Edictum Censoriale de Mutandis Nominibus



June  29,  2000

A  Latin  Translation  of  this  Edict   follows  the  English  Version.

I. - This edict is set forth to define the procedures by which a citizen may apply to add,   alter,  or substitute any portion of his or her Roman name,  and to state the guidelines by which such an application may be judged.  This is
done in order to attain a measure of conformity with ancient Roman naming conventions and tradition.  Note that this edictum, and its procedures and guidelines,  apply to changes sought by citizens after the publication of
this edictum,  and do not apply to citizens existing names.

II. - This edict has no impact on chatroom handles, signatures to private or casual e-mail messages, or any other alias that any citizen may choose to use. Rather, Roman name for the purposes of this edict refers to the name
used by the citizen in public oaths, applications to sodalitates and in other official contexts; this Roman name is the one recorded in the censorial album civium.

III. - Note that the use of the male gender throughout this document is done solely for clarity, and is not meant to imply any disparity between the sexes before the law.

IV. - Also note that this document uses the word sex to describe the physical sex of a person and the word gender to refer to linguistic gender only.

V. - It is not the intent of this edictum to discriminate against or to make any judgment about homosexuality, transgenderedness, or any other sexual identity. No such discrimination should be inferred from any part of this
document. Nor should it be used as a precedent for any law, magisterial act, edictum, or other action that interferes with the rights of any citizen on the basis of that citizens sexual identity.

VI. As has been stated elsewhere, a Roman name consists of a praenomen,  nomen, cognomen, and possibly an agnomen, and, in rare cases, several agnomina.

VII. - The praenomen is a citizens given name, and is used to distinguish between members of a particular gens. Since there are very few historical praenomina, and since the praenomens role is almost entirely secondary, a
citizen is almost never referred to by praenomen alone.

VIII. - The nomen identifies a citizens gens. Since a change in the stem of a citizens nomen would necessitate a change in gensa case of either adoptio or the founding of a new gensit is beyond the scope of this edictum.

IX. - The cognomen was originally a nickname.  It is used to further identify members within a gens, who could easily be identically named due to the paucity of praenomina.   Over time,  the cognomen became inherited,  and was
used to identify specific family lines within a single gens.  Changes to adopt certain names as cognomina are restricted, as set forth in paragraphs X and XI below.   Note that these restrictions do not apply whatsoever to
cognomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

X. - An agnomen is an additional form of nickname that is commonly bestowed upon a citizen by others, often to commemorate significant accomplishments or important events in the citizens life.  While it is possible for a
citizen to add a new agnomen or change an existing one by request, agnomina of distinction must be awarded by a senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of service to Nova Roma.  Official recognition of such
awarded agnomina of distinction is completed by the censors entering the agnomina in the album civium. Following each such entry by the censores, the latter will provide the curator araneae with the full Roman name of the distinguished citizen and an explanation of the circumstances and reasons surrounding the award of the agnomen, that the curator araneae may publish this information to the Nova Roma website as he sees fit.

XI. - Agnomina of distinction include, but are not limited to,  the following:   Augur,  Augustus,  Felix,  Invictus, Magnus,  Maximus,   Optimus,  Pius,  Superbus,  Victor.   Note that these restrictions do not apply whatsoever to agnomina under which citizens have already received citizenship.

XII. - As an example, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos would be Quintus of the Metellus branch of gens Caecilia. His family would be referred to as the Caecilii Metelli, in order to distinguish them from the other families within gens Caecilia. His agnomen,   Nepos,  distinguishes him from any other Quintus of the Caecilii Metelli.   As nepos means grandson, it also most likely distinguishes him as the third in a line of like-named people.


XIII. - A citizen wishing to change his name shall first contact his paterfamilias and present his reasons for desiring a name change,  as well as the desired name.   The paterfamilias will in turn contact the censores should he approve of the name change,  or should he find that he requires help in determining whether or not to approve the change.

XIV. - Patresfamiliae are instructed to work cooperatively with members of their gens who desire to change their names in order to help them conform to the letter and spirit of this document.

XV. - Should a paterfamilias disapprove of a citizens desired name change,   refusing to present it to the censores, said citizen may appeal to the censores within ninety (90) days of the refusal.

XVI. - A paterfamilias who wishes to change his name shall apply to the censores directly.

XVII. - Should an applicant fail to obtain a name change from the censores, he may, within ninety (90) days of the refusal, appeal to a consul or praetor to bring the matter before the people through a vote in the Comitia Populi
i)  - Note that such an action requires the citizen who desires the change to temporarily waive his rights of confidentiality as defined in Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus, in order that evidence for and against the application
may be presented to the populace.
ii) - Also note that the decision to convene the Comitia Populi Tributa, along with the schedule for doing so, is the purview of the consules and praetores, and is therefore beyond the scope of this edict.


XVIII. - An application for a name change is confidential. The requested name, along with any and all evidence presented with it, is considered confidential information as covered by the Lex Cornelia de Privatis Rebus.
Censores, patresfamiliae, and anyone called to provide testimony by any party in the procedure are not to divulge any information applicable to the name change to anyone without the applicants written permission, except as
directed by this edict. Such exceptions include the following:
i)   - A paterfamilias providing relevant information upon referring a request for a new name to the censores.
ii)  - A paterfamilias or other citizen providing relevant information upon a   censor,  consul,  or praetors request,  as in the case of an appeal of a denied application.
iii) - A citizen presenting evidence before the Comitia Populi Tributa in the case of an appeal to those comitia.

XIX. - The guiding principle in considering name changes is to be conformity with ancient Roman tradition.
i)   - New praenomina should be historically attested ones.
ii)  - As previously stated, agnomina of distinction (Maximus, Felix, et cetera) are not to be granted to citizens on request,  but can be awarded to any citizen by any senator, curule magistrate, or pontifex in recognition of any special service to the Republic.  It is up to the patresfamiliae and censores to determine what is and is not an agnomen of distinction on a case-by-case basis.
iii) - Cognomina and agnomina can be new coinages, but must be conducive to Latin declension, and must have a clear meaningboth semantically and in specific relation to the citizen requesting the added or changed name.
iv) - The gender of the name is to be consistent.  Each part is to agree with all others in gender,  and with the sex of the citizen requesting the name change.

XX. - A citizen who wishes to change the gender of his name counter to that dictated by his sex must present, in support of his application,  proof of acceptance of the contrary sex by an authority of a macronation,  state,  or
municipality.  In other words,  if the applicant is physically a man and has a form of macronational or municipal identification listing his sex as female,  or is officially recognized as a woman in his country of macronational citizenship,  then he may use a feminine name in Nova Roma.
i)   - An exception to this rule is allowed in the case of transsexual citizens who are discussing surgical sex alteration with a health care provider or undergoing other medical and psychological treatment in preparation for such an operation. In these instances,  documentation pertaining to health care provider(s) may be required of the applicant.
ii)  - Post-operative transsexual citizens shall be named according to their current sex.
iii) - Hermaphrodites shall be named according to the sex in which they are recognized by their country of macronational citizenship.

Censores Novae Romae
C Marius Merullus
L Cornelius Sulla Felix

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Latin  Translation  of  the  above  Edict   follows:

Edictum Censoriale de Mutandis Nominibus


I. Hoc edictum statuendarum causa rationum decernitur quibus civis de mutanda ulla parte nominis petat et regularum quibus petitio talis iudicetur Hoc factum est ut obsequium cum antiquis romanis regulis et moribus de
formandis nominibus attineamus Notandum est hoc edictum cum suis rationibus regulisque ad mutationes a civibus desideratas post hoc factum pertinere at non ad exstantes nomina

II. Hoc edictum ad apellationes pro fabulatoriis nec subscriptiones in privatis vel fortuitis epistulis nec ad alia nomina aliena quibus civis utiatur Nomen romanum in hoc edicto est id nomen quo iuraiuranda et petitiones inter alia in sodalitates civis dat Hoc enim nomen romanum in censoriali albo civium scribitur

III. Notandum est usum masculini generis per has tabellas sole claritatis causa factum esse at non in se habere inaequalitatem ullam inter sexos ad ius

IV. Notandum quoque est has tabellas verbo sexus uti pro corporali sexu cuiusdam hominis et verbo genus pro grammatico sole genere

V. Causa huius edicti non est discrimen contra homines nec qui eos sui generis ament nec qui se similes altero generi sentiant facere nec contra alios Nullum discrimen tale intellegi in ulla parte harum tabellarum debet
Neque hoc edicto utietur praecedente casu pro ulla lege actioneve ullove edicto obstanti cuidam civi sexuali notione


VI. Vt alibi scriptum est nomen romanum praenomen et nomen et cognomen et aliquando agnomen et in raris casibus pluria agnomina continet

VII. Praenomen nomen civis datum est et utitur inter membres cuiusdam gentis distinguendi causa Quod paucissima sunt nota praenomina et usus praenominis paene in toto est secondarius civis solo praenomine paene numquam non vocatur

VIII. Nomen gentem monstrat Quod mutatio in civis nominis radice roget mutationem gentis quae est aut adoptio aut formatio novae gentis talis mutatio est praeter potestatem huius edicti

IX. Cognomina imprimis in ludibrium dabantur vel ad apellendos homines aliquo in eis viso notove Cognomine discernuntur membres in una gente qui facile similiter apellari possint ob pauca praenomina Per saecula cognomen
hereditate stabat consequi Mutationes ad accipenda quaedam verba ut cognomina reguntur capitibus X et XI subter Notandum est has regulas nihilo ad cognomina exstantes civium non pertinere

X. Agnomen est forma alia quae imprimis in ludibrium dabatur vel ad apellendos homines aliquo in eis viso notove saepeque memoriae causa magnarum rerum gestarum vel eventuum vel ex aliqua ratione vel virtute quaesitum Quamvis civis obtinere novum vel mutare exstantem agnomen possit agnomina e virtute quesita quae apellare possumus agnomina honoris civibus a senatore curuleo magistratu pontificeve dantur ad beneficium Novae Romae
signandum Agnitio officialis talium agnominum honoris a censoribus in civium album his inscriptis completur Post quamquam inscriptionem a censoribus hi curatori araneae completum nomen romanum honorati civis et descriptionem necessitudinis causarumque circum agnomen datum ut curator haec in interretiali situ secundum suam opinionem divulget

XI. Inter alia secunda sunt agnomina honoris Augur Augustus Felix Invictus Magnus Maximus Optimus Pius Superbus Victor Notandum est has regulas nihilo ad agnomina exstantes civium non pertinere

XII. Exempli gratia Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos sit Quintus Metelli rami Caeciliae gentis Eius familia vocetur Caecilii Metelli distinguendorum horum ab aliis infra Caeciliam gentem familiis causa Agnomen Nepos eum ab ullo alio Quinto Caeciliorum Metellorum distinguit Quia nepos nepotem significat probabiliter quoque eum indicat tertium lineae similiter apellatorum


XIII. Civis mutare nomen suum volens patremfamiliae primum adiet et huic causam et nomen volutum praebebit Paterfamilias ipse censores adiet cum approbatione nominis aut petitione adiumenti mutationis iudicandae

XIV. Patresfamiliae concorde laborare debent cum suis gentilibus mutare nomen volentibus ut illi his obsequi huic edicto adiuvent

XV. Cum paterfamilias mutationem volutam improbet censoribus eam non praebens civis ad censores mutationem provocare nonaginta diebus vel moxius ab improbatione potest

XVI. Paterfamilias mutare nomen suum volens directo censores adiet

XVII. Cum civis mutationem nominis petens a censoribus mutationem non accipiat civis ad consulem praetoremve nonaginta diebus vel moxius a censoriali improbatione potest provocare mutationem ut ille magistratus pro
populo ad suffragium rem imponat Comitiis Populi Tributis

i. Notandum est hanc actionem civem petentem quaerere relinquere iura Lege Cornelia de Privatis Rebus data ut argumenta pro et contra praeberi populo possint
ii. Notandum quoque est conficere Comitia Populi Tributa quandoque ita facere proprium consulibus praetoribusque et ergo extra huius edicti potestatem


XVIII. Petitio ad mutandum nomen est privata Nomen volutum cum ullis omnibusque argumentis pro ea aestimantur res privatae designatae Lege Cornelia de Privatis Rebus Censores et patresfamiliae et aliqui testator
divulgare ullam partem argumentorum sine scripta concessione petentis civis
praeter hos casus secundos prohibentur

i. Patremfamiliae censoribus praebere indicia ad mutationem pertinentes
ii. Patremfamiliae aut alium civem respondentem praetoriae censoriali consularive postulationi exempli gratia in casu provocationis improbatae petitionis
iii. In casu provocationis ad Comitia Populi Tributa civem praebere argumenta coram his comitiis

XIX. Pronunciatum quod est in rebus ad mutationem nominis pertinentes ducendum est obsequium cum antiquis moribus romanis

i. Praenomina nova e historia legenda sunt

ii. Agnomina honoris quae inter alia sunt Maximus et Felix civibus petitionibus non danda sunt at dari ullo civi ab ullo senatore curuleo magistratu pontificeve ad beneficium Novae Romae signandum possunt
Patribusfamiliae et censoribus opus est in variis casibus quid sit agnomen honoris arbitrandi

iii. Cognomina et agnomina licet creare at solum ea quae facile declinentur et claram interpretationem et litteratorie et pertinenter ad civem mutationem petentem habeant

iv. Cenus nominis debet esse congruens in quaque parte cum omnibus aliis et cum sexu civis mutationem nominis petentis

XX. Civis mutare genus grammaticum sui nominis contra suum sexum volens debet sustendae petitionis causa praebere testimonium comprobationis contrarii sexus potestate macronationis aut extrariae rei publicae aut
civitatis Aliter cum civis petens fuisset vir corporaeus at formam documenti macronationalis vel municipalis quae eius sexum esse muliebrem diceret tenuisset vel in sua terra macronationalis civitatis agnotus esset ut femina ita posset femineo nomine uti in Nova Roma

i. Exceptio e hac regula in casibus transsexualium civium detur qui medicum consulant de chirurgo mutandi sexus causa vel alia preparatione medica perfungiantur ad talem chirurgum In his casibus patresfamiliae vel censores
quaerere documentum de medico possint

ii. Post chirurgum cives transsexuales secundum novum sexum appellabuntur

iii. Androgyni secundum sexum quo suis terris macronationalis civitatis
agnoscuntur appellabuntur

Censores Novae Romae
C Marius Merullus
L Cornelius Sulla Felix