Ludi Novi Romani/MMDCCLXIV/Munera Rules
The following rules will govern the gladiatorial games of Ludi Novi Romani 2764 AUC:
1. You may enter one or two gladiators.
2. Your entries must contain:
- a. Your Roman Name
- b. Your Entry's Name
- c. Description and Background History of Your Entry
- This need only include gender, birthplace, age, height and weight. Including more information about your gladiator’s history and background is optional but strongly encouraged. Here are some suggestions for building a background for a gladiator entry:
- i. Pick an ancient Roman province or area like Gallia, Hispania, Thrace, Greece, Egypt, etc.
- ii. Pick a region in that area.
- iii. Pick a tribe, town or village in that region.
- iv. Research a little bit about that tribe and its environment, culture, friends and enemies, industries, etc.
- v. Pick a name for your Gladiator that is reflective of all of this.
- vi. Create a description of your Gladiator character from all of this.
- vii. When you have some spare time, do it several times again, creating several Gladiators. Remember, just like the real Ludi games, our Nova Roma characters get injured so you may want to have more than one gladiator character entered.
- viii. As your Ludi characters enter and compete in various games, you can improve the descriptions of them, based on their results.
- ix. Keep all of your Ludi characters in a file for easy reference.
- d. Class of Gladiator
- i. Retiarius: A retiarius (literally, "net-man" or "net-fighter" in Latin, plural retiarii) was a Roman gladiator who fought with equipment styled on that of a fisherman: a weighted net (rete, hence the name), a three-pronged trident (fuscina or tridens), and a dagger (pugio). The retiarius was lightly armored, wearing an arm guard (manicae) made of banded metal (iron or copper alloy) and a metal shoulder guard (galerus). Typically, his clothing consisted only of a loincloth (subligaculum) held in place by a wide belt, or of a short tunic with light padding. He wore no head protection or footwear. His usual opponent was the secutor but he sometimes faced the murmillo.
- ii. Thraex: A thraex (meaning Thracian, plural thraeces) was a type of gladiator armed with a small rectangular shield called a parmula (about 60 cm x 65 cm) and a Thracian short sword with a slightly curved blade called a sica, about 34 cm or 13 inches long, intended to maim an opponent's unarmored back or calf. He wore greaves, a metal or thickly padded linen arm guard (manicae) to protect his sword arm, a belt (cintus), loincloth (subligaculum) and a broad-rimmed helmet, enclosing the entire head and sometimes distinguished by a stylized griffin on the front of the crest. His usual opponent was the murmillo or the dimachaerus but occasionally the hoplomachus.
- iii. Murmillo: A murmillo (meaning “fishman”, plural murmillones) was a type of gladiator during the Roman Imperial age, adopted to replace the earlier Gallus. The distinguishing feature of the murmillo was the high crest of his helmet which, together with its broad rim, was shaped somewhat like a fish. The murmillo took his name from this fish-shaped helmet; the word comes from the Greek word for a type of saltwater fish. He wore a loincloth (subligaculum), belt (cintus), very thick wrappings on the lower part of his left leg (designed to protect the top of his feet from attack and from his own shield), a greave (ocrea) on his right leg, a metal or thickly padded linen arm guard (manicae) to protect his sword arm, and the curved rectangular shield (scutum) of the Roman legionary. He also carried the legionary's short, straight-blade sword, or gladius, from which gladiators derived their name. His usual opponent was the thraex or hoplomachus.
- iv. Dimachaerus: A dimachaerus (from Greek meaning 'bearing two swords', plural dimachaeri) is a class of gladiator perfected in Nova Roma. In ancient Rome, the dimachaerus may not have been a class of gladiator but rather a gladiator of a shield bearing class who chose to fight with a second sword rather than a shield as a tactic or fighting style to please the spectators. The dimachaerus was armed with two swords of the same type: either the Thracian curved sword (sica) or the Roman short sword (gladius). He wore a loincloth (subligaculum), a greave (ocrea), and a light, visored helmet fitting tightly to the head. His usual opponent was the murmillo or hoplomachus.
- v. Hoplomachus: A hoplomachus (hoplon meaning "shield" in Greek, plural hoplomachi) was a type of gladiator in ancient Rome, armed to resemble a Greek hoplite. The hoplomachus wore a brimmed bronze helmet that could be adorned with a plume of feathers on top and a single feather on each side, manicae on his sword arm, a loincloth (subligaculum), heavy padding on his legs, and a pair of high greaves reaching to mid-thigh. His weapons were the spear and a short sword. The hoplomachus also carried a very small, round shield, which was as much a weapon as a sword or spear. This shield was used for defensive purposes but it was also used for ramming opponents at the onset of a fight and in charges at other points during combat. His usual opponent was the murmillo or the dimachaerus but he might fight the thraex in exceptional cases.
- vi. Secutor: A secutor (meaning "pursuer, plural secutores) was a class of gladiator specifically developed to fight the retiarius. Thought to have originated around 50 AD, the secutor was armed similarly to the murmillo with a curved rectangular shield (scutum), a short sword (gladius) and a dagger (pugio). Also like the murmillo, he wore a loincloth (subligaculum), a belt (cintus), a greave (ocrea) on his right leg and a metal or thickly padded linen arm guard (manicae) to protect his sword arm, His helmet, however, covered the entire face with the exception of two small eye-holes in order to protect his face from the thin prongs of the trident of his opponent. The helmet was almost round and smooth so that the retiarius net could not get a grip on it. His usual opponent was the retiarius.
- e. Type of Tactics
- i. "Defensive" tactics (Type 1) adds one point to the outcome. A gladiator employing Defensive tactics has a 30% probability of serious injury in the event of a defeat due to fate or from spectators taking out their frustrations. Defensive tactics are boring for spectators but work well for the gladiator.
- ii. "Standard" tactics (Type 2) neither adds nor takes away points. A gladiator employing Standard tactics has a 20% probability of serious injury in the event of a defeat. Standard tactics are expected and provide no benefit to the gladiator for either combat outcome or popularity.
- iii. "Blitz" tactics (Type 3) reduces the outcome by one point. A gladiator employing Blitz tactics has a 10% probability of serious injury in the event of a defeat. Blitz tactics are exciting and very well received by spectators; thus, they tend to increase the popularity of a gladiator but do so at the risk of lowering the gladiator's guard and increasing the risk of defeat.
- iv. The tactics of every player are secret and known only to the aedilis cohors and the player. Tactics will not be revealed or published until the Ludi Novi Romani gladiatorial contests are completed. A serious injury will result in the gladiator being removed from the remainder of competition during the Ludi Novi Romani.
- f. Your Ludus
- Ludus Albatus – The Whites
- Ludus Praesinus – The Greens
- Ludus Russatus – The Reds
- Ludus Venetus – The Blues
3. Combat in these games will be decided in this manner:
- a. One 10-sided die is rolled for every gladiator. The result is the Combat Number (CN) for that gladiator. This Combat Number is modified by adding or subtracting a point according to the chosen tactics:
- i. Defensive Tactics (+1)
- ii. Standard Tactics (+0)
- iii. Blitz Tactics (-1)
- b. The Combat Number is also modified according to the opponent’s type of gladiator:
- Retiarius versus:
- Retiarius (0); Thraex (-2); Murmillo (-1); Dimachaerus (+2); Hoplomachus (+1); Secutor (0)
- Thraex versus:
- Retiarius (+2); Thraex (0); Murmillo (0); Dimachaerus (+1); Hoplomachus (-1); Secutor (-2)
- Murmillo versus:
- Retiarius (+1); Thraex (0); Murmillo (0); Dimachaerus (-2); Hoplomachus (+2); Secutor (-1)
- Dimachaerus versus:
- Retiarius (-2); Thraex (-1); Murmillo (+2); Dimachaerus (0); Hoplomachus (0); Secutor (+1)
- Hoplomachus versus:
- Retiarius (-1); Thraex (+1); Murmillo (-2); Dimachaerus (0); Hoplomachus (0); Secutor (+2)
- Secutor versus:
- Retiarius (0); Thraex (+2); Murmillo (+1); Dimachaerus (-1); Hoplomachus (-2); Secutor (0)
- c. The gladiator who’s Combat Number, after modification by the type of opponent and type of tactics, is the highest is the winner of the combat. If there is a tie then nobody wins and the combat will be listed as a draw.
- d. The Fates, and to some degree the spectators in the amphitheatre, may directly influence the health of a gladiator who is defeated. Any gladiator that receives a serious injury is eliminated from all combat for the remainder of the games in order to receive medical care and will thus forfeit any consolation rounds. An Injury Number (IN) is determined by rolling two 10-sided dice once for each gladiator that loses a match. The first die will be read as the ‘tens’ and the second die will be read as the ‘units’ thus yielding a number between 0 and 99 when read together.
- i. If the defeated gladiator used Defensive Tactics (Type 1) there is a 30% probability of serious injury, which will occur if the Injury Number is between 0 and 30.
- ii. If the defeated gladiator used Standard Tactics (Type 2) there is a 20% probability of serious injury, which will occur if the Injury Number is between 0 and 20.
- iii. If the defeated gladiator used Blitz Tactics (Type 3) there is a 10% probability of serious injury, which will occur if the Injury Number is between 0 and 10.
Some examples of past entries - in random order:
Some links of interest:
Deadline: Entries must be received no later than 9:00pm Rome time on 1 March 2764.
Submit entries to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Munera Gladiatoria will begin on 3 March 2764 AUC.
Please note that no animals will be harmed in this edition of the ludi; thus, any entries for animals, venatores or bestiarii will be rejected immediately. Also note that due to improved trauma care and better training, no gladiators are expected to die in this edition of the games.
Enroll your gladiators in the Munera Gladiatoria matches of the Ludi Novi Romani now!
The Ludi Novi Romani begins on 1 March 2011, courtesy of your Curule Aediles:
- Statia Cornelia Valeriana Iuliana Aeternia
- Aulus Vitellius Celsus
and their staff - the CA Cohors.