Choosing a Roman name

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The system of Roman names was unique and distinctive in the ancient world. When a foreigner became a Roman citizen he took a new Roman name as a mark of citizenship. In Nova Roma, too, we ask that you choose a Roman name when you become a citizen.

The name you choose is the name you will be known by in Nova Roma, so choose carefully and seriously. These pages contain information to help you. If, after reading this, you have any more questions, please contact the Censores.


File:Names.jpg
Examples of Roman names from a monument in Newcastle

Contents

Tria Nomina

Most Romans have three names (tria nomina):

  • a praenomen (plural praenomina),
  • a nomen (plural nomina), and
  • a cognomen (plural cognomina).

A few have no cognomen; a few others have more than one cognomen.


Praenomen

Your praenomen is a personal name which distinguishes you from other members of your family. You will not normally be called by your praenomen on its own: normally only close relatives or very close friends call each other by their praenomen alone. (See below under "Usage" for more information on how names are used in conversation.)

There are only a small number of praenomina in ordinary use. These are used by the vast majority of Novi Romani, as they were by the vast majority of ancient Romans.

There are also some rarer praenomina, most of them very old ones. If you have some good reason to want a rare praenomen, you may be allowed to have one, but such requests are very rarely granted and must be personally authorized by the Censor. We strongly recommend that you choose one of the standard ones.


Abbreviations

Note that each of the common praenomina, and some of the rare ones, has a standard abbreviation. Each abbreviation is unique to that praenomen: you cannot abbreviate a praenomen simply by using its first letter. For example, T. always means Titus, never Tiberius; Ti. always means Tiberius, never Titus.

Most of the time praenomina are abbreviated rather than written out in full, so you will normally see M. Tullius Cicero rather than Marcus Tullius Cicero.


Inheritance

Many gentes and families use only a handful of praenomina. The first child of a marriage is almost always given the same praenomen as the father; the second child will be given a different praenomen, perhaps the same one as an uncle or grandfather, for example.

Thus the elder son of P. Cornelius Scipio was named P. Cornelius Scipio (Africanus); his younger son was named L. Cornelius Scipio (Asiagenus) after his grandfather.

When choosing a Roman name you are advised to try to find out whether any such traditions are followed within the gens and family you wish to join. This can be done, for example, by contacting existing members and by looking at information about gentes on this website.


List of Standard Praenomina

These are the standard praenomina, from most common to least common.


List of Standard Praenomina
These are the standard praenomina,
from most common to least common.


Abbreviation Male
Form
Female
Form
C. Gaius Gaia
L. Lucius Lucia
M. Marcus Marca
P. Publius Publia
Q. Quintus Quinta
T. Titus Tita
Ti. Tiberius Tiberia
Sex. Sextus Sexta
A. Aulus Aula
D. Decimus Decima
Cn. Gnaeus Gnaea
Sp. Spurius Spuria
M'. Manius Mania
Ser. Servius Servia
Ap. Appius Appia
N. Numerius Numeria
V. Vibius Vibia


Nomen

Your nomen indicates which gens you belong to. A gens is a loose collection of families sharing the same nomen. In ancient times a new citizen would almost always join an existing gens, and similarly in Nova Roma we ask you to choose a nomen from a closed list.


Inheritance

A Roman always takes the nomen of his father.


List of Nomina

The nomina are listed in their male forms. To make the female form, just replace the ending "-us" with "-a".

Some ancient Roman nomina which are not listed here may also be acceptable. If you want to use a nomen which is not on this list, the Censores will consider your request.



Acilius

Aebutius

Aelius

Aemilius

Albius

Amatius

Annaeus

Anneius

Annius

Antonius

Arrius

Artorius

Asinius

Atilius

Atius

Aurelius

Autronius

Caecilius

Caedicius

Caelius

Calidius

Calpurnius

Cassius

Claudius

Cloelius

Cocceius

Cominius

Cornelius

Coruncanius

Curiatius

Curius

Curtius

Decius

Didius

Domitius

Duilius

Durmius

Equitius

Fabius

Fabricius

Fannius

Flavius

Fulvius

Furius

Gabinius

Galerius

Geganius

Gellius

Geminius

Genucius

Gratius

Herennius

Hirtius

Horatius

Hortensius

Hostilius

Iulius

Iunius

Iuventius

Laelius

Lartius

Licinius

Livius

Lucilius

Lucretius

Manlius

Marcius

Marius

Memmius

Menenius

Minicius

Minius

Minucius

Modius

Mucius

Naevius

Nautius

Numerius

Numicius

Octavius

Ovidius

Papirius

Petronius

Pinarius

Pompeius

Pompilius

Pontius

Popillius

Porcius

Postumius

Quinctilius

Quinctius

Rubellius

Rufius

Rutilius

Sallustius

Salonius

Salvius

Scribonius

Seius

Sempronius

Sentius

Sergius

Sertorius

Servilius

Sextius

Sicinius

Suetonius

Sulpicius

Tarpeius

Tarquitius

Terentius

Titinius

Titurius

Tuccius

Tullius

Ulpius

Valerius

Vedius

Velleius

Vergilius

Verginius

Vibius

Villius

Vipsanius

Vitellius

Vitruvius

Volumnius




To see the members of a gens, or other details of a gens, see the Album Gentium.


Cognomen

Your cognomen is a family name which would be shared by your blood relatives. Cognomina often refer to a person's appearance or other characteristics, but they do not have to. It is quite common to have a cognomen referring to a place of birth, a job, or some other thing which distinguished the person (usually an ancestor) who first bore that cognomen.

Almost everyone has a cognomen, and it is difficult to distinguish different families within a gens unless cognomina are used. However, strictly speaking, cognomina are not compulsory. If you don't choose one when you first apply for citizenship, you will still be able to add one later.

To help you choose a cognomen, there is a list of ancient Roman cognomina below. But this is not a complete list - the Romans often created new cognomina, and if you want to have one which is not on the list we will be happy to discuss this with you.


The Characteristics of Cognomina

Ancient republican cognomina had certain general characteristics. A person was not given his cognomen by his parents and did not choose it for himself: he either inherited it from his parents or was given it by general consensus within the community. In this sense a cognomen was like a nickname. For this reason, they were usually objective rather than subjective, concrete rather than abstract, and neutral or insulting rather than complimentary.

These characteristics are preserved in Nova Roma. It is important to understand that a cognomen is not a way for you to express your innermost thoughts or aspirations, or to boast about your wonderful qualities. It is just a name.


Inheritance

A Roman almost always takes his father's cognomen, especially if his father himself inherited the name from his father. Cases in which a cognomen may not be passed down from father to son are those where the cognomen is particularly closely associated with the father and would not be relevant to the son.

Agnomina are not usually inherited. Adoptive cognomina and matronymic cognomina are never inherited.


Ancient Republican Cognomina

A cognomen used in the ancient republic will normally be acceptable so long as it complies with the general characteristics noted above. Here is a list of some ancient republican cognomina with their meanings. Some cognomina were used especially by certain gentes: these are noted in the list, but they may also be used by members of other gentes.



Male Form Female Form Status Meaning Used especially by
Aculeo Aculeo Prickly, unfriendly
Agricola Agricola OVERUSED Farmer
Agrippa Agrippa OVERUSED Born feet first Gens Menenia
Ahala Ahala Armpit Gens Servilia
Ahenobarbus Ahenobarba With a red beard Gens Domitia
Albinus Albina Pale, white Gens Postumia
Albus Alba White or fair-skinned Gens Postumia
Ambustus Ambusta SUGGESTED Burnt, scalded Gens Fabia
Annalis Annalis Relating to years Gens Villia
Aquila Aquila OVERUSED Eagle
Aquilinus Aquilina OVERUSED Eagle-like
Arvina Arvina Fat, lard Gens Cornelia
Asellio Asellio Keeper of donkeys Gens Sempronia
Asina Asina Female donkey Gens Cornelia
Atellus Atella Dark-haired or dark skinned
Avitus Avita Grandfatherly
Balbus Balba SUGGESTED Stutterer Gentes Acilia, Cornelia, Lucilia, Naevia, Octavia
Barba Barba A beard
Barbatus Barbata OVERUSED Bearded Gentes Cornelia, Horatia, Quinctia
Bassus Bassa Plump
Bestia Bestia Like an animal Gens Calpurnia
Bibaculus Bibacula SUGGESTED Drunkard Gentes Furia, Sextia
Bibulus Bibula SUGGESTED Drunkard Gentes Calpurnia, Publicia
Blaesus Blaesa SUGGESTED Someone who mispronounces words, slurs his speech, stammers, or lisps Gens Sempronia
Brocchus Broccha SUGGESTED Toothy
Brutus Bruta Stupid, dull-witted Gens Iunia
Bubulcus Bubulca SUGGESTED Cattle-driver Gens Iunia
Bucco Bucco SUGGESTED Fool, dolt
Bulbus Bulba SUGGESTED Bulb, onion Gens Atilia
Buteo Buteo Buzzard Gens Fabia
Caecus Caeca Blind Gens Claudia
Caepio Caepio Onion-seller Gens Servilia
Caesar Caesar DISCOURAGED From archaic praenomen Caesar, perhaps meaning "hairy" Gens Iulia
Calidus Calida Hot-headed, rash Gens Coelia
Calvinus Calvina From cognomen Calvus Gentes Domitia, Veturia
Calvus Calva SUGGESTED Bald
Camillus Camilla A child who helps during sacrifices Gens Furia
Caninus Canina OVERUSED Dog-like Gens Acilia
Canus Cana Golden-haired or grey-haired
Capito Capito SUGGESTED Big-headed Gens Ateia
Carbo Carbo Charcoal Gens Papirii
Catilina Catilina Gens Sergia
Cato Cato DISCOURAGED Shrewd, prudent Gentes Hostilia, Porcia
Catulus Catula Puppy, whelp Gens Lutatia
Celer Celeris Quick
Celsus Celsa Tall Gens Papia
Cethegus Cethega Gens Cornelia
Cicero Cicero DISCOURAGED Chick pea Gens Tullia
Cicurinus Cicurina Mild, gentle Gens Veturia
Cilo Cilo SUGGESTED Large forehead or large lips Gens Flaminia
Cincinnatus Cincinnata Curly-haired Gens Quinctia
Cinna Cinna Gens Cornelia
Cordus Corda Born late
Cornicen Cornicen Military bugler
Cornutus Cornuta Horned Gens Caecilia, Sulpicia
Corvinus Corvina Crow-like Gens Valeria
Corvus Corva OVERUSED Crow Gens Valeria
Cossus Cossa From archaic praenomen Cossus Gens Cornelia
Costa Costa A rib Gens Pedania
Cotta Cotta Gens Aurelia
Crassipes Crassipes SUGGESTED Club-footed Gens Furia
Crassus Crassa OVERUSED Fat Gentes Claudia, Licinia, Otacilia, Veturia
Crispinus Crispina Curly-haired
Crispus Crispa Curly-haired Gentes Sallustia, Vibia
Culleo Culleo SUGGESTED Leather sack for carrying liquid Gens Terentia
Curio Curio SUGGESTED Priest of a Curia Gens Scribonia
Cursor Cursor Runner, courier Gens Papiria
Curvus Curva Stooping, bent Gens Fulvia
Dentatus Dentata SUGGESTED Toothy
Denter Dentra SUGGESTED Toothy Gens Caecilia
Dento Dento SUGGESTED Toothy
Dives Dives Rich, wealthy Gens Licinia
Dolabella Dolabella Hatchet Gens Cornelia
Dorsuo Dorsuo SUGGESTED Large back Gens Fabia
Drusus Drusa Gens Livia
Figulus Figula SUGGESTED Potter
Fimbria Fimbria Edge of clothing, fringes Gens Flavia
Flaccus Flacca SUGGESTED Floppy ears Gentes Aviania, Fulvia, Valeria
Flavus Flava Blonde-haired Gens Decimia
Florus Flora Light-coloured or blooming Gens Aquilia
Fronto Fronto SUGGESTED Prominent forehead
Fullo Fullo SUGGESTED A fuller or launderer Gens Apustia
Fusus Fusa From archaic praenomen Fusus Gens Furia
Galeo Galeo Helmet
Gemellus Gemella A twin Gentes Servilia, Veturia
Glabrio Glabrio A relative of Glaber Gens Acilia
Gracchus Graccha Gens Sempronia
Gurges Gurges Greedy, prodigal Gens Fabia
Habitus Habita In good physical condition Gens Cluentia
Helva Helva SUGGESTED Dun-colored hair Gens Aebutia
Imperiosus Imperiosa DISCOURAGED Domineering, dictatorial Gens Manlia
Iullus Iulla From archaic praenomen Iullus Gens Iulia
Labeo Labeo Prominent lips Gentes Antistia, Atinia, Fabia
Lactuca Lactuca Lettuce Gens Valeria
Laenas Laenas A woolly cloak Gens Popillia
Lanatus Lanata Wearing wool Gens Menenia
Laevinus Laevina
Laterensis Laterensis Person from the hill-side Gens Iuventia
Lentulus Lentula A bit slow Gens Cornelia
Lepidus Lepida OVERUSED Charming, amusing Gens Aemilia
Libo Libo SUGGESTED Gens Marcia, Scribonia
Licinus Licina SUGGESTED Spiky- or bristly-haired Gens Mamilia
Longus Longa SUGGESTED Tall Gentes Sempronia, Sulpicia
Lucullus Luculla From lucus (grove) or Lucius (praenomen) Gens Licinia
Lupus Lupa OVERUSED Wolf Gens Rutilia
Lurco Lurco SUGGESTED Gluttonous, greedy
Macer Macra SUGGESTED Thin Gens Licinia
Macula Macula SUGGESTED A spot or blemish
Malleolus Malleola Hammer Gens Publicia
Mamercus Mamerca From rare praenomen Mamercus Gens Aemilia
Marcellus Marcella OVERUSED From praenomen Marcus Gens Claudia
Maro Maro SUGGESTED Gens Vergilia
Merenda Merenda SUGGESTED Light afternoon meal Gentes Antonia, Cornelia
Mergus Merga SUGGESTED Sea-gull
Merula Merula Blackbird Gens Cornelia
Messalla Messalla Gens Valeria
Metellus Metella OVERUSED Army follower Gens Caecilia
Murena Murena Eel Gens Licinia
Mus Mus SUGGESTED Mouse or rat Gens Decia
Musca Musca SUGGESTED Fly Gens Sempronia
Nasica Nasica Big-nosed Gens Sempronia
Naso Naso SUGGESTED Big-nosed Gens Ovidia
Natta Natta SUGGESTED An artisan Gens Pinaria
Nepos Nepos Grandchild Gens Caecilia
Nero Nero From rare praenomen Nero ("strong") Gens Claudia
Nerva Nerva Vigorous Gens Cocceia, Licinia
Niger Nigra SUGGESTED Black-skinned or black-haired
Novellus Novella New, new-fangled Gens Gavilia
Ocella Ocella SUGGESTED Small-eyed Gens Livia
Pacilus Pacila SUGGESTED From archaic praenomen Pacilus Gens Furia
Paetus Paeta SUGGESTED Squinty or blinking Gens Aelia
Pansa Pansa SUGGESTED Splay-footed Gens Vibia
Papus Papa SUGGESTED From rare praenomen Papus Gens Aemilia
Paterculus Patercula SUGGESTED Little father Gens Sulpicia
Paullus Paulla Small Gens Aemilia
Pavo Pavo Peacock
Pera Pera SUGGESTED Shoulder-bag Gens Iunia
Pictor Pictrix Painter Gens Fabia
Piso Piso Mortar Gens Calpurnia
Plancus Planca Flat-footed Gens Munatia
Plautus Plauta SUGGESTED Flat-footed
Poplicola Poplicola Friend of the people Gens Valeria
Postumus Postuma Born after the father's death Gens Curtia
Potitus Potita Probably derived from an archaic praenomen Gens Valeria
Praeconinus Praeconina SUGGESTED A relative of a herald
Praetextatus Praetextata Young (wearing the toga praetexta) Gens Sulpicia
Priscus Prisca Very ancient
Proculus Procula From rare praenomen Proculus, perhaps meaning "born during father's absence" Gens Plautia
Publicola Publicola Variant of Poplicola Gens Valeria
Pulcher Pulchra Attractive Gens Claudia
Pullus Pulla SUGGESTED Child
Pulvillus Pulvilla SUGGESTED Small cushion Gens Horatia
Purpureo Purpureo SUGGESTED Wearing purple or with a purplish complexion
Quadratus Quadrata Stocky, squarely built
Ralla Ralla SUGGESTED A tunic of fine fabric Gens Marcia
Regillus Regilla Prince Gens Aemilia
Regulus Regula OVERUSED Prince Gens Atilia
Rufus Rufa Reddish, Ginger-haired
Ruga Ruga SUGGESTED Wrinkly
Rullus Rulla SUGGESTED Uncultivated, boorish Gens Servilia
Rutilus Rutila Reddish-gold hair
Salinator Salinatrix Salt-harvester Gens Livia
Saturninus Saturnina Dedicated to Saturnus
Scaeva Scaeva Left-handed Gens Iunia, Marcia
Scaevola Scaevola Left-handed Gens Mucia
Scapula Scapula SUGGESTED Shoulder-blade Gens Quinctia
Scaurus Scaura Lame, swollen-ankled Gentes Aemilia, Aurelia
Scipio Scipio DISCOURAGED Rod, staff Gens Cornelii
Scrofa Scrofa SUGGESTED Sow Gens Tremelia
Seneca Seneca Elderly Gens Annaea
Severus Severa OVERUSED Strict, severe
Silanus Silana Nose, water-spout Gens Iunia
Silo Silo SUGGESTED Snub-nosed Gens Sergia
Silus Sila SUGGESTED Snub-nosed Gens Sergia
Stolo Stolo SUGGESTED Shoot of a plant Gens Licinia
Strabo Strabo Squinty Gens Titia
Structus Structa Possibly derived from an archaic praenomen Gens Servilia
Sulla Sulla DISCOURAGED Gens Cornelia
Sura Sura SUGGESTED Calf of the leg
Taurus Taura Bull
Triarius Triaria OVERUSED A type of soldier Gens Valeria
Trigeminus Trigemina A triplet Gens Curiatia
Trio Trio SUGGESTED One of the seven stars of the Plough / Big Dipper Gens Lucretia
Tubero Tubero SUGGESTED Having a tumour or swelling Gens Aelia, Iulia
Tubertus Tuberta SUGGESTED Having a tumour or swelling Gens Postumia
Tubulus Tubula SUGGESTED Little tube Gens Hostilia
Tuditanus Tuditana SUGGESTED Mallet Gens Sempronia
Tullus Tulla From rare praenomen Tullus Gens Volcatia
Turdus Turda SUGGESTED Thrush Gens Papiria
Varro Varro Block-head Gens Terentia
Varus Vara Bow-legged Gentes Atilia, Licinia, Quinctilia
Vatia Vatia Knock-kneed Gens Servilia
Verres Verres Pig Gens Cornelia
Vespillo Vespillo Person employed to bury people too poor for a funeral Gens Lucretia
Vetus Vetus Old Gens Antistia
Vitulus Vitula Calf or young cow Gentes Mamilia, Pomponia
Volusus Volusa From rare praenomen Volusus Gens Valeria


Geographical Cognomina

Some people have cognomina which refer to the place where they come from, whether a city (e.g. Collatinus, "man from Collatia"), a region (e.g. Campanus, "man from Campania"), or a tribe (e.g. Sabinus, "man of the Sabines"). Names referring to whole countries or provinces (e.g. Hispanus, "man from Hispania") are not normally allowed because they are not distinctive enough: if everyone in Hispania were called Hispanus, it would be very confusing! But such names may be appropriate if you live away from your native country (e.g. a citizen from Hispania living in America might be called Hispanus).

These geographical cognomina should be distinguished from honorific cognomina like Germanicus or Britannicus. These names do not refer to a place of origin but to a military achievement. If someone is called Britannicus it does not mean he is from Britain, it means he won a great victory against the Britons. Names like this are not allowed, for obvious reasons.

If you would like to use a geographical cognomen, the Censores will work with you to find an appropriate one.


Occupational Cognomina

Another type of cognomen in ancient times was one which referred to the person's job or occupation (e.g. Pictor, "painter"; Caprarius, "goat-herd"). If you would like to use an occupational cognomen, the Censores will work with you to find an appropriate one.


Latinising your own name

Often when a foreigner became a Roman citizen in ancient times he would keep his old name as a cognomen, adjusting it to make it easier for Latin-speakers to say and giving it a Latin ending. This is also a common option in Nova Roma.

If you choose this option, you can use either your first name or your surname, or both. If you use both, they will be put in reverse order. For example, Robert Grant would take the cognomina Grandis Robertus. This is because in a Roman name the second cognomen is more individual than the first.

If you would like to use a Latin form of your own name, the Censores will work with you to find the appropriate form. Here are the Latin forms of some common names:


The Table of Latinised Names is under revision.



Other Latin Words

Many ordinary Latin nouns and adjectives can be used as cognomina. If there is some particular Latin word you would like to use as a cognomen, or if you would like a cognomen with a particular meaning, the Censores will work with you to find an appropriate name.


Multiple Cognomina

In some cases it may be appropriate to have more than one cognomen. This is normally only allowed where you use a Latinised form of your own name, but may also be appropriate if you are joining a family which contains a large number of people who all have the same nomen and cognomen. If you think you have a good reason to want more than one cognomen, the Censores will discuss it with you.


Special Cognomina

There are several types of cognomen which serve a particular purpose and which are therefore not available for new citizens.


Adoptive Cognomina

When a Roman citizen is adopted by another, he takes the name of his adoptive father, but adds a special cognomen to indicate his former identity. This cognomen is formed from his old nomen, with the -ius ending replaced with an -ianus ending.

For example, when L. Aemilius Paullus was adopted by P. Cornelius Scipio he became P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus.


Matronymic Cognomina

In very rare cases a Roman might use an extra cognomen formed from his mother's nomen. The -ia ending was replaced with an -ianus ending or an -inus ending.

For example, M. Porcius Cato had one son by his first wife Licinia, and another son by his second wife Salonia. Each son was called M. Porcius Cato. To tell them apart, people called them M. Porcius Cato Licinianus and M. Porcius Cato Salonianus.


Agnomina

Sometimes very eminent Romans were given honorific cognomina in recognition of their great achievements. These were the exception to the general rule that cognomina were not complimentary. Such honorific cognomina are called agnomina. Obviously a person cannot give himself an agnomen: it is always given by others.

An agnomen may refer to a victory over a particular enemy people (e.g. Britannicus, "victor over the Britons") or in a particular place (e.g. Africanus, "victor in Africa"), a particular virtue (e.g. Pius, "dutiful"; Sapiens, "prudent"), or general preeminence (e.g. Magnus, "great"; Maximus, "very great").


Other Elements

Although the tria nomina are the core of a Roman name, there are times when a Roman might include other elements in his name. These are not really part of his name as such but are additional pieces of information about him and his place in the community.


Filiation

After a person's nomen and before his cognomen a Roman may include the praenomen of his father and, sometimes, his father's father. This is done in the following way:

M. Tullius M. f. M. n. Cicero

This means "Marcus Tullius Marci filius Marci nepos Cicero", or "Marcus Tullius, son of Marcus, grandson of Marcus, Cicero".


Tribe

Every Roman citizen is a member of a tribe. These are not ethnic groups but social units, communities within the community, and voting-blocks. A Roman is born into his father's tribe. There are thirty-five tribes, each with a standard abbreviation:




The tribe is inserted between the nomen and the cognomen, e.g. M. Tullius Cor. Cicero (meaning "Marcus Tullius Cornelia tribu Cicero", or "Marcus Tullius, of the Cornelian tribe, Cicero").

Often the tribe is included together with the filiation, in which case it appears after the filiation and before the cognomen, thus:

M. Tullius M. f. M. n. Cor. Cicero


Usage

This section contains general guidance on how to use Roman names. It must be stressed that these are not firm legalistic rules. A name is a device which allows one person to talk about another person so that everyone knows who he is talking about. Any rule which makes it unclear who is being referred to would be self-defeating, and all the general rules explained below should be ignored if following them would lead to confusion.

How Many Names?

As a general rule, the more formal the context, the more names are used. The use of all three (or more) names is very formal, and should be rare. Calling someone M. Tullius Cicero is roughly equivalent to calling someone Mr Robert James Grant, Esquire.

Two names are normally enough to make it clear who you are talking to or about. Using two names is formal and polite. Calling someone M. Tullius is roughly equivalent to calling someone Robert Grant or Mr Grant. When you mention someone for the first time in a speech or a letter, or when greeting someone, it is common to use two names.

Use of one name is relatively relaxed and informal. If you already in the middle of a conversation with someone, or in the middle of talking about someone, you might well call him by just one name, especially if you know him reasonably well. Calling someone Cicero is roughly equivalent to calling someone Robert. But in formal situations or when first mentioning someone, using only one name may be over-familiar and could be impolite.


Which Names?

Which names you call someone by depends partly on how many names you are using.


Two Names

When calling someone by two names, which names you use depends on the status of the person you're naming. If the person is a nobilis, it is proper to call him by his praenomen and cognomen, e.g. P. Scipio. If he is a novus homo, one would normally call him by his praenomen and nomen, e.g. M. Tullius. Most people in Nova Roma are novi homines, so most people are normally called by their praenomen and nomen. If you accidentally call a nobilis as if he were a novus homo, he will probably not take offence, especially if you apologise for your mistake; but if in doubt, you can always ask.

One may, of course, flatter or praise a novus homo by naming him with his praenomen and cognomen as if he were a nobilis; but you should not do this too often, especially as it could cause resentment among the true nobiles.

Some people adopt a style which was fashionable in the last generation of the ancient republic and call everyone, both nobilis and novus homo, by nomen and cognomen, e.g. Cornelius Scipio, Tullius Cicero. There is nothing strictly wrong with this, but it is not characteristic of the ancient republic and is not encouraged.


One Name

When calling someone by only one name, it is normal and polite to use the cognomen. A nobilis should always be called by his cognomen. A novus homo can be called by his nomen: this is not strictly impolite, but it is at best neutral and may also make it unclear who you are talking about.

Where a person has more than one cognomen, you should normally use the first one. Calling someone by his agnomen, if he has one, is of course particularly complimentary. You should only call someone by his adoptive if you want to draw attention to his pre-adoption family and identity: this is not necessarily polite or impolite, but will depend on the context. Similarly calling someone by his matronymic cognomen will draw attention to his mother's identity and family.

Do not fall into the trap of calling someone routinely by his adoptive cognomen. This is often tempting, because it is an easy way of distinguishing between the adopted child and the adoptive father, but it is an un-Roman habit. To a Roman, an adopted child became, to all intents and purposes, the child of the adoptive parents, and one should normally ignore his adoptive cognomen when naming him.


Praenomen Only

The praenomen is essentially a private name, for use within the family. You should not call a Roman by just his praenomen unless he is your close relative or very, very close friend. Even spouses do not generally call each other by their praenomina alone - they generally use nomina or cognomina.


Latin Vocatives

When you call someone by name, you change the ending of the name to indicate that you are talking to the person, not about him. As a general rule, names ending in -us take an ending -e (e.g. Brutus -> Brute), though names ending in -ius turn to -i (e.g. Tullius -> Tulli). Names ending in -a do not usually change. Names with other endings do not usually change.

You may notice some people using vocative endings when they are talking about someone in the third person (e.g. "I was talking to Brute yesterday"). Don't be confused - you are right, they are wrong.


Addresses Other Than Names

Much more than in some modern societies, Romans address each other using labels other than names, or combine names with other terms. What follows is a very brief overview.


Dominus & Domina

Some modern Latin-speakers use "dominus" and "domina" as equivalents of English "Mr" and "Miss" or "Mrs". This is strongly discouraged. "Dominus" means "lord" or "master", and addressing someone in this way is very servile and grovelling.

An exception is that lovers sometimes call each other "dominus" and "domina", though usually only in the bedroom.


Titles

Though Romans do not generally go in for titles in a big way, it is not uncommon to call a Consul by the title "Consul", for example, especially when speaking in a political context or discussing business relevant to the office. Likewise one may call one's patron by the title "patronus". But titles are not by any means compulsory, and there is nothing at all rude in calling a magistrate straightforwardly by his name.


Relatives

As well as calling each other by name, relatives commonly talk to or about each other by reference to their relationship, e.g. pater (father), soror (sister), patruus (uncle), &c. These terms are often combined with terms of endearment (see below). As noted above, close relatives might call each other by their praenomina.


Spouses and Lovers

As was mentioned above, spouses and lovers generally call each other by cognomen rather than praenomen. Occasionally they called each other vir (husband) and uxor (wife), but more commonly they used terms of endearment (see below).


Friends and Acquaintances

Most of the time people who know each other but are not especially close call each other by name, sometimes with "mi" (see below). Sometimes they will use brief descriptions, e.g. iuvenis (young man), amicus (friend), senex (old man). Depending on the relationship between the people concerned, they may use terms of endearment or even insults.


Strangers

There is no direct Roman equivalent of "sir" or "madam". If you meet someone whose name you don't know, it is normal and not at all rude to say something like "petasate" ("you with the hat") or "senex" ("old man") or "viator" ("traveller"). Very often one might say "quiquis es" ("whoever you are").

Generally, though, unless you are merely asking the time of day, the best tactic is to try to find out the person's name by saying something like "adulescens, dic mihi nomen tuum, quaeso" ("young man, please tell me your name") or "o qui vocaris?" ("O how are you called?").


Terms of Endearment and Esteem

Romans have always been very inventive with terms of endearment. One very common one is "carissimus", often combined with a name, e.g. "salve Brute carissime" ("hello my dear Brutus"), "salve soror carissima" ("hello dear sister"). Others include "dulcis" ("sweet"), "inclitus" ("famous"), "magnus" ("great"), "optimus" ("excellent"), "fortissimus" ("very strong"). This should be enough to give you the general idea.


"Mi" and "O"

"Mi" (masculine) and "mea" (feminine) mean "my". They are very commonly attached to names or other terms of endearment in conversations between friends or well-meaning acquaintances, e.g. "salve mi frater" ("hello my brother"), "salve mea Cornelia" ("hello my Cornelia"). It is especially common in letters, not so much in oral conversation.

"O" is also not uncommon. It has the general effect of making an address to someone more emotional, emphatic, or poetic. E.g. "o optime Brute" ("O excellent Brutus").

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