Latin for e-mail

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*If a name ends in "-ius", then the vocative ends in "-i". For example, "''Tullius''" becomes "''Tulli''".
 
*If a name ends in "-ius", then the vocative ends in "-i". For example, "''Tullius''" becomes "''Tulli''".
 
*If a name ends in "-us", then the vocative ends in "-e". For example, "''Marcus''" becomes "''Marce''".
 
*If a name ends in "-us", then the vocative ends in "-e". For example, "''Marcus''" becomes "''Marce''".
*All other names do not change at all. "''Felix''" stays "''Felix''", "''Fabia''" stays "''Fabia''" and so on.
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*All other names do not change at all. Examples include: "''Felix''" stays "''Felix''", "''Fabia''" stays "''Fabia''", and so on.
  
 
It is the general convention that you address someone by their [[cognomen]] (the last part of the name). Women were often called by their [[nomen]] (middle name) alone.  
 
It is the general convention that you address someone by their [[cognomen]] (the last part of the name). Women were often called by their [[nomen]] (middle name) alone.  
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===Hello Everyone!===
 
===Hello Everyone!===
  
You need to use plurals. "''Salvete omnes!''"  
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You need to use plurals: "''Salvete omnes!''"  
  
 
(Grammar note: "''Salvete!''" is the plural of "''Salve!''" and "''omnes''" is the plural of "''omnis''", meaning "all" or "every".)
 
(Grammar note: "''Salvete!''" is the plural of "''Salve!''" and "''omnes''" is the plural of "''omnis''", meaning "all" or "every".)
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===Kim sends greetings to Lee===
 
===Kim sends greetings to Lee===
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:''Main article: [[Dative]]''
  
The hard part here is "to Lee". In Latin, we do not use a word for "to". Instead, we change the end of the name in a way that tells us the same idea as "to".  
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The hard part here is how to write "to Lee". In Latin, we do not use a word for "to" in this context. Instead, we change the end of the name in a way that denotes that they are receiving the greeting.
  
(Grammar note: This form of the name, or any noun, is called the "[[dative|dative case]]".) Here are some examples showing how to make the [[dative]]:
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This form of the name, or any noun, is called the "[[dative|dative case]]".) Here are some examples showing how to make the [[dative]]:
 
*Marc-us -> Marc-o (most names that end in "-us" work like this)
 
*Marc-us -> Marc-o (most names that end in "-us" work like this)
 
*Gai-a -> Gai-ae (most names that end in "-a" work like this)
 
*Gai-a -> Gai-ae (most names that end in "-a" work like this)
*Felix -> Felici (there are some names that don't fit those patterns. You will have to learn more about Latin than we can teach you right now. Or you can simply ask the Roman in question; s/he'll know.)
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*Felix -> Felici  
 +
 
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Normally, Latin ''[[praenomen|praenomina]]'' "first names" were abbreviated. ''Gaius'' is always abbreviated "''C.''" and ''Gnaeus'' is always abbreviated "''Cn.''". Here are some more [[Dative]] examples:
 
*''Marcus Lucretius Agricola'' -> ''M. Lucretio Agricolae''
 
*''Marcus Lucretius Agricola'' -> ''M. Lucretio Agricolae''
 
*''Aula Tullia Scholastica'' -> ''A. Tulliae Scholasticae''
 
*''Aula Tullia Scholastica'' -> ''A. Tulliae Scholasticae''
 
*''Gaius Equitius Cato'' -> ''C. Equitio Catoni''
 
*''Gaius Equitius Cato'' -> ''C. Equitio Catoni''
  
(Grammar note: "Cato" is another of those "learn more" names.)
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There are some names that don't fit these patterns. You will have to learn more Latin to grasp the unusual cases. Names like "Cato" are a prime example. Or you can simply ask the Roman in question; they'll know.
  
(Latin usage note: Normally, Latin ''[[praenomen|praenomina]]'' "first names" were abbreviated. ''Gaius'' is always abbreviated "''C.''" and ''Gnaeus'' is always abbreviated "''Cn.''")
 
  
"Sends greetings" is a simple phrase "''salutem dicit''" but we nearly always write it "''s. d.''" or "''sal.''" See Example 2 for a sample.
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"Sends greetings" is a simple phrase "''salutem dicit''" but we nearly always abbreviate it as "''s. d.''" or "''sal.''" See Example 2 below for a sample.
  
On a mailing list you might say hello to everyone, as we show in Example 3.
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On a mailing list you might say hello to everyone, as we show below in Example 3.
  
 
(Grammar note: "''omnibus''" means "to everyone". )
 
(Grammar note: "''omnibus''" means "to everyone". )
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===Kim sends greetings to Lee and Everyone===
 
===Kim sends greetings to Lee and Everyone===
  
If you reply to a message by one person, but you want to greet everyone else who is reading, you could write it like Example 4.
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If you want to send to, or reply to a message by, one person, but you also want to greet everyone else who is reading, you could write it like Example 4.
  
 
(Grammar note: In this example, the "''-que''" on the end of "''omnibusque''" means "and".)
 
(Grammar note: In this example, the "''-que''" on the end of "''omnibusque''" means "and".)
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===I really hope you're well===
 
===I really hope you're well===
  
"''Si vales, bene est, ego valeo''" literally means "If you are sound, that is well; I'm sound". The usual way is to write the abbreviation "''S.V.B.E.E.V.''" You can write this in addition to saying hello: “''Agricola Cordo S.P.D. S.V.B.E.E.V.''”
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"''Si vales, bene est, ego valeo''" literally means "If you are sound, that is well; I'm sound". The common usage of this phrase is in the abbreviated form, "''S.V.B.E.E.V.''" You can write this in addition to saying hello: “''Agricola Cordo S.P.D. S.V.B.E.E.V.''”
  
  
==Closings==
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==Closing Salutations==
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[[Latin]] has its own customs for closing a letter or message. Below are the most common ones you will encounter that you can use.
 +
 
  
 
===Goodbye!===
 
===Goodbye!===
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A '''more elegant''' and formal way to say goodbye is to use the expression "''Cura, ut valeas!''" which means "Take care that you be well." In plural it will become "''Curate, ut valeatis!''".
 
A '''more elegant''' and formal way to say goodbye is to use the expression "''Cura, ut valeas!''" which means "Take care that you be well." In plural it will become "''Curate, ut valeatis!''".
 +
  
 
===May the Gods keep you safe===
 
===May the Gods keep you safe===
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|}
 
|}
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==More Examples==
 
==More Examples==
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*''Cicero'' -> ''Ciceroni''
 
*''Cicero'' -> ''Ciceroni''
 
*''Felix'' -> ''Felici''
 
*''Felix'' -> ''Felici''
 +
  
 
==Latin words==
 
==Latin words==
  
There are many Latin words you're likely to see, and this can't be a complete Latin glossary, but these words are frequently used in our communities. Keeping a dictionary by the computer is a good idea. See [[Reading list for lingua Latina]] for suggestions on Latin dictionaries. See [[Online resources for Latin]] for online dictionaries. Study our articles about [[Latin grammar]], [[declension]]s and [[Latin language]], visit our short [[Latin phrasebook]].
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There are many Latin words you're likely to see and are frequently used in our communities. This can't be a complete Latin glossary, so keeping a dictionary by the computer is a good idea. See [[Reading list for lingua Latina]] for suggestions on Latin dictionaries. See [[Online resources for Latin]] for online dictionaries. Study our articles about [[Latin grammar]], [[declension]]s and [[Latin language]], visit our short [[Latin phrasebook]].
  
 
* "''Gens''" means "clan" (plural "''gentes''").
 
* "''Gens''" means "clan" (plural "''gentes''").
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* "''Edictum''" means "edict" (plural "''edicta''")
 
* "''Edictum''" means "edict" (plural "''edicta''")
  
The names of magistracies are usually in Latin. Sometimes the singular form seems familiar but the plural is not what would be expected in English. To learn more about '''Latin plurals''', read [[Nominative|this article]].   
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The names of '''[[Magistracies (Nova Roma)|magistracies]]''' are usually in [[Latin]]. Sometimes the singular form seems familiar but the plural is not what would be expected in English. To learn more about '''Latin plurals''', read [[Nominative|this article]].   
  
 
You could use these forms when writing to the office holders.
 
You could use these forms when writing to the office holders.
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'''Example''': Marcus Tullius Cicero would start a letter to the ''censores'' thus: ''M. Tullius Cicero censoribus S.P.D.''
 
'''Example''': Marcus Tullius Cicero would start a letter to the ''censores'' thus: ''M. Tullius Cicero censoribus S.P.D.''
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===Computer Terms===
 
===Computer Terms===

Latest revision as of 03:39, 16 August 2020

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Latin grammar

Introduction
The Latin language
The Latin sentence
The four conjugations
The five declensions


Nominative - Accusative - Genitive - Dative - Ablative


Vocative - Locative


Latin phrasebook
Latin for e-mail
Latin jokes
Reading list
Online resources


All articles about Latin


Contents

Introduction

In keeping with Mos Maiorum we, the citizens of Nova Roma, seek to use as much Latin in our various communications as possible. Being a global community, we will often use e-mail or mailing lists to communicate with each other.

This page is a guide for new citizens and beginners, to aid you along your path to Romanitas. Below is a basic framework for using Latin throughout various written communication mediums to help you better assimilate and become a true Roman!

Latin Layout

To aid you in understanding how Latin changes the format of a letter, we will use the example of Kim, writing a letter (or e-mail) to Lee.


A typical letter in English looks like this: Latin style changes the format slightly: A similar letter all in Latin looks like this:
Dear Lee,

Keep practicing your Latin.

Sincerely, Kim

Kim sends greetings to Lee,

Keep practicing your Latin.

Take care!

Agricola Cordo sal.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit.

Vale!


The big difference is that the sender's name goes at the top of the letter, not at the bottom. It is still acceptable to follow the familiar conventions and also include the sender's name on the bottom, but the way shown above is more "authentic".

Of course, just like in English, there are several ways to write a letter or message to someone - some formal and others less so. Read on below to explore various Latin methods, starting with more colloquial, less formal approaches.

Initial Greetings

The words and phrases that Latin uses usually have meanings of "sends a greeting" or "be well!". Several Latin phrases and examples have been prepared below which you can use depending on the circumstance or context of your letter, e-mail or message.


Hello!

This greeting uses a Latin verb that means "to be well".

  • If you are writing to exactly one person, use "Salve!" (the imperative singular).
  • If you are writing to more than one person, use "Salvete!" (the imperative plural).

(Grammar note: "Imperative" means the form of the verb that gives a command. You are making a command that your reader(s) be well! Very Roman of you.)


Hello Lee!

Main article: Vocative

When we address someone directly by name, we use the form of the name called the "vocative". Here are the basic rules for making a vocative:

  • If a name ends in "-ius", then the vocative ends in "-i". For example, "Tullius" becomes "Tulli".
  • If a name ends in "-us", then the vocative ends in "-e". For example, "Marcus" becomes "Marce".
  • All other names do not change at all. Examples include: "Felix" stays "Felix", "Fabia" stays "Fabia", and so on.

It is the general convention that you address someone by their cognomen (the last part of the name). Women were often called by their nomen (middle name) alone.

Here are some more examples:

  • To say hello to Marcus Lucretius Agricola you would write "Salve, Agricola!".
  • To say hello to Aulus Apollonius Cordus you would write "Salve, Corde!".
  • To say hello to Gaius Equitius Cato you would write "Salve, Cato!".

Roman tradition dictates that you should never refer to someone by their praenomen (first name). The use of the praenomen was reserved for among family members or very close friends and they were never used in a public forum. Examples of the use of praenomen in this situation would look like:

  • "Salve, Marce!"
  • "Salve, Aule!"
  • "Salve, Gai!"

It is recommended you read more on how to address fellow citizens in our article on using Roman names.


Hello Everyone!

You need to use plurals: "Salvete omnes!"

(Grammar note: "Salvete!" is the plural of "Salve!" and "omnes" is the plural of "omnis", meaning "all" or "every".)


Kim sends greetings to Lee

Main article: Dative

The hard part here is how to write "to Lee". In Latin, we do not use a word for "to" in this context. Instead, we change the end of the name in a way that denotes that they are receiving the greeting.

This form of the name, or any noun, is called the "dative case".) Here are some examples showing how to make the dative:

  • Marc-us -> Marc-o (most names that end in "-us" work like this)
  • Gai-a -> Gai-ae (most names that end in "-a" work like this)
  • Felix -> Felici

Normally, Latin praenomina "first names" were abbreviated. Gaius is always abbreviated "C." and Gnaeus is always abbreviated "Cn.". Here are some more Dative examples:

  • Marcus Lucretius Agricola -> M. Lucretio Agricolae
  • Aula Tullia Scholastica -> A. Tulliae Scholasticae
  • Gaius Equitius Cato -> C. Equitio Catoni

There are some names that don't fit these patterns. You will have to learn more Latin to grasp the unusual cases. Names like "Cato" are a prime example. Or you can simply ask the Roman in question; they'll know.


"Sends greetings" is a simple phrase "salutem dicit" but we nearly always abbreviate it as "s. d." or "sal." See Example 2 below for a sample.

On a mailing list you might say hello to everyone, as we show below in Example 3.

(Grammar note: "omnibus" means "to everyone". )

(Grammar note: In this example, "valete" is plural because "Omnibus" is plural. Agricola sent greetings to "all" and so said goodbye in the plural.)


Kim sends greetings to Lee and Everyone

If you want to send to, or reply to a message by, one person, but you also want to greet everyone else who is reading, you could write it like Example 4.

(Grammar note: In this example, the "-que" on the end of "omnibusque" means "and".)


Kim sends many greetings to Lee

"Salutem plurimam dicit", means "says many greetings". You can write it out, but "S.P.D." is a common acronym. Example: "Agricola Cordo S.P.D."


I really hope you're well

"Si vales, bene est, ego valeo" literally means "If you are sound, that is well; I'm sound". The common usage of this phrase is in the abbreviated form, "S.V.B.E.E.V." You can write this in addition to saying hello: “Agricola Cordo S.P.D. S.V.B.E.E.V.


Closing Salutations

Latin has its own customs for closing a letter or message. Below are the most common ones you will encounter that you can use.


Goodbye!

If you start with "Salve!" or "Salvete!" you can end with "Vale!" or "Valete!". The meaning is still "be well!" Can you see which is singular and which is plural?

Example 1 is a friendly, informal letter from M. Lucretius Agricola to A. Apollonius Cordus.

  • To say "be very well" you could use "Bene vale!".
  • To say "be most well" you could use "Optime vale!".

(Grammar note: "bene" and "optime" are adverbs.)

A more elegant and formal way to say goodbye is to use the expression "Cura, ut valeas!" which means "Take care that you be well." In plural it will become "Curate, ut valeatis!".


May the Gods keep you safe

This is a nice way to end a formal letter, instead of the simple "vale!" or "valete!" "Di te incolumem custodiant!" is singular and "Di vos incolumes custodiant!" is plural. It means "may the Gods guard your safety".


Examples

Example 1
Simple Hello and Goodbye.
Example 2
Hello and Goodbye, Roman style.
Example 3
Hello to Everyone.
Example 4
Hello to one person and everyone.
Salve Corde!

Blah blah blah

Vale! Agricola

Agricola Cordo sal.

Blah blah blah.

Optime vale!

Agricola omnibus sal.

Blah blah blah.

Optime valete!

Agricola Cordo omnibusque sal.

Blah blah blah.

Optime valete!


More Examples

An example The same example with everything spelled out.
Agricola Cordo S.P.D.

S.V.B.E.E.V.

I see that a new legio was just created. I'm not sure how many legiones we have now... do you know?

Di te incolumem custodiant!


Agricola Cordo salutem plurimam dicit.

Si vales, bene est, ego valeo.

I see that a new legio was just created. I'm not sure how many legiones we have now... do you know?

Di te incolumem custodiant!


An example with everything spelled out and in the plural.
M. Lucretius Agricola omnibus salutem plurimam dicit.

Si valetis, bene est, ego valeo.

I hope all New Romans will learn about Academia Thules and Sodalitas Latinitatis, two excellent places to learn more Latin. You can learn more about them on the Nova Roma website at www.novaroma.org/nr/Main_Page .

Di vos incolumes custodiant!


Difficult names

Finally, here are a few of those troublesome names with difficult datives:

  • Astur -> Asturi
  • Audens -> Audenti
  • Cato -> Catoni
  • Caesar -> Caesari
  • Cicero -> Ciceroni
  • Felix -> Felici


Latin words

There are many Latin words you're likely to see and are frequently used in our communities. This can't be a complete Latin glossary, so keeping a dictionary by the computer is a good idea. See Reading list for lingua Latina for suggestions on Latin dictionaries. See Online resources for Latin for online dictionaries. Study our articles about Latin grammar, declensions and Latin language, visit our short Latin phrasebook.

  • "Gens" means "clan" (plural "gentes").
  • "Legio" means "legion" (plural "legiones") (as in "Roman Legion"; soldiers).
  • "Civis" means "citizen" (plural "cives")
  • "Lex" means "law" (plural "leges")
  • "Edictum" means "edict" (plural "edicta")


The names of magistracies are usually in Latin. Sometimes the singular form seems familiar but the plural is not what would be expected in English. To learn more about Latin plurals, read this article.

You could use these forms when writing to the office holders.

Nominative singular Dative singular Nominative plural Dative plural
Consul Consuli Consules Consulibus
Censor Censori Censores Censoribus
Quaestor Quaestori Quaestores Quaestoribus
Praetor Praetori Praetores Praetoribus

Example: Marcus Tullius Cicero would start a letter to the censores thus: M. Tullius Cicero censoribus S.P.D.


Computer Terms

English Latin
website situs interretialis
computer computator
e-mail epistula electronica
sound file scapus sonorus
list index
download onerare
Personal tools