the symbolic framework of the res publica, and shall serve as civic representatives of the people that gave a mandate to them; the purpose of the office being to organize community life and the res publica, without having the power to issue any decision of binding force upon the corporation.
II.B. The tribuni militum consulari potestate shall represent the law respecting senatores and citizens of Nova Roma; and thus they shall work, as their primary goal, on the restoration of the res publica out of the turmoil.
II.C. Decisions and actions of the tribuni can be made individually, jointly or collegially. Individual decisions or actions are the ones taken by only one tribunus. Sessions of the senate and the comitia can only be called to order and presided individually. Any decision or action of a consular tribune can be vetoed by one or more of his colleagues: the veto procedure and its time frames shall be the same as described by the lex Labiena de intercessione. If some of the tribuni aren’t involved in the making of a decision or action, it shall not be considered to be made collegially, but only a joint decision or action taken by some tribuni and not by the entire college of the tribuni. Collegial decisions and actions require the participation (agreement, disagreement, abstention, with the agreements plus abstentions exceeding the number of disagreements) of all tribuni in the action or decision-making. Unanimous collegial decisions require the agreement or conscious abstention of all tribuni.
II.D. A consular tribune is regarded as involved in an action or decision-making if he was demonstrably informed that he was invited to make a decision or action. If such a consular tribune is unresponsive 72 hours after having been contacted and fully informed, his absence shall be counted as conscious abstention.
II.E. The tribuni shall appoint, by unanimous collegial decision, a praefectus officio tribunicio praetorio who, while not being a tribunus but a subordinate first officer, shall be responsible for the coordination and organization of the administrative work and all activities of the joint office of the college of the consular tribunate.
II.F. The consulship and this consular tribunate shall be considered to be the same magistracy, identical by all intents and purposes: all legal documents of Nova Roma referring to the consulship shall be taken also as a reference to the consular tribunate.


III. Term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate

III.A. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall commence on January 1.
III.B. If the crisis is still unresolved as of September 1st, the tribuni shall pass a senatus consultum ultimum with the decision whether the tribunal form of government is to be continued for the next year or the res publica should revert to the consular government. After the decision, a period of interregnum shall follow, for ceremonial and religious reasons, and for the holding of next year’s elections, whether it be for a consular or tribunal government.
III.C. The term of office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall end on the day before the Ides of October, in the Sacred 20th Anniversary Year of the Founding of Nova Roma, when they shall transfer the government to a series of Interreges.
III.D. The first interrex shall complete the ritual founding of Nova Roma by reissuing the Declaration of Nova Roma and conducting those proper Latin religious rituals and ceremonies on the Ides of October, day of the October Horse, a most propitious day to ceremonially close the founding years of Nova Roma, that were missing or not perfectly performed at the founding of Nova Roma 20 years ago. This “Completion of the Founding of Nova Roma” Ceremony shall be performed and the ritual prayers and vows worded in a manner that ensure that Nova Roma as the spiritually legitimate heir to the ancient Roman Empire, and as state and nation of Nova Romans is fully acknowledged by the Penates, Lares and Manes of the Roman People, the Gods of Rome. These rituals shall be supervised by at least one pontifex and one augur who are proficient in Latin and highly respected experts of the sacra publica and cultus deorum. The first interrex in the series of interreges shall be the person who has already served as the first ever interrex of Nova Roma, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander. His appointment shall be formally made by a senatus consultum ultimum, enacted no later than the last day of September, and the same senatus consultum ultimum shall define the specific order and sequence of interreges until December 31.
III.E. After the founding rituals are completed, the elections for the next year shall be conducted by the interreges, in a manner described by the senatus consultum ultimum that specifies the order and sequence of the interreges, and the new government shall enter office on the next Kalends of January. If the new government remains to be led by tribuni militum consulari potestate, their term of office, from this year on in each subsequent year, shall be one year from January 1 to December 31.
III.F. The office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall be filled until the declaration of the recognition of the new legal corporate government, whereas the office of the tribuni militum consulari potestate will automatically expire. There shall be an alternative mechanism to disband the entire college of the tribuni militum consulari potestate: if two of the tribuni jointly declare that they step down from office with the intention of dissolving the college of the tribuni by this action, the term of office of the entire college of the tribuni expires immediately.


IV. The election, assignment and function of quaestores

IV.A. Eight non-corporate quaestores shall be elected according to the laws of Nova Roma, by a non-corporate session of the comitia populi tributa, to assist the tribuni militum consulari potestate and all other higher officers in any task assigned to them by the higher officers as described in the laws of Nova Roma. The status of non-corporate quaestores and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the tribuni militum consulari potestate as described under II.A..
IV.B. Each tribunus militum consulari potestate shall assign one individual quaestor to his own government office. Other quaestores may be assigned to other officers by the tribuni.
IV.C. Candidates for the quaestorship shall be at least 21 years of age and there is no other requirement.


V. Other non-corporate magistrates and officers

V.A. Other ordinary magistrates such as the diribitores, magister aranearius, vigintisexviri, aediles, tribuni plebis, praetores and censores may be elected if their election is authorized previously by a senatus consultum. Consules shall not be elected for the next calendar year (MMDCCLXX AUC). Non-corporate apparitores and all types of elected or appointed officers may be elected or appointed by the public institutions or the higher officers normally authorized to do so. The status of all non-corporate magistrates and officers and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..
V.B. If the illegal coup senate or the comitia called to order by the illegal magistrates of the coup faction, or any illegal separatist corporate authority of Nova Roma manages to elect or appoint corporate magistrates, promagistrates, governors or other officers (henceforth “officers”) for Nova Roma, the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall pass a decree of the lawful senate to decide whether to recognize any of the illegal corporate officers as real magistrates, promagistrates, governors or officers of the res publica, except in the case of corporate quaestores and aediles, where recognition is automatic. Such recognized corporate officers shall be considered as (supernumerary) colleagues of the non-corporate officers, but may only be integrated to the lawful government on an individual basis decided by the tribuni militum consulari potestate, with specification as to what powers and rights they are entitled to exercise.
V.B.1. If corporate aediles are elected, and there are non-corporate aediles already in office, the corporate aediles are automatically recognized as junior colleagues to the non-corporate aediles and will be recorded with the title “aediles corporativi”. If there are no non-corporate aediles in office, the recognition of corporate aediles is automatic.
V.B.2. There shall not exist lawfully recognized corporate and non-corporate consules, censores and governors (within an identical province) at the same time. If the lawful senate recognizes the corporate consules, censores or governors, the non-corporate counterparts are immediately dismissed. Such recognition of corporate consules is the valid way of terminating the non-corporate crisis government, as described under III.F.


VI. The non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges

The status of all non-corporate senate, comitia and priestly colleges and their relation to Nova Roma, Inc. is the same as that of the consular tribunes as described under II.A..

VI.A. If the corporate coup senate enacts a senatus consultum, or if the comitia called to order by illegal magistrates of the coup faction enacts a lex, it can be considered lawful and valid within the Free Nova Roma if, and only if, the non-corporate senate approves it as well, however in the case of a lex, by this approval it is automatically reclassified as a senatus consultum ultimum.
VI.B. Since the corporate infrastructure, including all communication channels and the voting tools of Nova Roma are under control of the coup faction, who refuse to defer to lawfully established procedure, disallow any exercise of electoral process and willfully impede the election of magistrates, the tribuni militum consulari potestate are authorized to issue alternative session rules and voting procedures for all comitia (and also for the senate) which shall differ from the procedure described by the laws of Nova Roma only in those points where it is necessitated by the circumstances of the crisis.
VI.C. Presiding magistrates are hereby authorized, if approved by at least one augur, to take auspices for the senate or comitia sessions over which they preside, or to delegate this authorization to a pontifex who shall take the auspices in their name. A magistrate presiding over an election is further authorized, if approved by at least one pontifex, to convene the comitia curiata jointly with the authorizing pontifex to invest the elected magistrates with imperium
VI.D. If a corporate priestly college enacts a decretum, it shall be considered lawful and valid automatically within the Free Nova Roma unless its non-corporate priestly college counterpart invalidates it. The non-corporate priestly colleges consist of those members of the priestly colleges who are loyal citizens of Nova Roma and, if the head of a particular college isn’t loyal to the res publica, the interim president of that college shall be the member with the highest rank, or if it isn’t viable, the member with the greatest length of membership within that college, and he shall be titled as “extraordinary secretary” (ab officiis extraordinariis).


VII. Legal force

This lex is enacted, operating, and to be interpreted under the authority of the non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum on the continued operation of the res publica during the crisis, and thus has all the force of a senatus consultum ultimum to override temporarily the existing laws of Nova Roma for the benefit of the recovering citizenry. Should any danger to the continued existence of the Free Nova Roma emerge the management of which is not covered by this lex or other laws, the committee of the liberatores are lawfully empowered to defend the freedom of the res publica.


VIII. Subsequent confirmation

This non-corporate lex shall not have any legal meaning or official status either under the laws of the State of Maine or within the context of Nova Roma, Inc. as a corporation chartered in the State of Maine, USA; however, it shall become an official lex of the Nova Roman Republic upon subsequent confirmation by the lawful, legal state and corporate authorities of Nova Roma after order is restored to the Republic. The non-corporate senate shall have the power to declare, by a senatus consultum ultimum, the recognition of the new corporate government as lawful and legal under the laws of the Republic, but such a declaration of recognition can only take force if the corporate government has already confirmed all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions made until the day of the declaration of recognition. This subsequent confirmation by the corporate authorities is obligatory and it is a prerequisite, inasmuch as the validity of the recognition of the corporate government as lawful under the laws of the Republic depends on the corporate government’s full confirmation of all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions without any exception. If such a declaration of recognition by a non-corporate senatus consultum ultimum is made, and if all non-corporate legal documents, offices, actions and decisions are confirmed by the corporate authorities, all non-corporate institutions and offices immediately merge with the corporate institutions, in a manner described by the same senatus consultum ultimum.

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CXLIII: Lex Aurelia de legionibus

Preamble

Whereas in the Declaration of Nova Roma, the New Roman People renounced, “eternally and without exception”, the use of force in the pursuit of the restoration of the Roman republic, in order to exist “as a lawful, peaceful and benign nation, in accord with the principles acknowledged and shared by the world community”, the Army of the New Roman People (Exercitus Populi Novi Romani) may only exist as a ceremonial honor guard and martial arts corps promoting the history of the Roman army and spreading Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the military reenactment groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated by permanent legislation, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

The entirety of all the military units of Nova Roma is the Exercitus (Reconstructivus/Ritualis) Populi Novi Romani Quiritium (the Reenactment Armed Forces of the New Roman People of the Quirites), and, as a consequence of their imperium, its ceremonial supreme commanders and commanders-in-chief are the consules of the year, its vice-supreme commanders are the praetores, the territorial commanders-in-chief are governors of the provinces, but other, specially appointed commanders may exist, as well.

II.:

The Exercitus Populi Novi Romani Quiritium is composed of independent, autonomous, self-governing reenactment units which all have their own rules of operation, determined by themselves. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the unit, the more support shall be given to the reenactment unit from the organization.

III.

The highest units of the Reenactment Armed Forces of Nova Roma are the autonomous, self-governing military units, three types of which can exist: the Autonomous Reenactment Legio, the Autonomous Reenactment Cohors, and the Autonomous Reenactment Exercitus, which is an independent and self-governing reenactment organization composed of more than one Legiones. Each Autonomous Reenactment Unit in Nova Roma is completely self-governing and operates according to their own rules and practices. The difference between the Autonomous Reenactment Legio and Cohors is in name only, and it is determined only by the reenactors’ intention of what type of ancient Roman unit they want to represent, therefore these all can be colloquially referred to in a simplified form as “legion (Legio, Cohors) or joint legions (Exercitus) of Nova Roma”, but in order to avoid confusion, all three categories will be referred to as “Automonous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma” henceforward if all of them are indicated at the same time.

IV.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma can be established only by an official act of levy of a magistrate or governor with imperium. If a Roman military reenactment group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the levy of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman military reenactment unit. A reenactment group can be declared as a Nova Roman unit only if it requires by rule that all of its soldiers (not including tirones) have to be Nova Roman citizens. The Chief Commanding Officer (CO, simply “commander” hereafter) of the Nova Roman reenactment unit shall be ceremonially appointed by a magistrate or governor with imperium, but the actual method of selecting the commander shall be done according to the internal rules of the unit. The appointment by the Nova Roman authorities is purely a formal and ceremonial action, and the magistrate or governor with imperium must appoint any citizen as commander whom the leadership of the unit requests.

V.

The internal structure of these autonomous units, whether they are composed of more divisions, regiments, battalions, companies or squads (legiones, cohortes, manipuli, centuriae, contubernia), is left to the internal decision of that reenactment unit. Nova Roma will keep direct contact only with the autonomous top unit (which encompasses all subdivisions and represents the totality of the reenactment organization), and the responsible contact person and representative for Nova Roma will be the Chief Commanding Officer of the Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

VI.

The Chief Commanding Officer of an autonomous reenactment unit of Nova Roma must hold the military rank of Tribunus, or the title of Praefectus Cohortis or Praefectus Legionis, which are not military ranks proper, but political military offices. If the commander’s military rank is not Tribunus, he can hold any other military rank (Tesserarius, Optio, Centurio etc…), but he must immediately be promoted to, and must concurrently hold, the political army rank of Praefectus as well. The rank of Praefectus is automatically granted by Nova Roma to a commander of any autonomous Nova Roman reenactment unit, but formally they shall receive their appointment from the governor of the province where the group resides or from the consuls or from other magistrates with imperium, and the appointing governor or magistrate shall be the immediate ceremonial superior of the appointed commander. This appointment is a requirement to the establishment or recognition of a new Nova Roman unit, and each autonomous unit leader is entitled to it. The duty of the autonomous unit commander is to serve as the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit.

VII.

A commander of an autonomous Legio, or a commander of an autonomous Exercitus, composed of more than one legions, shall wear the political rank of Legatus or Legatus Legionis. This rank is not granted automatically, however, but it is granted at the discretion of the Senate or of a governor or magistrate with imperium. The rank of Legatus is not permanent, it is not a military rank proper, but a political office within the military, and it expires after the term of office is over. In case it has expired, the commander can ask for a renewal of his appointment. If he doesn’t get immediately re-appointed, he can still continue as the actual commander of his reenactment group (but now as Praefectus or Tribunus) without any interruption.

VIII.

Besides fully Nova Roman reenactment units, Nova Roma accepts allied military reenactment units as its partner groups. If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be an allied unit of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a military reenactment unit allied to Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as an allied unit of Nova Roma only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its soldiers who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the unit and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his unit. There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit.

IX.

A Roman-era military reenactment organization representing any ancient Roman-era culture or ethnicity can apply for the status of recommended or sponsored military unit of Nova Roma with the title “friend of Nova Roma” (amicus populi Novi Romani). If a Roman or any ancient Roman-era military reenactment group (Germanic, Gallic etc.) wishes to be a friend of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the provincial governor with imperium or any magistrate with imperium, who then shall issue an edict on the acceptance of the reenactment unit in question, specifying the unit as a friend of Nova Roma. A reenactment group can be declared as a friend of Nova Roma only if it makes a reference to its friendship with Nova Roma on its main internet location (website or social media page). There are no other requirements regarding the internal structure of an Allied Autonomous Reenactment Unit. A unit that is a friend of Nova Roma shall have the right to have its own page on the Nova Roma website where it can introduce and promote itself, and shall have a limited number of promotional opportunities on the fora or social media pages and groups of Nova Roma.

X.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

X.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

X.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit.

X.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

X.D.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman units or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

X.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the unit must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

XI.

An Autonomous Reenactment Unit or any subdivision unit of an autonomous military reenactment organization of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being conscripted as a Nova Roman legion or other unit type:

XI.A.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall possess, use, respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

XI.B.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Reenactment Unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XI.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XI.D.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman reenactment unit shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the unit, and the unit can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

XI.E.

Reenactor soldiers of a military unit of Nova Roma shall swear an oath of loyalty to the Nova Roman Republic in which they pledge to promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor soldiers of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

XII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

XII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman legionary reenactment unit. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman legions to these tools.

XII.C.

A Nova Roman military reenactment unit shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman legions, allied units and groups that are friends of Nova Roma.

XII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied unit of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the unit can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

XIII.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied unit of Nova Roma:

XIII.A.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation a flag of Nova Roma.

XIII.B.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall respect and honor with salutation the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied unit unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the unit.

XIII.C.

An allied military reenactment unit of Nova Roma shall recognize the rank of the officers of other Nova Roman legions as real and equal to its own ranks; this is a purely formal and ceremonial gesture, officers of another reenactment unit shall not have any actual commanding power within an allied autonomous reenactment unit unless with mutual agreement between the groups.

XIII.D.

An allied reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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CXLIV: Lex Aurelia de familiis gladiatoriis et ludis gladiatoriis

Preamble

Nova Roma is committed against any use of real violence with harmful intention, however, the ancient Roman martial arts of the gladiators encompasses, besides the negative aspects of violence, a historical value and a deeper meaning of noble ideas of fate, human virtues, honor, life and death, mythological motives and religious devotion. With the non-violent, playful, educational but serious reconstruction of the ancient Roman gladiatorial games, Nova Roma aims to invoke that nobler spirit and spiritual aspect in the martial arts of the gladiators, and strives to educate about their historical and cultural significance in order to promote the history of the Roman army and to spread Romanitas and the idea of Nova Roma in the modern world through educational activity, experimental archaeology and historical reenactment. For 20 years, the status of the gladiatorial groups of Nova Roma wasn’t regulated, however, as the expansion of our republic necessitates this, in the 20th Anniversary Year of Nova Roma, the Sacred Year of Concordia, as a tribute to our founding principles, the Nova Roman People enacts the following law:

I.

A gladiatorial reenactment group is officially termed as a familia gladiatoria or ludus gladiatorius; the designation is chosen at the discretion of the group, but the term “ludus” is recommended for those groups where education of children or training of gladiators is in the focus, while the term familia is recommended for a less school-like, veteran gladiatorial group where training is not in the focus but public performances fill most of the time of the group.

II.

Nova Roma recognizes its own gladiatorial groups and allied gladiatorial groups as an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma or as Allied Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Groups. Each type works as an independent, autonomous, self-governing gladiatorial reenactment group with its own rules of operation, determined by the group. Their independence can be of varying degree according to their own decision about how much control they want to retain for themselves, but in the list of priority in the access to privileges within Nova Roma the principle must be observed that the more involved is the central management of Nova Roma in the management of the gladiatorial group, the more support shall be given to the reenactment group from the organization.

III.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma can be established only by registration at the aedilician office, and the aediles (either central Nova Roman aediles or municipal, township level aediles) will grant this status if the applicant group meets the requirements. If a gladiatorial group wishes to be part of Nova Roma, or if a Nova Roman citizen or group of citizens wish to create a new gladiatorial reenactment group as part of Nova Roma, they shall obtain the consent of the aediles, who then shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as a Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. A gladiatorial group can be declared as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group only if its lanista is a Nova Roman citizen; the position of the lanista is selected and regulated by internal group rules. The gladiators of the group do not necessarily have to be Nova Roman citizens, but when a decision between groups about granting support, favor or privilege is made, the proportion of Nova Roman citizens in the group shall be taken into the weighing of the selection of the group to be favored.

IV.

An Allied Gladiatorial Group can be established by the same registration method as a fully Nova Roman gladiatorial group, and the aediles shall issue an edict on the recognition of the reenactment group in question, specifying the unit as an allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma. A gladiatorial group can be declared as an allied gladiatorial group only if it has at least one Nova Roman citizen among its members who shall be the representative of Nova Roma within the group and for the public, and as liaison and coordinator between the leadership of Nova Roma and his group.

V.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

V.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited use of the website and online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted only by reasonable forum moderation in case of disruptive or uncooperative behavior.

V.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited priority access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group.

V.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have priority entitlement to financial or other type of support depending on the state of the treasury.

V.D.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have unlimited right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups, with priority granted regarding invitations to public appearances and business opportunities offered by other Nova Roman groups or by the central or provincial administrations of Nova Roma.

V.E.

All these privileges are granted for free to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the groups can operate entirely according to its internal organization. The only requirement regarding activity remains that the group must recognize its programs, events as events of Nova Roma.

VI.

An Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being registered as a Nova Roman gladiatorial group:

VI.A.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall possess, use, respect and honor a flag of Nova Roma as its most sacred national flag publicly besides its own unit standards and flags.

VI.B.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, and shall recognize these magistrates as their own state magistrates, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to an Autonomous Gladiatorial Reenactment Group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VI.C.

All programs and events of a Nova Roman gladiatorial group shall count as programs and events of Nova Roma, Nova Roma shall have the right to use the events, programs, photos or promotional materials of the group, and the group can also advertise all other programs of Nova Roma as its own programs within the extended organization. A reenactment group of Nova Roma shall state this fact on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

VI.E.

It is ethical requirement from the gladiator reenactors of a gladiatorial group of Nova Roma that they shall promote Roman culture and traditions, Roman virtues and values through their educational activities as reenactors. Reenactor gladiators of Nova Roma must keep the safety of their members and the safety of their audience as their highest priority during their performances, must abstain from any form of real violence of harmful intention, must maintain a high ethical standard of civilized and polite behavior, benevolence and spirit of brotherhood toward all reenactors, must avoid uncivilized conflicts with other groups, or if a conflict emerges, they must not let such conflicts be noticeable to the public in any form.

VII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have the following privileges granted by Nova Roma:

VII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma unit shall have the right to use of the website and the online communication channels of Nova Roma for advertisement, recruitment and announcements of any kind, restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall have access to expert counsel and assistance regarding research and questions about Roman culture, religion, history, archaeology, military, Latin language or any questions requiring professional assistance for a Roman gladiatorial reenactment group. This right is restricted by the priority rights of the fully Nova Roman gladiatorial groups to these tools.

VII.C.

A Nova Roman gladiatorial reenactment group shall have right to cooperation and networking with all other Nova Roman or allied gladiatorial groups.

VII.D.

All these privileges are granted for free to an allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma: there is no membership fee, there is no requirement regarding activity and it is not mandatory to appear at Nova Roma events or to do certain things; the group can operate entirely according to its internal organization.

VIII.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall fulfill, and once fulfilled, it shall maintain, the following requirements before being recognized as an allied group of Nova Roma:

VIII.A.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the flag of Nova Roma.

VIII.B.

An allied gladiatorial reenactment group of Nova Roma shall respect and honor the magistrates and other state officers of Nova Roma, but this remains a ceremonial requirement and the magistrates of Nova Roma don’t have any right to give orders to the allied group unless it is agreed upon otherwise by the leadership of the group.

VIII.C.

An allied gladiatorial group of Nova Roma shall state the fact of alliance on its main internet location (website or social media page), and shall post a link to the Nova Roma website on its main internet location.

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