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Junius (sacred to Juno)

Junius calendar

Juno Moneta

I Junius/June 1: Sacred to Juno Moneta (Juno the Warner), the aspect of Juno who warns of impending disasters and harmful events. It was her sacred geese who warned the Romans of the impending attack by the Gauls in 363 a.u.c. (389 BCE) [back to calendar]


I Junius/June 1: This day is sacred to Mars. It is the anniversary of the dedication of the Temple of Mars near the Capena gate. [back to calendar]


I Junius/June 1: Sacred to the Tempestates, Goddesses of weather and storms in particular. [back to calendar]


I Junius/June 1: Sacred to Carna, Goddess of door hinges as well as bodily health. She has the power to ward off stirges (vampires) from babies who are left in their cribs unattended. On this day prayers are offered to her for the health of the liver, heart, and other internal organs. She receives on this day offerings of bean-meal and bacon fat, which were thought to promote bodily health and robustness. [back to calendar]


III Junius/June 3: Sacred to Bellona, Goddess of war. [back to calendar]

Hercules Magno Custodi

IV Junius/June 4: Sacred to Hercules Magno Custodi, Hercules the Great Custodian. [back to calendar]

Dius Fidius

V Junius/June 5: Sacred to Dius Fidius, "Divine Faith" (associated with Semo Sancus). He is associated with the taking of oaths and the making of treaties, and a common oath formula is "medius fidius" or "me dius fidius". Such oaths had to be made outdoors, in view of the sky. [back to calendar]


VII Junius ad XV Junius/June 7-15: These days were connected to the preparations for the Vestalia. On the 7th, the inner sanctum (known as the penus) of Her temple is opened up; it is closed again on the 15th. On the 15th, the dirt is swept from the temple of Vesta and taken to the Tiber. [back to calendar]


VII Junius/June 7: Sacred to Tiberinus, God of the river Tiber (often called Father Tiber). On this day fishermen celebrate games, officiated by Praetor Urbanis. [back to calendar]


VIII Junius/June 8:Sacred to Mens, Goddess of right thinking and the mind. She is sometimes known as Mens Bona. [back to calendar]


IX Junius/June 9: The holiday of Vesta, Goddess of the hearth. The Vestal Virgins employ the mola salsa, the holy cake, in the celebrations of the day. First, water is drawn by the Virgins from a sacred spring; the water may not be set down on the ground (contact with the earth would destroy its sacred nature), and is carried in narrow-bottomed vessels to prevent this. The salt used in the cakes is specially made from brine brought in a salt pan and then ground in a mortar and baked in a jar. The salt thus produced was cut with an iron saw. This salt was used on the grain or flour, using the ears of grain gathered on the 7th, 9th, and 11th days of Maius, and then turned into flour.

Women who wish to make offerings to Vesta in her temple during the Vestalia usually offer sacrifices of simple food, borne on a platter. When doing so, women go barefoot. Only women (and the Pontifex Maximus) were allowed in the temple of Vesta.

Bakers and millers also honor this day, and the various tools of their trade (millstones and the beasts of burden used to turn them) are garlanded with violets and small loaves. [back to calendar]


XI Junius/June 11: The festival of Mater Matuta, Goddess of growth, childbirth, motherhood, and the raising of children. On this day mothers are honored by their children and husbands, and mothers pray for their children and the children of their siblings.

The statue of Mater Matuta could only be decorated on this day by a univira (the wife of a first marriage). Female slaves were excluded from the temple, with the exception of one who was ritually beaten, either as a warning to others not to cuccold free-born husbands, or as a fertility rite in and of itself. Testuacia (sacred cakes) are offered to the Goddess, cooked in testu (old-fashioned earthenware pots). [back to calendar]


XI Junius/June 11: Sacred to Fortuna, Goddess of fate, chance, luck, and fortune. [back to calendar]


XIII Junius ad XV Junius/June 13-15: Also known as the "Lesser Quinquatria" (the Greater Quinquatria being held on 19-23 Martius). It is a festival of the tibicines (flute-players who play at religious occasions to drown out any ill-omened noises). For three days they wander the city in masks and festive clothing, making music and livening up everyday business. It is also sacred to Minerva, who is the patron Goddess of the tibicines. In ancient times they would meet at Her temple and then go to the temple of Jupiter for a feast. [back to calendar]


XIX Junius/June 19: Sacred to Minerva, Goddess of crafts and trade guilds, associated with the Greek Athena. [back to calendar]


XX Junius/June 20: Sacred to Summanus, an aspect of Jupiter that was responsible for the casting of lightning bolts at night. Two black wethers (castrated male sheep) are offered to Him, and cakes in the shape of wheels are also sacrificed. [back to calendar]

Fors Fortuna

XXIV Junius/June 24: Sacred to Fors Fortuna, Goddess of good fortune. Her festival is a spirited affair, with both people on foot and some on flower-bedecked boats attending. Gardeners bring their vegetables and flowers to market, and then sing solemn prayers to Fors Fortuna. The festival is especially marked by florists and other tradespeople, but is widely celebrated by the common folk. [back to calendar]

Ludi Taurei Quinquennales

XXV et XXVI Junius/June 25 and 26: These games are held in honor of the deities of the underworld (to appease them against causing plague); they include horse racing and the sacrifice of bulls. The games are held every five years. [back to calendar]

Jupiter Stator

XXVII Junius/June 27: Sacred to Jupiter Stator ("Jupiter the Stayor"), who aids warriors in staying their ground in the face of adversity. Twenty-seven maidens sing a hymn to Juno as they process through the city. [back to calendar]

Hercules Musarum

XXIX Junius/June 29: Sacred to Hercules Musarum, "Hercules of the Muses". Men of letters offer their respects to the more peaceful aspects of Hercules, as well as the nine Muses who govern the arts. [back to calendar]

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