Gens Lucretia

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See also: Gens Lucretia in Nova Roma.


Gens Lucretia was originally patrician, but later also included plebeian families. It was one of the most ancient gentes, and the name occurs as early as the reign of Numa Pompilius.

The cognomen of the patrician Lucretii was "Triciptinus". The plebeian families are known by the surnames of Gallus, Ofella, Trio and Vespillo. Carus also occurs as the cognomen of the poet Lucretius. A few Lucretii are mentioned without any cognomen. Praenomina commonly used by members of this gens were Lucius, Publius, Titus, and Spurius.

Contents

Lucretia

Lucretia was the daughter of Sp. Lucretius Triciptinus and the wife of L. Tarquinius Collatinus. "The Rape of Lucretia" explains the expulsion of the kings from Rome and is told by Livy [1] .

Another Lucretia was the wife of Numa Pompilius [2] .

Titus Lucretius Carus

Titus Lucretius Carus was a first century BCE Epicurean philosopher, and author of the poem "De Rerum Natura" (Of The Nature of Things). A translation by W. E. Leonard is available at Project Gutenberg. The Latin text can be found at IntraText. John H. Lienhard has posted a commentary on Lucretius' atomism.

Main article: Titus Lucretius Carus

Lucretii Triciptini

Sp. Lucretius Triciptinus

Sp. Lucretius Triciptinus, the father of Lucretia, whose rape by Sex. Tarquinius led to the dethronement of Tarquinius Superbus and the establishment of the republic. Triciptinus was a member of the senate under Tarquinius, and was appointed Praefectus Urbi by the king, when the latter left the city to prosecute the war against Ardea. After the dethronement of the king, and before the appointment of the consuls, Triciptinus, by virtue of his office of Prae­fectus Urbi, had the government of the city. He presided at the comitia, in which the first consuls were elected, and for this purpose was probably elected interrex by the patricians, as is ex­pressly stated by Dionysius (v. 11).

The two first consuls were L. Junius Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus, 509 BCE. ; and after the death of Brutus in battle, in the course of the same year, Triciptinus was elected to supply his place; but worn out by age, he died a few days after entering upon the office. [3]


T. Lucretius T. p. Triciptinus

T. Lucretius T. p. Triciptinus, consul in 508 BCE. with P. Valerius Publicola, in which year he fought against the Etruscans, who had attacked Rome under Porsena, and he is said by Dionysius to have been wounded in the battle. Dionysius, however, places the invasion of Porsena in the following year, and accordingly represents Triciptinus as one of the generals of the Roman army under the consuls [4] . Triciptinus was consul a second time in 504 BCE. with P. Valerius Publicola, in which year the consuls carried on the war against the Sabines with success [5] .

Lucretius (Triciptinus)

Lucretius (Triciptinus), was possibly consul in 507 BCE. with P. Valerius Publicola, although some sources give M. Horatius Pulvillus as Publicola's colleague[6] .

L. Lucretius T. f. T. n. Triciptinus

L. Lucretius T. f. T. n. Triciptinus, (son of the T. Lucretius T. p. Triciptinus who was consul in 508 B.C.E.), was himself consul in 462 BCE. with T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus. He fell upon the Volscians, when they were returning from an invasion of the Roman territory laden with booty, and nearly annihilated the whole army. He obtained in con­sequence the honour of a triumph. In the follow­ing year he exerted himself warmly to save Kaeso Quintius, who was brought to trial by the tribune Virginius [7] . Triciptinus is mentioned by Dionysius [8]

as one of the distinguished senators who spoke in favour of the abolition of the decemvirate in BCE 449.

Hostus Lucretius L. f. T. n. Triciptinus

Hostus Lucretius L. f. T. n. Triciptinus, son of ,L. Lucretius T. f. T. n. Triciptinus (who was consul in 462 BCE) was consul in 429 B.C.E. with L. Sergius Fidenas [9] .

P. Lucretius Hosti f. Triciptinus

P. Lucretius Hosti f. Triciptinus, consular tribune in 419 BCE, and a second time in 417 BCE [10] .

L. Lucretius Flavus Triciptinus

L. Lucretius Flavus Triciptinus, consul in 393 BCE with Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus, in which year he conquered the Aequi. He was consular tribune in 391 B.C.E., when he gained a victory over the Volsinienses ; and he held the same office a second time in 388 BCE, a third time in 383 BCE, and a fourth time in 381 BCE[11] . Plutarch [12]

represents L. Lucretius as the senator who was usually asked first for his opinion, probably because he was one of the few who had held the rank of consul; and the same writer informs us that Lucretius spoke against the removal to Veii.

See http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3507.html for more.

Lucretii Vespillones

Lucretius Vespillo

Lucretius Vespillo was aedile 133 BCE. He is said to have thrown the corpse of Tiberius Gracchus into the Tiber and thus to have obtained the surname of Vespillo ("undertaker")[13] .

Q. Lucretius Vespillo

Q. Lucretius Vespillo, an orator and a jurist, was proscribed by Sulla and put to death [14] .

Q. Lucretius Vespillo

Q. Lucretius Vespillo, the son of Q. Lucretius Vespillo the jurist, served in the Pompeian fleet in 48 BCE. He was proscribed by the triumvirs in 43 BCE, but more fortunate than his father, was concealed by his wife Turia in his own house at Rome, till his friends obtained his pardon. In 20 BCE he was one of the deputation which the senate sent to Augustus at Athens to request the latter to assume the consulship for the following year. Augustus de­clined the honour, and appointed Vespillo, who was accordingly consul with C. Sentius Saturninus in 19 BCE[15]

[16]

. He is mentioned in the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.

See http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3582.html for more.

Turia

Turia is one of three women listed by the historian Valerius Maximus as examples of womanly virtue:

"When Quintus Lucretius [Vespillo, the consul of 19 BCE] was proscribed by the triumvirs, his wife Turia hid him in her bedroom above the rafters. A single maidservant knew the secret. At great risk to herself, she kept him safe from imminent death. So rare was her loyalty that, while the other men who had been proscribed found themselves in foreign, hostile places, barely managing to escape the worst tortures of body and soul, Lucretius was safe in that bedroom in the arms of his wife." [17]


So called "Laudatio Turiae" inscription (fragment). Courtesy of VROMA.

A lengthy funerary inscription exists [18]

which is traditionally known as the "Laudatio Turiae". The unnamed subject has sometimes been identified with the Turia married to Q. Lucretius Vespillo.  W. Ward Fowler states, "...there is a very strong probability that her name was Turia, and that he was a certain Q. Lucretius Vespillo..." [19]

. N.S. Gill, however, says "It is strongly believed that the woman of this inscription was not Turia." [20]

Dr. Susan Martin   discusses the meaning of the inscription, locating it in its historical context and observing that it shows "...the potential for strength in the conventional model of Roman womanhood." [21]


There is an English translation available online as well as the extant Latin text. VRoma has two images of fragments: 1 2


Lucretii Ofellae

Q. Lucretius Ofella was a general who served under L. Cornelius Sulla. He successfully besieged Praeneste, but later fell afoul of Sulla and was killed[22] .

Lucretii Triones

The cognomen "Trio" is found on coins but is not found in any ancient writer. [Warning: These coins have been faked. [23]


Cn. Lucretius Trio

A "moneyer" active around 135-127 BCE. [24]

There is an image of a coin of Cn. Lucretius Trio at McMaster University.

L. Lucretius Trio

A "moneyer" active around 74 BCE. [25]

There is an image of a coin of L. Lucretius Trio at CoinArchives.

Lucretii Galli

C. Lucretius Gallus. The reverse of the denarius of L. Lucretius Trio may refer to C. Lucretius Gallus who in 181 BCE was created duumvir navalis and later commanded the fleet against Perseus of Macedon.[26]


M. Lucretius (Gallus), brother of C. Lucretius Gallus, was tribune of the plebs 172 BCE. He brought forward a bill "ut agrum Campanum censores fruendum locarent." [27]

In the next year he served as legate to his brother in Greece. [28]


Lucretii in Pompeii

Fourth style wall painting from the house of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii. Courtesy of VROMA.

M. Lucretius

Two houses belonging to Lucretii have been identified in Pompeii. The house of M. Lucretius was found in Regio IX [29]

and that of M. Lucretius Fronto in Regio V [30]


M. Lucretius Fronto

Marcus Lucretius Fronto's house in Pompeii is notable for the quantity and quality of the art found therein. [31]


Lucretii in Egypt

C. Lucretius Saturnilus

Gaius Lucretius Saturnilus is mentioned as being involved in the execution of a will in Egypt, 149 CE[32] .

M. Lucretius Diogenes

The testament of Isidora to her husband M. Lucretius Diogenes and her son Isidoros is known from a papyrus find in Egypt [33]

[34]

.


Lucretiani

Under conditions of adoption, a Roman took the name of the adoptive parent, adding a trace of the original nomen in adjectival form as an (additional) cognomen. Several "Lucretiani" appear in the historical record.

Lucius Titinius Glaucus Lucretianus

Lucius Titinius Glaucus Lucretianus is recorded as supervisor of the reconstruction of the Odeon at Cosa and is also mentioned in conjunction with the Capitoline temple there.

Antonius Lucretianus

The British Museum has a small altar found at Winchester dedicated by Antonius Lucretianus:

MATRIB ITALIS GERMANIS GAL BRIT ANTONIVS LVCRETIANVS BF COS REST

("For the Mother Goddesses of Italy, the Germanies, Gaul and Britain, the Beneficiarius Consularis Antonius Lucretianus restored [this temple].") [35]


References

  1. Livy I: 57-58
  2. Plutarch, Life of Numa, 21
  3. Livy i. 58, 59, ii. 8; Dionysius iv. 76, 82, 84, v. 11, 19; Tac. Ann. vi. .11; Cicero de Rep. ii. 31
  4. Livy ii. 8, 11; Dionysius v. 20, 22, 23
  5. Livy ii. 16; Dionysius v. 40, foll.
  6. For Lucretius as Publicola's colleage see Livy; ii. For Horatius, not Lucretius, as Publicola's colleague see Dionysius v. 21 and Ovid, Fasti.
  7. Livy iii. 8, 10, 12 ; Dionysius ix. 69—71.
  8. Dionysius xi. 15
  9. Livy iv. 30
  10. Livy iv. 44, 47
  11. Livy v. 29, 32, vi. 4, 21, 22
  12. Plutarch, Camillus 32
  13. Anrel. Vict. de Vir. III. 64; respecting the Vespillones, see Diet, of Antiq. p. 559, a, 2d ed.
  14. Cicero "Brutus" 48; Appian, B. G. iv. 44.
  15. Caesar B.C. iii. 7
  16. Appian, B. C. iv. 44; Val. Max. vi. 7. § 2; Dion Cassius liv. 10.
  17. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds and Sayings 6.7.1-3. L at http://www.stoa.org/diotima/anthology/wlgr/wlgr-mensopinions53.shtml
  18. {{{2}}}: VI 1527 (EN DE) Text of the "Laudatio Turiae".
  19. Fowler,W. "Social life at Rome in the Age of Cicero" at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11256
  20. Gill, N.S., "Laudatio Turiae" at http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/familyanddailylife/p/LaudatioTuriae.htm
  21. Martin, S., "Private Lives and Public Personae" at http://www.dl.ket.org/latin2/mores/women/womenful.htm
  22. Plutarch. Life of Sulla, 29, 33
  23. Scroll down this page for examples of faked coins from these moneyers.
  24. Wikipedia: "Gnaeus Lucretius"
  25. Wikipedia: "Lucius Lucretius"
  26. Seaby, H., Roman Silver Coins.
  27. "ut agrum Campanum censores fruendum locarent." Google Books
  28. Livy xlii. 19, 48, 56.
  29. Leach, E.W., "House of Marcus Lucretius IX.3.5" at https://oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/user/leach/www/c409/mlplan.html
  30. Leach, E.W., "House of M. Lucretius Fronto" at https://oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/user/leach/www/c409/fronto.html
  31. Pompeii Art Gallery (BBC) at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/pompeii_art_gallery_06.shtml
  32. Rowlandson, J. and Bagnall, R. (1998). Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521588154, ISBN 9780521588157 preview at Google Books: [1]
  33. Text at The Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri: P.Diog.: Les Archives de Marcus Lucretius Diogenes et textes apparentés
  34. Rowlandson, J. and Bagnall, R. (1998). Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521588154, ISBN 9780521588157 preview at Google Books: [2]
  35. (RIB 88; altarstone), http://www.roman-britain.org/places/venta_belgarum.htm

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