Greek philosopher, founder of the school of Epicureanism.
Epicurus had a thoroughly materialist explanation of the universe, owing much to Democritus. This point was to explain away superstition and irrational fear of the gods and punishment and comport one's life to achieve Ataraxia. Pleasure, the absence of pain, was the greatest good.
To achieve Ataraxia Epicurus withdrew from the world to the Garden where he lived simply and spent his days in the company of his friends, discussing philosophy. And lathe biosas λαθε βιωσας "live unnoticed' was a great maxim.
His teaching was a theraputic way to live; the maxim achieved by the individual's calculation; every aversion and choice based upon the pleasure it gives.
His disciples included Metrodorus, Hermarchus Leontius, Themista, Leontion both women, Mys, his slave and many others. Women and slaves were permitted to attend the Garden (κηπος). During his lifetime the members would sacrifice and dine comunally and read memorials in remembrance of members. This was the start of epicurean hero cults. The point was if one wished to achieve the tranquillity of the philosophers one would model one's life and death after their example.
Later heads of the Epicurean school in Athens were:
- Phaedrus 75-70 B.C.E
- Popillius Theotimus
- Diskin Clay "Paradosis and Desire"
- Geert Roskam "Live Unnoticed,
- Bernard Frischer "The Sculptured Word"