Oppidum Fluminis Gilae (Nova Roma)
Oppidum Fluminis Gilae is named for the Gila River which flows through it. The Gila River is held sacred by the native people of this area.
Geography and Population
Oppidum Fluminis Gilae is a local subdivision of the Provincia America Austroccidentalis Novae Romae. Its area includes the counties of Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, Cochise, Santa Cruz, Gila, Graham, and Greenlee in the State of Arizona in the United States of America. All citizens of Nova Roma living within this area can become a member of the oppidum.
The Oppidum rules are stipulated by the Foedus de Constitutione Oppidum Fluminis Gilae and Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis. The foundation of the Oppidum was promoted by the citizens of Nova Roma in Tucson and Phoenix and was approved by Legata pro praetore Arnamentia Moravia Aurelia on August 31, 2008 prid. Kal. Sep. ‡ M. Moravio T. Iulio cos. ‡ MMDCCLXI a.u.c..
There are two Aediles Oppidī. They act as "co-mayors" and are the highest-ranked magistrates within the Oppidum. The Aediles Oppidī are elected by the Comitia Oppidana in November and serve during the following calendar year. Their responsibilities include the maintenance of the Oppidum's Album Civium; maintenance of the Oppidum's Tabularium; collection, control, and disbursement of any available funds; and planning and executing public events.
The Sacerdos Solis is the priest or priestess of the Oppidum's patron deity, Sol. He or she is the chief religious official of the Oppidum, whose responsibilities include public rituals, collection and storage of religious and ritual implements, and religious education. The Sacerdos Solis is elected by the Comitia Oppidana in November and serves during the following calendar year.
The Praefectus Praesidiī is the chief official of public order in the Oppidum. His responsibilities include being the commander of military reenactment legions within the Oppidum, providing lictors when needed, creation and storage of military implements, and historical education. The Praefectus Praesidiī is elected by the Comitia Oppidana in November and serves during the following calendar year.
Album Civium Oppidi
The Album Civium Oppidi includes all current citizens of the oppidum. The names are ordered by nomen.
- C Albius Trigeminus Tucson
- Q Caecilius Metellus Pius Postumianus, Phoenix
- C Cornelius Ahenobarbus, Tucson
- L Cornelius Sulla Felix, Phoenix
- Raina Cornelia Valeria Iuliana Aeternia, Phoenix
- V Cornelia Merula, Tucson
- Iulia Ovidia Luna, Tucson
- Id. Quin. ‡ First meeting of Novi Romani in Arizona. Discussion of forming an oppidum takes place.
- Between the first and second meetings, an initial foedus is written. E-mails circulate to establish interest and make recommended changes.
- a.d. IV Id. Sex. ‡ Second meeting of Novi Romani in Arizona. The foedus is signed by 4 of the 5 needed citizens; one is unable to attend.
- prid. Id. Sex. ‡ The fifth signature is obtained.
- a.d. XV Kal. Sep. ‡ The foedus is mailed to the Legata.
- prid. Kal. Sep. ‡ The Legata writes the Edictum Propraetoricum de Oppidum Fluminis Gilae.
- Kal. Sep. ‡ The Edictum is posted publically on two mailing lists: the "main list" Nova-Roma, and the provincial mailing list.
- prid. Non. Sep. ‡ Two candidates announce their candidacies for the office of Aedilis Oppidī.
- a.d. VII Id. Sep. ‡ Two candidates announce their candidacies, one for Sacerdos Solis and one for Prafectus Praesidiī.
- a.d. XVIII Kal. Oct. ‡ The oppidum meets as such for the first time. The first election is held, filling all four available offices until the end of 2761.
- a.d. IV Id. Oct. ‡ Regular monthly meeting, preceded by a dual ritual in which an altar for the oppidum was dedicated and Sol Indiges was worshipped.
- a.d. VII Kal. Nov. ‡ The Comitia Oppidana is called to the meeting on November 9 to vote for officers and a change to the foedus.
- a.d. V Id. Nov. ‡ The Comitia Oppidana passes the Lex Caeli de Tempus Comitalis, changing yearly election of magistrates to November from December. It also elects new officers for 2762. A short ritual to the gods is performed beforehand, resulting in the oppidum's first video being posted to YouTube.
- a.d. VI Id. Feb. ‡ The meeting was extremely small, just Valerius and Caelius. Delicious Greek food was eaten.
- a.d. VIII Id. Mar. ‡ Valerius, Caelius, and Ovidia met at Fronimo's and were joined by a visitor---a Latin student from Pima Community College. There was much discussion about Nova Roma and the religio Romana.
FOEDVS DE CONSTITVTIONE OPPIDVM FLVMINIS GĪLAE
FOEDVS DE CONSTITVTIONE OPPIDVM FLVMINIS GILAE
I. Name of the Oppidum
- In accordance with the Lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis (“Lex Fabia”), we the citizens of Nova Roma in the southern counties of the State of Arizona establish Oppidum Fluminis Gilae by this foedus. This foedus is given to the Propraetrix of the Provinicia America Austroccidentalis, the Oppidum being a local subdivision of this province.
II. Geographical Limits
- Oppidum Fluminis Gilae shall include the counties of Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, Cochise, Santa Cruz, Gila, Graham, and Greenlee in the State of Arizona in the United States of America.
- A. Every citizen of Nova Roma living in the counties listed in Article II shall have the right to be a member of the Oppidum. (Lex Fabia 1.2)
- B. Any citizen of Nova Roma who lives in the counties listed in Article II and wishes to become a member of the Oppidum shall register with the Aediles by sending a written request.
- C. Every member of the Oppidum shall have the right to relinquish his or her membership in the Oppidum without losing any of his or her rights as a citizen of Nova Roma. (Lex Fabia 1.3)
- D. Loss of Nova Roman citizenship shall involve loss of membership in the Oppidum. (Lex Fabia 1.4)
- E. The process of re-admission to membership shall be determined by the Comitia Oppidana.
- A. The following public documents shall be instituted. The Aediles shall be responsible for maintaining these documents.
- 1. The Album Civium, listing the names of the citizens of Nova Roma who are also members of the Oppidum.
- 2. The Tabularium, recording the leges and actiones of the Comitia Oppidana and the edicta issued by the Aediles.
- 3. The Acta, recording the minutes of the meetings of the Comitia Oppidana.
- B. These documents shall be maintained on paper or other permanent medium.
- C. One copy of each document shall be held by each Aedile, and one copy of each document shall be held in the Aerarium.
V. Institutions and Magistrates
- A. Comitia Oppidana, the general assembly of all the members of the Oppidum
- B. Aediles, two magistrates elected once a year
- C. Scribae, appointed by each Aedile, not to exceed one for each Aedile
- D. Sacerdos Solis, a chaplain elected once a year to lead the religious ceremonies of the Oppidum
- E. Other offices may be created by the Comitia Oppidana to perform specific duties.
VI. Comitia Oppidana
- A. The Comitia Oppidana is composed of all the members of the Oppidum.
- B. All members shall have the right to speak and vote in the Comitia. (Lex Fabia 4.5)
- C. The Comitia shall elect all local magistrates and enact leges and actiones binding upon all the members of the Oppidum. (Lex Fabia 4.3)
- D. The Comitia shall assemble four times a year on a dies comitales. (Lex Fabia 4.6) These quarterly meetings shall take place in March, June, September and December. Other meetings of the Comitia may be called by the Aediles.
- E. One or both of the Aediles shall summon the Comitia by edictum issued at least two weeks before the assembly. (Lex Fabia 4.4)
- F. The election of magistrates shall take place at the December meeting of the Comitia.
- G. Voting in the Comitia requires the physical presence of the voter in the place where the Comitia is being held. (Lex Fabia 4.2)
- H. Procedural matters regarding a quorum and related issues shall be determined by the Comitia.
- I. Voting may be done by voice or by secret ballot. For weighty matters, such as the election of magistrates, the secret ballot is preferred.
- J. For a voice vote, one of the Aediles is responsible for counting. For a secret ballot, the Sacerdos Solis is responsible for counting.
- K. The Comitia passes:
- 1. Leges (sing., lex), which deal with weighty matters and procedures.
- 2. Actiones (sing., actio), which cover other matters.
- 3. The Comitia shall determine what constitutes a majority and what sort of majority is needed for each of these types of legislation.
- A. There shall be two Aediles, who are collegial magistrates of equal power. They are the highest magistrates in the Oppidum. (Lex Fabia 6.2)
- B. The Aediles shall be elected by the Comitia Oppidana at the quarterly meeting in December.
- C. The term of office shall be a full calendar year.
- D. A member cannot serve two successive terms as Aedile. Under extraordinary circumstances, the Comitia Oppidana may pass an actio to extend the term for up to one year.
- E. The election of new Aediles shall be certified to the provincial governor by the incumbent Aediles as soon as conveniently possible after the election.
- F. The duties of the Aediles are:
- 1. To summon the Comitia Oppidana and preside over its meetings;
- 2. To maintain the local Album Civium, Tabularium, and Acta;
- 3. To issue edicta affecting the Oppidum;
- 4. To exercise intercessio against another local magistrate of equal or lesser authority. (Lex Fabia 6.4)
- G. Each Aedile may appoint one scribe to assist with administrative and other tasks, as he or she shall see fit. (Lex Fabia 6.4)
- H. The Aediles accomplish their functions by issuing Edicta.
- 1. When one Aedile issues an Edictum, his or her colleague will have nine days in which to exercise intercessio.
- 2. A vetoed Edictum may be brought before a meeting of the Comitia Oppidana, whether a regularly scheduled meeting or a special meeting duly summoned by either Aedile.
- 3. Edicta are subject to alteration by actio of the Comitia Oppidana.
- I. The procedure for removing an Aedile from office shall be determined by the Comitia Oppidana.
- J. Should an Aedile leave the Oppidum before the end of his or her term, the remaining Aedile shall notify the governor and hold elections for a new Aedile, who shall have the right to stand for election in the following year.
- K. The provincial governor may, at his or her discretion, remove one or both of the Aediles by edictum. He or she will then make arrangements for new elections.
VIII. Intercessio and Legal Precedence
- A. The magistrates of Nova Roma and the provincial governor shall have the power of intercessio over the Aediles and the Comitia Oppidana. (Lex Fabia 5.3)
- B. Each Aedile shall have the power of intercessio over his or her colleague and over other minor magistrates of the Oppidum. (Lex Fabia 6.4.c)
- C. The Constitution and laws of Nova Roma, the Senatus Consulta of the Senate of Nova Roma, the edicta of magistrates of Nova Roma (including the provincial governor), and the decreta of the pontifical and augural colleges of Nova Roma shall have precedence over leges and actiones of the Comitia Oppidana and edicta of the Aediles. (Lex Fabia 5.2)
- D. Leges and actiones of the Comitia Oppidana shall have precedence over edicta of the Aediles and other local magistrates. (Lex Fabia 5.1)
- E. The acts of the lesser magistrates are under the authority of leges and actiones of the Comitia Oppidana and of edicta of the Aediles.
- A. In keeping with the Constitution of Nova Roma (II.B.1), every member of the Oppidum has the right to his or her own religious beliefs, including non-belief.
- B. Apart from its members’ individual beliefs, Oppidum Fluminis Gilae, as a local part of Nova Roma, supports the Religio Romana with public rites and ceremonies to the gods.
- C. The patron deity of Oppidum Fluminis Gilae is the god Sol, known also as Sol Indiges, and known to the Greeks as Helios.
- D. The leader of the Religio Romana in the Oppidum is the Sacerdos Solis. [Footnote: In Latin, sacerdos can be either masculine or feminine.]
- E. The Sacerdos Solis shall be elected at the December meeting of the Comitia Oppidana.
- F. The term of office shall be a full calendar year.
- G. The Sacerdos Solis may not also be an Aedile at the same time.
- H. The Sacerdos Solis may appoint one assistant to assure that the rites of the Oppidum are maintained.
- I. The duties of the Sacerdos Solis are:
- 1. To offer worship to the gods at every meeting of the Comitia;
- 2. To lead the religious rites surrounding any Roman event sponsored by the Oppidum;
- 3. To invite the members to festivals of the gods;
- 4. To create and/or maintain a book of rituals and ceremonies to be used in the Oppidum;
- 5. To prepare and publish the calendar of the Oppidum for the year of his or her term. This calendar shall conform to the official calendar of Nova Roma, with appropriate local additions;
- 6. To faithfully count the secret ballots of the Comitia Oppidana.
- J. Other priesthoods may be created, either by lex of the Comitia Oppidana or by edictum of the Aediles, as confirmed by actio of the Comitia.
- A. The treasury of the Oppidum shall be known as the Aerarium.
- B. One of the Aediles shall be responsible for the Aerarium.
- C. The Comitia Oppidana may elect one or two members as Quaestors to take charge of the Aerarium, under the authority of the Aediles.
- D. The magistrate who maintains the Aerarium shall report the finances of the Oppidum at each meeting of the Comitia Oppidana.
- E. The financial books of the Oppidum shall be made available for all members to examine if they request.
- A. The Comitia Oppidana shall establish a praesidium, composed of volunteer citizens.
- B. The Comitia shall elect a citizen to serve as the leader of the praesidium at its meeting in December.
- C. The term of office for this leader shall be for a full calendar year.
- D. The leader of the praesidium may also be an Aedile or the Sacerdos Solis.
- E. The duties of the members of the praesidium shall be:
- 1. To preserve the honor of Nova Roma and Oppidum Fluminis Gilae;
- 2. To protect the citizens of the Oppidum and its magistrates;
- 3. To serve as an honor guard for the magistrates.
XII. Modifications to this Foedus
- A. This foedus may be modified by a lex approved by the Comitia Oppidana.
- B. Once the lex has passed, the Aediles will jointly submit the revised foedus to the governor for approval.
QVOD BONVM FAVSTVM FELIXQUE SIT. This foedus is herewith approved by the citizens of Oppidum Fluminis Gilae, a.d. IV Id. Sex. ‡ M. Moravio T. Iulio cos. ‡ MMDCCLXI a.u.c.
Citizens (arranged by nomen)
- Gaius Albius Trigeminus, Tucson
- Gnaeus Caelius Ahenobarbus, Tucson
- Gaius Iulius Iulianus, Tucson
- Gaia Ovidia Lepida, Tucson
- Marcus Valerius Potitus, Phoenix
- Gaia Aurelia Trigemina, Tucson
EDICTUM PROPRAETORICUM DE OPPIDUM FLUMINIS GĪLAE
EX OFFICIO PROPRAETORIS AMERICA AUSTROCCIDENTALIS:
EDICTUM PROPRAETORICUM DE OPPIDUM FLUMINIS GĪLAE.
Having received the foedus from the following citizens:
- Gaius Albius Trigeminus
- Gnaeus Caelius Ahenobarbus
- Gaius Iulius Iulianus
- Gaia Ovidia Lepida
- Marcus Valerius Potitus
- Gaia Aurelia Trigemina,
I, Arnamentia Moravia Aurelia, Legata Propraetore of the Provincia America Austroccidentalis, approve their request to form an Oppidum in the Southern counties of the State of Arizona in concordance with Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis. For that:
- the official name of the oppidum will be Oppidum Fluminis Gīlae.
- the geographical limits of the Oppidum Fluminis Gīlae are represented by the counties of Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, Cochise, Santa Cruz, Gila, Graham, and Greenlee in the State of Arizona (in the United States of America.)
- every Nova Roman citizen from the designated area is citizen of the nominated oppidum at the time he/she has Nova Roman citizenship.
- The Comitia Oppidana is represented by all oppidum citizens and it has the rights and responsibilities described by the Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis, point 4.
- The Comitia Oppidana will approve or reject local proposed laws (leges oppidanae) in conformity with the legal precedence described by Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis, point 5.
- The Comitia Oppidana will elect two aediles for a one-year term and they will have the rights and duties described by Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis, point 6.
I nominate G. Caelius Ahenobarbus and M. Valerius Potitus as provisional aediles with the duty to handle the elections of oppidum's first magistrates in concordance with Lex Fabia de Oppidis et Municipiis, point 3.3.
This edict is effective immediately. Given under my hand this 31st day of August 2761 ab Urbis condita (CE 2008) in the consulships of M. Moravius and T. Iulius.
A. Moravia Aurelia Legata Propretore, America Austroccidentalis
Election, November 2761
The Comitia Oppidana was called on a.d. V Id. Nov. ‡, 2761. The foedus was changed by the Lex Caeli de tempus comitalis to move yearly election of magistrates and officers to November. New magistrates and officers were elected for 2762. They are:
- Aediles Oppidi : Gnaeus Caelius Ahenobarbus and Marcus Valerius Potitus
- Sacerdos Solis : Gaius Iulius Iulianus
- Praefectus Praesidii : Gnaeus Caelius Ahenobarbus
The first meeting of Novi Romani in Arizona, Id. Quin. ‡ 2761
M. Valerius & C. Albius, prid. Non. Sep. ‡ 2761
C. Iulius & M. Valerius, a.d. IV Id. Oct. ‡ 2761
M. Valerius washing the altar with water, a.d. IV Id. Oct. ‡ 2761
C. Iulius making an offering to Sol Indiges, a.d. IV Id. Oct. ‡ 2761
Oppidum Fluminis Gilae members after ritual, a.d. IV Id. Oct. ‡ 2761
Cn. Caelius Ahenobarbus in his partially-finished tunica, Kal. Nov. ‡ 2761
C. Iulius and M. Valerius starting a ritual, a.d. V Id. Nov. ‡ 2761
Cn. Caelius, C. Iulius, and M. Valerius after ritual, a.d. V Id. Nov. ‡ 2761